- Subject index
What can American policymakers learn from the experiences of European democracies in confronting our common policy challenges? We can look to our own history and to the ideas emanating from our own public sphere, but by looking abroad, we can learn how our European allies have dealt with such issues as rising healthcare and pension costs, large-scale immigration, childcare and work-life balance, and climate change. Simply put, we can learn lessons from European policies that have proven both successful and from approaches that have failed. The contributors in this volume ask whether such policies might prove effective in the U.S. context, as well as what pitfalls we might avoid. Chapters have been written by policy area experts and are geared for an upper-level undergraduate audience and set up as a series of engaging case studies. At just 180 pages, this is an ideal supplemental volume for comparative public policy courses and would add an ideal comparative component to upper-level U.S. public policy courses.
Chapter 8: Urban Transport: Promoting Sustainability in Germany
Urban Transport: Promoting Sustainability in Germany
Since the Second World War, levels of automobile ownership and use have increased greatly, first in North America, then in Western Europe, and in recent decades, throughout the world, but especially in rapidly developing countries such as China and India (Millard-Ball and Schipper 2011; Pucher et al. 2007). The growth in car ownership is closely related to rising per capita incomes so that car ownership almost inevitably rises as a country's per capita income grows.
However, increased reliance on the car has worsened many social and environmental problems: air and water pollution, noise, traffic congestion, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, depletion of petroleum and other nonrenewable resources, traffic injuries and fatalities, and reduced ...