Includes many new case studies (called Policy and Practice Boxes). The data and scholarship has been thoroughly revised throughout. Major revisions to Chapter 8 include new sections on Authentic Leadership and the Lean Six Sigma management model.

Cities and the System of Intergovernmental Relations

Chapter 2 Cities and the System of Intergovernmental Relations

Managing the modern city is no easy task. As noted in Chapter 1, city officials are required to respond to a host of factors when making local policies. In fact, the assumption underlying systems theory is that government policies are a response to forces generated in the environment. Prominent among these environmental factors is federalism.

Federalism is as old as the Republic itself. The Framers were intent on creating a system of government in which the national government shared powers with state governments. Many at the Constitutional Convention would have it no other way. A strong federal government threatened the very rights and liberties the revolutionary Continental Army had just ...

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