Acclaimed by researchers, students, and general readers, this informative, lively, and easy-to-use volume fills the public need for information about key recent and historical cases before the U.S. Supreme Court. Now significantly updated, this new edition includes all the new major cases-over twenty five in total-handed down by the Court since the first edition was published in 2000. The new entries include many high-profile cases that have stirred public controversy, including: Boy Scouts of America v. Dale (2000), granting the right to exclude homosexuals from leadership positions in the Boy Scouts; Bush v. Gore (2000), ceasing ballot recounts in the 2000 presidential election; PGA Tour v. Martin (2001), obliging the PGA to accommodate a disabled golfer; Lawrence v. Texas (2003), stating that a law criminalizing same-sex sodomy violates due process; Gratz/Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), stating that an affirmative action program to achieve diversity in universities may or may not violate the equal protection clause, depending on how it's implemented. In each of the over 100 cases summarized, author Tony Mauro succinctly describes the decision, provides background and facts of the case, the vote and highlights of the decision with verbatim excerpts, and, in conclusion, discusses the long-term impact of the decision on United States citizens and U.S. society. Topic search aids let readers easily trace the evolution and impact of rulings in particular issue areas. Added features also enhance the volume, including many new portraits, political cartoons, and drawings, a comprehensive bibliography and an easy-to-access case/subject index. A perfect starting point for research on Supreme Court decisions, this newly updated volume is an essential addition to every public, high school, and college library.
United States v. Virginia
United States v. Virginia
Decided June 26, 1996
518 U.S. 515
Excluding women from the state-funded Virginia Military Institute violates the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, even though the state offers a leadership program for women at another school. Only an “exceedingly persuasive justification” can make a government gender-based distinction constitutional, and Virginia's justification was inadequate.
At the time of the litigation that resulted in this decision, Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in Lexington, Virginia, was the last remaining state-run military college that admitted only men. The Citadel in South Carolina had given in to legal pressure and admitted a female student in 1995, only to see the student withdraw a few days after starting classes.
VMI kept fighting to retain its unique educational techniques, ...