A Guide to Intra-state Wars: An Examination of Civil, Regional, and Intercommunal Wars, 1816–2014

Books

Jeffrey S. Dixon & Meredith Reid Sarkees

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    This book is dedicated J. David Singer, the founder of the Correlates of

    War Project, and to all those who so selflessly worked on the project

    in the hope that we can prevent war by understanding it.

    Acknowledgments

    This work was started with the support and encouragement of J. David Singer, and we mourn that he did not live to see its completion. Singer’s vision and commitment to the quantitative study of war created the Correlates of War Project (COW), which is now one of the most influential and enduring data-gathering projects in world politics. Singer and Melvin Small, the original project historian, established a framework and coding rules for the study of war that has guided the COW Project and much of the wider scholarship about war for more than fifty years. Singer was a rare academic who valued equally his research, his teaching, and his political activism. His eagerness to mentor students and colleagues brought an eclectic group of scholars into the fold of the COW community, and the expansion of the project, and its prodigious output, would not have been possible without the enthusiasm and tremendous teamwork of this group. The entire COW Project is also indebted to Phil Schafer, whose relentless data gathering has formed the bases of numerous data sets. COW’s survival and continued existence are also due in great measure to the leadership of its subsequent directors, Stuart Bremer, Scott Bennett, Paul Diehl, and Zeev Maoz, the current COW director.

    David Singer and Mel Small were the authors of the first two COW war handbooks (The Wages of War and Resort to Arms), while the third, Resort to War, was written by Meredith Reid Sarkees and Frank Whelon Wayman. This book constitutes the fourth in the sequence. It also is being published as part of the Correlates of War book series established by CQ Press. CQ Press staff Andrea Pedolsky, Editorial Director, and Doug Goldenberg-Hart, Senior Acquisitions Editor, originally helped us frame this work and provided encouragement in working toward its completion. Similarly, the book would not have been finished without the patience and flexibility of James Brace-Thompson, previously Executive Editor of SAGE Reference, and Carole Maurer, Senior Developmental Editor, who gently prodded and cajoled us to stop researching and begin writing.

    In addition to our collective gratitude to the COW community and to SAGE, each of us, as coauthors, wants to express our thanks to those who have helped us individually in this endeavor. Jeffrey Dixon would like to acknowledge the contributions of research assistants Breann Crane (for work on Latin America), Tara Braas Passini (for work on a few wars in the Middle East), and Kevin Tomaszewski (for citations, formatting, and helpful assistance on some cases in the Middle East and Asia/Oceania). During the early stages of the project, the support of Richard Stoll was essential, and some of the earliest Spanish-language data on Latin American civil wars was gathered by Rosa Sandoval-Bustos, with funding from the National Science Foundation. Katharine Dixon provided patient support throughout most of the project. Finally, we would like to thank coauthor Meredith Sarkees for her guidance early in the project and attention to detail during the writing process.

    Meredith Reid Sarkees especially is indebted to and grateful for the dedicated research assistance of Jon Kotaska, who was so skilled at tracking down sources and information concerning some of the more obscure wars. Invaluable research assistance also was provided by Amy Frame, Christine Sarkees, Kerrie Sarkees, Carol Reid, and John R. Sarkees. Lois P. Reid and John R. Sarkees provided much-needed and appreciated editing assistance. Meredith also would like to thank Gediminas Vitkus for his insightful and thought-provoking discussions of the coding of the Forest Brethren war and for his willingness to share his own research on the topic. His research was also key in the coding of the war in Ukraine. Similarly, Meredith is grateful for the assistance of Jorge A. Restrepo in alerting her to the data-gathering efforts of CERAC, and for compiling summary Colombian fatality data. The history of the COW project was significantly improved by the comments and suggestions of Zeev Moaz, Paul Diehl, James Lee Ray, and Richard Stoll, and our exchanges brought back many fond memories of David Singer. Throughout this long endeavor, David Singer and Diane Macaulay epitomized graceful hosts as they provided Meredith with a welcoming place to stay during her visits to Ann Arbor to peruse the University of Michigan archives. Their counsel and encouragement did much to restore her soul. Meredith will never be able to adequately thank them for their influence on her life. Most importantly, Meredith is eternally grateful to John R. Sarkees, who truly understands the magnitude of effort that this book has entailed. He bore the many costs of this work with grace and an optimism that it would one day be finished. Finally, Meredith would like to thank Jeff Dixon, whose stalwartness, meticulous adherence to coding rules, and dedication to this project are the keys to its success.

    Foreword

    Wars have been one of the earliest and most persistent collective human endeavors. Many other collective rituals have come and gone, but the practice of mass bloodshed has been a permanent feature of humankind for millennia. Political, economic, social, and technological changes over the course of history have shaped and reshaped warfare. But its main features remain constant. The characteristics of the phenomenon we call war have remained the same since the dawn of civilization: organized groups of (typically) men, equipped with instruments that are capable of causing severe physical damage, engage in a series of sustained violent clashes that result in large number of fatalities.

    While these characteristics seem to be fixed, the nature of warfare has undergone dramatic changes over time. The Correlates of War (COW) project, as the first chapter of this book documents, was born out of an intellectual desire to understand both the nature of these changes and the factors that cause individuals, groups, and states to engage in warfare. In contrast to other attempts to do the same—and there were quite a few at the time—the project’s aim was to develop a science of conflict and peace, firmly grounded in systematic, empirical analysis. One of the first prerequisites of such an approach is the collection of quantifiable data on the phenomena under study. Again, as the first chapter of the book shows, the project evolved, expanded, and diversified. Yet, the fundamental philosophy of the application of scientific methods via the systematic testing of quantitative data on political, social, and economic factors related to war and peace remains the backbone of the project.

