Scholars of international relations and international communications view the extent of media freedom from country to country as a key comparative indicator either by itself or in correlation with other indices of national political and economic development. This indicator serves as a bellwether for gauging the health and spread of democracy.

Historical Guide to World Media Freedom is a new reference from CQ Press that brings together comprehensive historical data on media freedom since World War II. It provides consistent and comparable measures of media freedom in all independent countries for the years 1948 to the present. The work also includes country-by country summaries, analyses of historical and regional trends in media freedom, and extensive reliability analyses of media freedom measures.

The key information provided is designed to help researchers connect these historical measures of media freedom to Freedom House's annual Freedom of the Press survey release, enabling them to extend their studies back before the 1980s when Freedom House began compiling global press freedom measures.

The reference covers three major areas

-introductory chapters discuss the theoretical premises behind the nature and importance of media freedom, operational definitions of media freedom, the challenges of compiling reliable measures, historical trends, and the challenges of coding for media freedom in a way that ensures consistency for comparison.

-the heart of the book includes alphabetical, country-by-country summaries of the ebb and flow of media freedom paired with national media freedom measures over time. This is essential reading for researchers to connect the dots in understanding global media freedom.

-concluding material provides a detailed discussion of the historical patterns in media freedom, consideration of how media freedom tracks with other cross-national indicators, and discussion of the reliability of the information available on media freedom.

Accessible to both students and scholars alike, this groundbreaking new reference will be essential to collections in political science, international studies, and journalism and communications.

Lebanon: 1948–2012

Lebanon: 1948–2012
Lebanon Year by Year
1948Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1949Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1950Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1951Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1952Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1953Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1954Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1955Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1956Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1957Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1958Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1959Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1960Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1961Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1962Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1963Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1964Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1965Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1966Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1967Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1968Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1969Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1970Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1971Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1972Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1973Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1974Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1975Imperfectly FreeAnocracy
1976Not FreeInterregnum
1977Not FreeInterregnum
1978Not FreeInterregnum
1979Not FreeInterregnum
1980Not FreeInterregnum
1981Not FreeInterregnum
1982Not FreeInterregnum
1983Not FreeInterregnum
1984Not FreeInterregnum
1985Not FreeInterregnum
1986Not FreeInterregnum
1987Not FreeInterregnum
1988Not FreeInterregnum
1989Not FreeInterregnum
1990Not FreeForeign Interruption
1991Not FreeForeign Interruption
1992Not FreeForeign Interruption
1993Not FreeForeign Interruption
1994Not FreeForeign Interruption
1995Not FreeForeign Interruption
1996Not FreeForeign Interruption
1997Not FreeForeign Interruption
1998Not FreeForeign Interruption
1999Imperfectly FreeForeign Interruption
2000Imperfectly FreeForeign Interruption
2001Not FreeForeign Interruption
2002Not FreeForeign Interruption
2003Not FreeForeign Interruption
2004Imperfectly FreeForeign Interruption
2005Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2006Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2007Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2008Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2009Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2010Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2011Imperfectly FreeDemocracy
2012Imperfectly FreeDemocracy

Media Freedom History in a Nutshell

  • From 1948 to 1975, a dynamic and diverse free media environment was compromised by corruption and unofficial influence, but media were still functionally free
  • Civil war from 1975 to 1990 devastated the country and the ...
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