    One of the key changes in the character of warfare was the relative decline of large-scale warfare between and among nations and the relative rise in the number and severity of organized warfare within states. The project’s founder and first director, J. David Singer, was one of the first to recognize this trend and to appreciate its importance. Therefore the second book that provided a systematic description of wars—Resort to Arms (1982)—devoted significant space to the study of a data set on civil wars. The third round of data collection on wars by Sarkees and Wayman—Resort to War (2010)—further expanded on this effort, providing systematic data on various intra-state wars and non-state (or communal) wars. The current volume focuses on various types of war within states, thus adding an important layer of data to the existing compilations of war data collected by the COW project.

    One of the most important features of the book you are about to read—which applies to most COW data sets—is that it enables us to trace changes, dynamics, and evolution in intra-state wars over time. There is a glaring absence of systematic data and scientific analysis in the myriad debates in the scholarly literature and public discourse about the changes in the frequency, intensity, and nature of warfare in general and intra-state wars in particular. In part, the unscientific (or, as J. David Singer liked to call it, “prescientific”) nature of this debate was due to the absence of longitudinal data on these issues. With the current volume and the attendant data that are publicly available—the paucity of data on intra-state warfare can no longer serve as an excuse. Thanks to the Herculean efforts of Meredith Sarkees and Jeff Dixon, the raw facts about the changes in the number, severity, location, and participation in intra-state warfare are here; it is now the time for the scientific community to use these data in an effort to understand the nature of these changes and the factors that caused them.

    An important tradition pioneered by the COW project in international relations—a tradition that by now has diffused to a large number of scholars engaged in data-based analysis of international processes—is to provide a transparent and detailed explication of the underlying logic of data collection, clear operational definitions of the basic concepts and variables, and a systematic description of the major trends in the data. This is the cornerstone of our ability to replicate analyses and to build cumulative knowledge on war. This book continues this tradition. Anyone wishing to better understand intra-state wars—what they are, what kinds exist, how they start, how they end, when and where they have occurred—would need to consult this book.

    Although this book was written by political scientists, and although its focus is on the political aspects of intra-state wars, it is an essential resource for other social scientists interested in economic, social, political, or even cultural evolution. Sociologists who want to understand the causes and consequences of social stratification would need to consult this book. Economists who wish to understand the economic sources and consequences of warfare will need to use these data. Cultural and religious scholars who wish to understand the implications of cultural and religious divisions within societies would have to examine whether and how divergent groups within societies (perhaps divided along cultural, ethnic, or religious fault lines) choose to resort to warfare to resolve their grievances.

    The Latin adage si vis pacem, para bellum (if you want peace, prepare for war) has long been a leading line in the study of political-military strategy. The philosophy of the COW project has paraphrased this adage into si vis pacem, studium bellum (if you want peace, study war). This book emerges out of an intellectual passion that rests on the belief that understanding problems is an essential stage in attempts at finding solutions. The study of war—at least within the COW tradition—is related closely to the study of peace. It is not only my hope but my firm belief that this book will contribute to our ability to devise strategies to increase peace and stability in societies that have or are experiencing internal war. Moreover, the study of intra-state wars that relies on the data provided by this book may well help improve the quality of life, human rights practices, justice, and equality in these societies.

    Zeev Maoz,University of California, Davis Director, Correlates of War Project

    Preface

    I was skeptical when I hired on in 1964 as the “historian” on a project filling up with political scientists eager to quantify virtually any activity having to do with international diplomatic and military interactions. I did have some interest in social science, as my dissertation involved public opinion and foreign policy, but when it came to numbers, I was, as Dave Singer would accurately contend, “preoperational.” Needless to say, I learned a lot about the folks across the interdisciplinary wall, while I think I was of assistance to some of them who could not find Tuscany on a map or whose historical references went back only as far as the Korean War. They, of course, helped me to see how history could be more than a series of unrelated anecdotes. Along the way, they were amused by those same anecdotes at the legendary weekly seminars. The main problem I encountered working on the project at the start was one of data-quality control. COW was omnivorous, eager for whatever data I could provide and not always as interested as I was in their provenance. More importantly, I found myself often playing the role of historical grand pooh-bah, pointing out that certain kinds of data were simply unavailable or, especially, that even when we had accurate data sets, some fanciful indicators that easily could be developed did not have face validity.

    On the other hand, I think I was of some assistance in constructing surrogate variables for complicated historical processes that did not do violence to history and that could be aggregated and analyzed with our then-primitive tools in a meaningful way. Speaking of primitive tools, it would have been so much easier to begin COW in the present time, with the vast resources of the Internet available in multiple languages. We had to do it the old way in libraries with dusty tomes such as our perennial favorite, the Almanach de Gotha, which is so little used now that one has to file special requests to retrieve it from storage. At the least, most of those tomes were more reliable than some of the seemingly authoritative information we might pluck from the Internet today. Indeed, I frequently have to tell students engaged in historical research with me that they should go the library to perform most of their work. When informed, some ask, “Where is the library?” Many of the political science students working as assistants on the project learned their way around the stacks, especially in the D, or Eurocentric, area. I enjoyed working on the COW team because almost all historians do their work alone. When I was an undergraduate, I looked forward to the time when I would be in a history department, talking with colleagues about our mutual research. Alas, although we share our ideas with one another at seminars and brown bags, most of us are too busy with our own work to take a serious interest in our counterparts’ work and generally do not have the expertise in narrow subdisciplines to offer more than theoretical and stylistic commentary. Of course, working on an ever-growing team meant the need for larger grants. I was concerned about the amount of time COW people spent discussing, planning, and writing grant proposals every two years or so.

    One role that I played with some gusto was as the official respondent to Karl Deutsch. Deutsch, a brilliant polymath who knew a good deal about history, came into town periodically as COW’s most distinguished consultant. On occasion, it was my task gently to challenge his memory or facts when he lectured confidently to COW political scientists about an obscure nineteenth-century Middle European war. It was difficult competing with him because his charming Middle-European accent lent authenticity to his account.

    Despite some interest in quantification among economic and social historians in the 1960s and 1970s, most were not impressed with the work I did with COW. Leading two lives, I generally was careful to leave numbers out of my writing in modern American history. Once, when I included two figures depicting the opinion–policy relationship during the Vietnam War era, a colleague in an otherwise friendly review wondered why I needed to use them.

    More interesting, perhaps, my work with COW social scientists has taught me to begin my articles and books with lengthy methodological introductions and to insist that my students do likewise. And for this I am most grateful to my more scientifically oriented colleagues. Although explicit concern about coding rules may seem elementary to most other scholars, many accomplished historians still pay little attention to how they go about their business. Even though political science is the softest of the sciences and history is the hardest of the humanities, the twain still do not meet. Over the years I have been gratified to see how many students who worked on COW have achieved prominence in their disciplines. It is also rewarding to witness the vast number of scholars outside of the project who have used and continue to use some of the data that I had a hand in developing.

    This important new volume will surely add to the utility of COW for the next generation of social scientists interested in trying to understand the problem of war in modern society. In Wages of War, David Singer and I focused upon inter-state and extra-state wars. A major advance in Resort to Arms was the addition of civil wars. There we also laid out a war typology of internal war that encouraged further data gathering on regional and communal violence. It is gratifying to see that Dixon and Sarkees have continued this work.

    Melvin Small,Distinguished Professor of History Emeritus, Wayne State University and original historian for the Correlates of War Project

    About the Authors

    Jeffrey S. Dixon received his BA in International Relations and Political Science/History from Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota. He received his PhD in Political Science from Rice University in Houston, Texas, writing his dissertation on the consequences of third-party military intervention on civil war outcomes. He has published articles on the causes of civil wars, how civil wars end, and the duration of civil wars. He is currently Distinguished Graduate Faculty and Associate Professor of Political Science at Texas A&M University–Central Texas and co-host of the Correlates of War Civil War Dataset.

    Meredith Reid Sarkees is a long-time affiliate of the Correlates of War (COW) Project, having worked with COW founder J. David Singer for many years. She has served as host or co-host of the datasets on inter-state, extra-state, intra-state, and non-state wars for over twenty years and has published a number of articles about the trends in warfare. A handbook on all of the COW wars, Resort to War 1816–2007, was written by Sarkees and Frank Whelon Wayman. Sarkees also co-edited Advancing Peace Research: Leaving Traces, Selected Articles by J. David Singer with Jody Lear and Diane Macaulay as a testament to the significance of the COW project and Singer’s work. Sarkees’s other research area focuses upon women’s leadership and the status of women in both academia and the realm of international relations. She co-authored with Nancy E. McGlen a groundbreaking study of the women serving in American foreign policy institutions, Women in Foreign Policy. Sarkees currently serves as president of Global Women’s Leadership in International Security (GWLIS).

  • List of All Intra-state Wars in Chronological Order

    Bibliography

    Abaad Studies & Research Center. “Abaad Report: 7,000 Yemenis Killed in 2014, Houthis Control 70% of the State Army Capabilities.” 2015. http://www.abaadstudies.org/?p=1837&lang=en.
    Abd-Allah, Umar F. The Islamic Struggle in Syria. Berkeley, CA: Mizan Press, 1983.
    Abdullaev, Kamol. “Central Asian Emigres in Afghanistan: First Wave (1918–1932).Central Asia Monitor 5 (1994): 1627.
    Abinales, Patricio N.State Building, Communist Insurgency, and Cacique Politics in the Philippines.” In The Counter-Insurgent State: Guerilla Warfare and State Building in the Twentieth Century, edited by Paul B. Rich and Richard Stubbs, 2649. New York: St. Martin’s, 1997.
    ABO/OLF. “A Losing Bet in Ethiopia.Oromo Liberation Front. 2005. http://www.oromoliberationfront.org.
    Aboluhom, Ali. “Houthis Killed in Rada’a Explosion.Yemen Times, January 21, 2015. http://www.yementimes.com/en/1853/news/4818/Houthis-killed-in-Rada%E2% 80%99a-explosion.htm.
    Abraham, A. J. Lebanon at Mid-Century: Maronite–Druze Relations in Lebanon 1840–1860. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 1981.
    _______. The Lebanon War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.
    Abrahamian, Ervand. The Iranian Mojahedin. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.
    Abu-Odeh, Adnan. Jordanians, Palestinians, and the Hashemite Kingdom in the Middle East Peace Process. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1999.
    Aburish, Said K. The Rise, Corruption and Coming Fall of the House of Saud. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1995.
    Abuza, Zachary. Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucible of Terror. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
    Academia de História Miltar Terrestre do Brazil. “A Balaida no Maranhão 1838–1840.” n.d. http://www.ahimtb.org.br/c3i.htm.
    Aceh’s Hopeless War.Straits Times, January 26, 2002.
    Acevedo, Eduardo. Anales Historicos del Uruguay. Vols. 3–5. Montevideo: Barreiro y Ramos, 1934.
    Adám, Magda. The Little Entente and Europe (1920–1929). Budapest, Hungary: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1993.
    Adamec, Ludwig. Afghanistan’s Foreign Affairs to the Mid-twentieth Century: Relations with the USSR, Germany, and Britain. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1974.
    _______. Historical Dictionary of Afghan Wars, Revolutions, and Insurgencies. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2005.
    _______. Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1997.
    Adams, N. S., and A. W. McCoy, eds. Laos: War and Revolution. New York: Harper, 1970.
    Adebajo, Adekeye. Liberia’s Civil War: Nigeria, ECO-MOG, and Regional Security in West Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
    Adelman, Jonathan R. The Revolutionary Armies: The Historical Development of the Soviet and Chinese People’s Liberation Armies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1980.
    Adhola, Yoga. “ÚPC: From Independence to the 1966 Revolution.” n.d. http://www.upcparty.net/memboard/independenceto1966.
    Adshead, S. A. M.Salt and Warlordism in Szechwan 1914–1922.Modern Asian Studies 24, no. 4 (1990): 72943.
    Afary, Janet. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906–1911. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996.
    Afoaku, Osita. “Congo’s Rebels: Their Origins, Motivations, and Strategies.” In The African Stakes of the Congo War, edited by John F. Clark, 10928. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
    Africa Watch/Human Rights Watch. Conspicuous Destruction: War, Famine, and the Reform Process in Mozambique. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1992.
    African Union. “AMISOM: African Mission in Somalia.2014. http://amisom-au.org.
    Africa’s Watch. Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1991.
    Aftergood, Steven. “Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM).Federation of American Scientists Intelligence Resource Program. 2004. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/jem.htm.
    The Age (Australia). “Bomber Kills 15 Pakistani Soldiers.September 14, 2007.
    Agence France-Presse. “Ocalan Issues Warning, as Turkish Army Rejects Offers.September 28, 1999.
    Agi, S. P. I. The Political History of Religious Violence in Nigeria. Calabar, Nigeria: Pigasiann and Grace, 1998.
    Agrarians Seize Town in Mexico.Montreal Gazette, November 27, 2002, 8.
    Agwani, M. S., ed. The Lebanon Crisis, 1958: A Documentary Study. London: Asia Publishing House, 1965.
    Akamatsu, Paul. Meiji 1868: Revolution and Counter-Revolution in Japan. Translated by Miriam Kochan. New York: Harper and Row, 1972. Originally published 1968.
    Akers, Charles Edmond. A History of South America. London: John Murray, 1930.
    _______. A History of South America, 1854–1902. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1912.
    Akhtar, Shaheen. “Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Domestic, Regional and International Linkages (1983–1993).” PhD diss., Quaid-i-Azam University, Department of International Relations, 2006.
    Akol, Lam. SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2003.
    Akombo, Elijah Ityavkase. “Jukun–Tiv Relations since 1850: A Case Study of Inter-Group Relations in Wukari Local Government Area of Taraba State. Doctoral diss., University of Jos, 2005.
    Aksan, Virginia H. Ottoman Wars 1700–1870: An Empire Besieged. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2007.
    Al Jazeera. Multiple items concerning war in Yemen. January–April, 2007. http://www.aljazeera.net.
    Al Rasheed, Madawi. Politics in an Arabian Oasis: The Rashidi Tribal Dynasty. London: I. B. Tauris, 1991.
    Al-Abdin, A. Z.The Free Yemeni Movement (1940–48) and Its Ideas on Reform.Middle Eastern Studies 15, no. 1 (1979): 3648.
    Al-Aiban, Bandar Mohammed. “United States Policy in the Middle East and Its Intervention in Lebanon, 1955–1958. PhD diss., Johns Hopkins University, 1996.
    Albrecht-Carrié, René. A Diplomatic History of Europe since the Congress of Vienna. New York: Harper and Row, 1958.
    Alcock, Norman Z., and Keith Lowe. “The Vietnam War as a Richardson Process.Journal of Peace Research 7 (1970): 10512.
    Alec-Tweedie. The Maker of Modern Mexico: Porfirio Diaz. New York: John Lane, 1906.
    Alessio Robles, Vito. Coahuila y Texas. 2 vols. Mexico City: Antigua Libreroa Robredo, 194546.
    Alexander, Rani T. Yaxcabá and the Caste War of Yucatán, an Archaeological Perspective. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2004.
    Alexander, Robert J. The Bolivian National Revolution. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1958.
    _______. Juan Domingo Perón: A History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1979.
    _______. The Tragedy of Chile. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1978.
    Ali, S. Mahmud. The Fearful State: Power, People, and Internal War in South Asia. London: Zed Books, 1993.
    Ali, Tariq. The Duel: Pakistan on the Flight Path of American Power. New York: Scribner, 2008.
    Aličić, Ahmed S. Herzegovina. Privredni Vjesnik, 1981.
    Ali-Dinar, Ali B.Congo-Brazzaville: Background on Militia Groups.African Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania, 1999. http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Hornet/irin_21799.html.
    Alker, Hayward. “Somali Borders, 1962–1967.Prototype Action Recommending Information System (PARIS in LA). Los Angeles: University of Southern California, 1995. http://www.usc.edu/dept/anctr/Paris-in-LA/Database.
    Allen, W. E. D., and Paul Muratoff. Caucasian Battlefields. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1953.
    Al-Marashi, Ibrahim, and Sammy Salama. Iraq’s Armed Forces: An Analytical History. New York: Routledge, 2008.
    Al-Moshki, Ali Ibrahim. “Clashes in Rada’a between Houthis and AQAP.Yemen Times, December 11, 2014. http://www.yementimes.com/en/1841/news/4674/Clashes-in-Rada%E2%80%99a-between-Houthis-and-AQAP.htm.
    Alvarado, Lisandro. Historia de la Revolucion Federal en Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Oficina Central de Informacion, 1975.
    Americas Watch. “Closing the Space: Human Rights in Guatemala, May 1987–October 1988. Washington, DC: Americas Watch, 1988.
    Ameringer, Charles D. The Caribbean Legion. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996.
    _______. Don Pepe: A Political Biography of José Figueres of Costa Rica. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1978.
    Amin, Mohamed.Over 100 Soldiers Killed in Sudan Govt, Rebel Clashes.Daily Nation (Kenya), June 10, 2014.
    Amnesty International. “Annual Report 2011: Sri Lanka.2011. http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/sri-lanka/report-2011.
    _______. “Croatia: A Shadow on Croatia’s Future: Continuing Impunity for War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity. EUR 64/005, 2004.
    _______. Militias Threaten Hopes for New Libya. London: Amnesty International Publications, 2012.
    Amoo, Sam G.Frustrations of Regional Peacekeeping: The OAU in Chad, 1977–1982.Carter Center Working Paper Series (2003).
    An, Tai Sung. Mao Tse-Tung’s Cultural Revolution. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1972.
    Anastasoff, Christ. The Bulgarians. Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press, 1977.
    _______. The Tragic Peninsula: A History of the Macedonian Movement for Independence since 1878. St. Louis, MO: Blackwell Wiebendy, 1938.
    Anatolia News Agency. “Kurdish Rebel Movement Will Abandon Those Who Ignore Withdrawal.BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, December 14, 1999.
    Andermann, Jens. “Argentine Literature and the ‘Conquest of the Desert.’” n.d. http://www.bbk.ac.uk/ibamu-seum/texts/Andermann02.htm.
    Anderson, G. Norman. Sudan in Crisis: The Failure of Democracy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999.
    Anderson, James M. The History of Portugal. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
    Anderson, Mary. Do No Harm. How Aid Can Support Peace—or War. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
    Anderson, R. C. Naval Wars in the Levant. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University, 1952.
    Anderson, Thomas P. Matanza. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.
    _______. Matanza: The 1932 “Slaughter” That Traumatized a Nation, Shaping US–Salvadoran Policy to This Day.
    2nd ed
    . Willimantic, CT: Curbstone Press, 1992.
    _______. Politics in Central America: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
    Andrijasevic, Zivko M. “Montenegro from Ancient Times to the Balkan Wars.” In The History of Montenegro from Ancient Times to 2003, edited by Zivko M. Andrijasevic and Serbo Rastoder, 9135. Podgorica, Montenegro: Diaspora Centre, 2006.
    Angel, Barbara A. “Choosing Sides in War and Peace: The Travels of Herculano Balam among the Pacificos del Sur.The Americas 53, no. 4 (1997): 52549.
    _______. “The Reconstruction of Rural Society in the Aftermath of the Mayan Rebellion of 1847.Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 4 (1993): 3353.
    Angell, Alan. “Chile since 1958.” In The Cambridge History of Latin America. Volume VIII, edited by Leslie Bethell. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984.
    Annual of Power and Conflict. London: Institute for the Study of Conflict, multiple years.
    The Annual Register, or a View of the History, Politics and Literature of the Year 1836. London: Baldwin and Cradock, 1837.
    Annual Register of World Events. London: Longmans, 1758–.
    Anscombe, Frederick F. The Ottoman Gulf: The Creation of Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
    Appleton’s Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1883. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1886.
    Aranzaes, Nicanor. Las Revoluciones de Bolivia. La Paz, Bolivia: Casa EditoraTallerres Graficos “La Prensa,” 1886.
    Aras, Ramazan. “Political Violence, Fear and Pain: The Formation of Kurdishness in Turkey. PhD diss., University of Western Ontario, Department of Anthropology, 2010.
    Arasaratnam, S.The Ceylon Insurrection of April 1971: Some Causes and Consequences.Pacific Affairs 4, no. 3 (1972): 35671.
    Arbrahamian, Ervand. Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1982.
    Arbuthnot, G. Herzegovina; or Omer Pacha and the Christian Rebels. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts and Green, 1862.
    Archer, Christon I. “Fashioning a New Nation.” In The Oxford History of Mexico, edited by Michael C. Meyer, and William H. Beezley. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Ardley, Jane. The Tibetan Independence Movement: Political, Religious and Ghandian Perspectives. London: Routledge Curzon, 2002.
    Arens, Olavi, and Andrew Ezergailis. “The Revolution in the Baltics: Estonia and Latvia.” In Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921, edited by Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg, 66778. London: Arnold, 1997.
    Arfa, Hassan. Under Five Shahs. London: John Murray, 1964.
    Argentina Country at War.In Political Papers, No. 11 (January–March, 1977): 87102. Centro do Documentación de los Movememtos Armados. http://www.cedema.org.
    Arguedas, Alcides. Los Caudillos Bárbaros. Barcelona, Spain: Editorial Viuda de Luis Tasso, 1929.
    Arieff Alexis. “Crisis in Mali.CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service, January 14, 2013. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42664.pdf.
    Arjomand, Said Amir. The Turban for the Crown: The Islamic Revolution in Iran. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
    Armour, Ian D. A History of Eastern Europe 1740–1918: Empires, Nations, and Modernisation. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2006.
    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. The Control of Local Conflict: Case Studies. Vol. III. Brown and Shaw International Studies Division. Waltham, MA: Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., 1969.
    Armstrong, David. “The Next Yugoslavia? The Fragmentation of Indonesia.Diplomacy and Statecraft 15, no. 4 (2004): 783808.
    Army Fights Deserters in Indonesia.The Mercury (Hobart, Tasmania), December 12, 1951, 11.
    Arnold, Anthony. Afghanistan’s Two-Party-Communism: Parcham and Khalq. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1983.
    Arnold, Guy. The A to Z of Civil Wars in Africa. Lanham, MD: The Scarecrow Press, 2009.
    _______. Wars in the Third World since 1945. 2nd ed. London: Cassell, 1995.
    Aron, Raymond. Peace and War, a Theory of International Relations. Abridged. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1973.
    Arrabyee, Nasser. “Peninsula on the Brink.Al Ahram Weekly, November 12–18, 2009. http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2009/972/re5.htm.
    Arreche, Mariano. “A 32-Year Fall in Combat Commander Mario Roberto Hitórica Santucho and Address of PRT-ERP.Centro do Documentación de los Movememtos Armados, July 13, 2008. http://www.cedema.org.
    Arslan, Humbaraci. Algeria: A Revolution That Failed. New York: Frederick Praeger, 1964.
    Ascher, Abraham. The Revolution of 1905, a Short History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.
    Ashmead-Bartlett, Ellis. The Passing of the Shereefian Empire. Edinburgh, Scotland: William Blackwood, 1910.
    Ashwell, Washington. Concepcion 1947: Cincuenta Años Después. Asunción, Paraguay: Edipar S. R. L., 1998.
    Asian Human Rights Commission. The Neglected Genocide: Human Rights Abuses against Papuans in the Central Highlands, 1977–1978. Hong Kong: Asian Human Rights Commission, 2013.
    Assefa, Hizkias. Mediation of Civil Wars: Approaches and Strategies—The Sudan Conflict. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
    Asselin, Pierre. Hanoi’s Road to the Vietnam War, 1954–1965. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013.
    Assunção, Matthias Röhrig. “Elite Politics and Popular Rebellion in the Construction of Post-colonial Order, the Case of Maranhão, Brazil (1820–41).Journal of Latin American Studies 31 (1999): 138.
    Atabaki, Touraj. Azerbaijan: Ethnicity and Autonomy in Twentieth-century Iran. London: British Academic Press, 1993.
    Atamian S. The Armenian Community. New York: Philosophical Library, 1955.
    Atherley-Jones, Llewellyn Archer, and Hugh Hale Leigh Bellot. Commerce in War. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1907.
    Atkin, Ronald. Revolution: Mexico 1910–1920. London: Macmillan and Co., 1969.
    Atkins, G. Pope, and Larman Curtis Wilson. The Dominican Republic and the United States: From Imperialism to Transnationalism. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1988.
    Atlantic Report: Rwanda.The Atlantic Monthly, June 1964. http://www.theatlantic.com.
    Attack on Abu Karshola Leaves 411 Sudan Soldiers Dead–Rebels.Africa News Service, May 15, 2013.
    Attié, Caroline. Struggle in the Levant: Lebanon in the 1950s. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2004.
    Atwill, David G. “Blinkered Visions: Islamic Identity, Hui Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856–1873.The Journal of Asian Studies 62, no. 4 (2003): 1079108.
    _______. The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity, and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856–1873. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.
    _______. “Islam in the World of Yunnan: Muslim Yunnanese Identity in Nineteenth Century Yunnan.Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 17 (1997): 930.
    Australian War Memorial. “United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992.” n.d. http://www.awm.gov.au.
    Axelrod, Alan. Political History of America’s Wars. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2007.
    Ayers, R. William. “Chechnya and Russia: A War of Succession.” In History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, vol. 1, edited by Sonia G. Benson, Nancy Matuszak, and Meghan Appel O’Meara. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
    Ayoob, Mohammed, and K. Subrahmanyam. The Liberation War. New Delhi: S. Chand, 1972.
    Azevedo, Mario J., and Emmanuel U. Nnadozie. Chad, a Nation in Search of Its Future. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
    Baabar (Bat-Erdene Batbayar). Twentieth-century Mongolia. Translated by D. Sühjargalmaa, S. Burenbayar, H. Hulan, and N. Tuya. Cambridge, UK: White House Press, 1999.
    Bachman, David. “Aspects of an Institutionalizing Political System: China, 1958–1965.” In The History of the People’s Republic of China, 1949–1976, edited by Julia Strauss, 79104. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    Baddeley, John F. The Russian Conquest of the Caucasus. New York: Longmans, Green, 1908.
    Baégas, Richard, and Ruth Marshall-Fratani. “Côte d’Ivoire: Negotiating Identity and Citizenship.” In African Guerrillas, Raging against the Machine, edited by Morten Bøås and Kevin C. Dunn. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    Baerlein, Henry. The March of the Seventy Thousand. London: Leonard Parsons, 1971.
    Bagçeci, Yahya. “1895 Zeytun Ermeni Isyani.Turkish Studies 3, no. 2 (2008): 12349.
    Bagley, Bruce Michael. “Drug Trafficking, Political Violence, and US Policy in Colombia under the Clinton Administration.” In Elusive Peace: International, National, and Local Dimensions of Conflict in Colombia, edited by Cristina Rojas and Judy Meltzer, 2152. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
    Bailey, David C. ¡Viva Cristo Rey! Austin: University of Texas Press, 1974.
    Bajwa, Abu Bakr Amin. Inside Waziristan: Journey from War to Peace. Lahore, Pakistan: Vanguard Books, 2013.
    Bakhash, Shaul. The Reign of the Ayatollahs: Iran and the Islamic Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1984.
    Baldry, John.Al-Yaman and the Turkish Occupation 1849–1914.Arabica 23, no. 2 (1976): 15696.
    _______. “The History of the Tihamah from 1800 to the Present.” In Studies on the Tihamah: The Report of the Tihamah Expedition 1982 and Related Papers, edited by Francis Stone, 4550. Essex, UK: Longman, 1985.
    Baldwin, Frank. “Patrolling the Empire: Reflections on the USS Pueblo.Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 4, no. 2 (1972): 5474.
    Ball, Patrick, Paul Kobrak, and Herbert F. Spirer. State Violence in Guatemala, 1960–1996: A Quantitative Reflection. Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1999. http://shr.aaas.org/guatemala/ciidh/qr/english/index.html.
    Balogh, Eva S.Nationality Problems of the Hungarian Soviet Republic.” In Hungary in Revolution, 1918–1919: Nine Essays, edited by Iván Völgyes. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971.
    Banac, Ivo, John G. Ackerman, and Roman Szporluk, eds. Nation and Ideology, Essays in Honor of Wayne S. Vucinich. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1981.
    Bancroft, Hubert Howe. History of Mexico. San Francisco, CA: A. L. Bancroft, 1885.
    Bancroft, Hubert Howe, William Nemos, Thomas Savage, and Joseph Joshua Peatfield. History of Mexico: 1824–1861. San Francisco, CA: The History Company, 1886.
    _______. History of Mexico: 1861–1887. San Francisco, CA: The History Company, 1888.
    Bandarage, Asoka. The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. New York: Routledge, 2009.
    Bang, Anne K.‘This Is an Announcement to the People:’ The Bayan of 1912 by Muḥammad B. ‘Alī al-Idrīsi in ‘Asīr.” In New Arabian Studies 4, edited by J. R. Smart, Gerald Rex Smith, and Brian R. Pridham, 138. Devon, UK: Exeter Press, 1997.
    _______. The Idrīsī State in ‘Asīr 1906–1934. Bergen, Norway: Center for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, 1996.
    Baracco, Luciano. “Sandinista Anti-imperialist Nationalism and the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua: Sandinista-Miskito Relations, 1979–1981.Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 10, no. 4 (2004): 62555.
    Barber, Ben. “Guatemala’s Ex-rebels Hope Peace Will Hold: McLarty Visits Them to Bolster the Transition.The Washington Times, March 18, 1997, 17.
    Barbieri, Katherine, Omar M. G. Keshk, and Brian Pollins. “TRADING DATA: Evaluating our Assumptions and Coding Rules.Conflict Management and Peace Science 26, no. 5 (2009): 47191.
    Barclay, Glen. Struggle for a Continent: The Diplomatic History of South America, 1917–1945. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1971.
    Barltrop, Richard. Darfur and the International Community: The Challenges of Conflict Resolution in Sudan. London: I. B. Tauris, 2011.
    Barman, Roderick J. Brazil, the Forging of a Nation, 1798–1852. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988.
    Barnouin, Barbara, and Changgen Yu. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2006.
    Barrett, John Gilchrist. The Civil War in North Carolina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963.
    Barry, Tom. Central America Inside Out: The Essential Guide to Its Societies, Politics, and Economies. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.
    Bartlett, William. Croatia: Between Europe and the Balkans. London: Routledge, 2002.
    Basadre, Jorge. Historia de la Republica del Peru. Lima, Peru: Editorial Cultura Anartica S.A., 1970. Originally published 1940.
    Bashir Gives Rare Toll.Al-Arab (London). July 14, 2014.
    Bashiriyeh, Hossein. The State and Revolution in Iran, 1962–1982. New York: St. Martin’s, 1984.
    Bashore, Maj. Boyd T. “Dual Strategy for Limited War.” In Modern Guerrilla Warfare, edited by F. Osanka. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1962.
    Bassouni, M. Cherif. Final Report of the UN Commission of Experts, Annex III and Annex III.A. New York: United Nations Commission of Experts, 1992.
    The Battle for West Irian Has Already Started.The Canberra Times, December 9, 1967, 2.
    Battles Rage for Kabul.Guardian Weekly, August 30, 1992, 15.
    Baumann, Robert F. Russian-Soviet Unconventional Wars in the Caucasus, Central Asia, and Afghanistan. Leavenworth Papers, Number 20. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, US Army Command and General Staff College, 1993.
    Bawden, C. R. The Modern History of Mongolia. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1968.
    Bayat, Kaveh. “Rizah Shah and the Tribes: An Overview.” In The Making of Modern Iran: State and Society under Riza Shah, 1921–1941, edited by Stephanie Cronin, 21319. London: Routledge Curzon, 2003.
    Bayat, Mangol. Iran’s First Revolution: Shi’ism and the Cultural Revolution of 1905–1909. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
    Bazaz, Sahar. “Challenging Power and Authority in Pre-Protectorate Morocco: Shaykh Muhammad al-Kattani and the Tariqa Kattaniya. PhD diss., Harvard University, History and Middle Eastern Studies, 2002.
    BBC News. “Britain’s Role in Sierra Leone.September 10, 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Counting Kosovo’s Dead. November 12, 1999a. http://.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/517168.stm.
    _______. “Country Profile: Chad. January 5, 2006a. http://news.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Country Profile: Guatemala. July 20, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Deaths Mount in Liberian Capital. July 22, 2003. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Guide to the Philippines Conflict. February 10, 2005a. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Horrors of Kosovo Revealed. December 6, 1999b. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/551875.stm.
    _______. “Kurdish PKK Rebels ‘Begin Leaving Turkey’ after Truce. May 8, 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-22448118.
    _______. “Many Killed Near Pakistani Border. September 13, 2007a.
    _______. May 31, 1999d, http://www.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. Multiple news items, 1999–2014.
    _______. “Q&A: Ivory Coast’s Crisis. January 17, 2006b. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Sierra Leone’s Hostages. August 10, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “Swat Battle Tests Pakistan’s Resolve. November 21, 2007b.
    _______. “Timeline: Guinea. December 12, 2005b. http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk.
    _______. “UN Gives Figure for Kosovo Dead. November 10, 1999c. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/514828.stm.
    _______. “World: Africa.”Multiple stories concerning Chad, 1998–2002. http://news/bbc/co/uk.
    BBC News Summary of World Broadcasts. October 1, 1998. http://www.bbc.co.uk.
    BCI Eclipse. The Great Indian Wars 1540–1890. (DVD.) New Hope, MN: Navarre Corporation, 2005.
    Beach, Vincent W. Charles X of France. Boulder, CO: Pruett, 1971.
    Beatson, Jim.Papua New Guinea Squeezes Breakaway Island.The Guardian (London), May 10, 1991.
    Beckett, Ian F. W. Encyclopedia of Guerilla Warfare. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 1999.
    _______. Modern Insurgencies and Counter Insurgencies: Guerrillas and Their Opponents since 1750. New York: Routledge, 2001.
    Behera, Ajay Darshan. “Insurgency in South Asia: A Study of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) in Sri Lanka. PhD diss., Jawaharlal Nehru University, Centre for South, Central, Southeast Asian and Southwest Pacific Studies, School of International Studies, 1995.
    Behera, Navnita Chadha. State, Identity, and Violence: Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh. New Delhi: Manohar Publishers, 2000.
    Beja Congress Joins Sudan Revolutionary Front.Radio Dabanga, November 16, 2012. http://www.radiodabanga.org/node/21016.
    Bell, John Patrick. Crisis in Costa Rica: The 1948 Revolution. Austin: University of Texas, 1971.
    Bello, Jose Maria. A History of Modern Brazil, 1889–1964. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1966.
    Bennison, Amira. “The 1847 Revolt of ‘Abd al-Qadir and the Algerians against Mawlay Abd al-Rahman, Sultan of Morocco.Maghreb Review 22, nos. 1–2 (1997): 10923.
    Benson, Linda. The Ili Rebellion: The Moslem Challenge to Chinese Authority in Xinjiang 1944–1949. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1990.
    Bentley, Kristina A., and Roger Southall. An African Peace-Process. Cape Town, South Africa: Nelson Mandela Foundation, 2005.
    Bento, Cláudio Moreira. “Compêndio de Hístoria Militar Terrestre Do Brasil.2002. http://www.resenet.com.br/ahimtb/brasillutint.htm.
    Benton, Gregor. New Fourth Army: Communist Resistance Along the Yangtze and the Huai, 1938–1941. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999.
    Benvenuti, Francesco. “The Red Army.” In Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution, 1914–1921, edited by Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, and William G. Rosenberg, 40315. London: Arnold, 1997.
    Bercovitch, Jacob, and Judith Fretter. Regional Guide to International Conflict and Management from 1945 to 2003. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2004.
    Bercovitch, Jacob and Richard Jackson. International Conflict: A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945–1995. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 1997.
    Berghold, Rev. Alexander. The Indians’ Revenge or Days of Horror. Roseville, MN: Edinborough Press, 2007. Originally published 1891.
    Bergquist, Charles. Coffee and Conflict in Columbia, 1886–1910. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1978.
    Berkeley, Bill. The Graves Are Not Yet Full. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
    Berkeley, George F. H. Italy in the Making 1815–1846. Vol. 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1932.
    _______. Italy in the Making: January 1st 1848 to November 19th 1848. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1940.
    Bernstein, Harry. Modern and Contemporary Latin America. New York: Russell and Russell, 1965.
    Berthe, P. A. Garcia Moreno: President of Ecuador, 1821–1875. Translated by Lady Herbert. London: Burnes and Oates, 1889.
    Bertier de Sauvigny, Guillaume de. La Restauration. Paris: Flammarion, 1955.
    Best, Felix. Historia de las Guerras Argentinas. 2 vols. Buenos Aires: Peuser, 1960.
    Bethell, Leslie. Brazil: Empire and Republic, 1822–1930. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
    Bethell, Leslie and José Murilo de Carvalho. “1822–1850.” In Brazil Empire and Republic 1822–1930, edited by Leslie Bethell. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
    _______, ed. Cuba: A Short History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    Betts, Robert Benton. The Druze. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1988.
    Bhavnani, Ravi, and David Backer. “Localized Ethnic Conflict and Genocide.Journal of Conflict Resolution 44, no. 3 (2000): 283306.
    Bickford-Smith, Ronden Albert Henry. Cretan Sketches. London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1898.
    Bidwell, Robin, ed. The Affairs of Arabia, 1905–1906. Frank Cass, 1971.
    _______. The Two Yemens. Essex, UK: Longman Group, 1983.
    Billingsley, Phil. Bandits in Republican China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1988.
    Bird, Leonard. Costa Rica: The Unarmed Democracy. London: Sheppard Press, 1984.
    Bisher, Jamie. White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian. London: Routledge, 2005.
    Black, Ian. “Libyan Revolution Casualties Lower Than Expected, Says New Government.The Guardian, January 8, 2013. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/08/libyan-revolution-casualties-lower-expected-government.
    Blakemore, Harold. “The Chilean Revolution of 1891 and Its Historiography.Hispanic American Historical Review 45 (August 1965): 393421.
    Blank, Stephen J., and Earl H. Tilford Jr. “Russia’s Invasion of Chechnya: A Preliminary Assessment.Strategic Studies Institute, January 13, 1995.
    Blanksten, George I. Ecuador: Constitutions and Caudillos. Vol 3. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1951.
    Blasier, Cole. “The United States and the Revolution.” In Beyond the Revolution: Bolivia since 1952, edited by James M. Malloy and Richard S. Thorn, 53110. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1971.
    Bloom, Mia M.Ethnic Conflict, State Terror and Suicide Bombing in Sri Lanka.Civil Wars 6, no. 1 (2003): 5484.
    Board of Commissioners. Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 1861–1865. Vol. 1. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2005. Originally published 1890.
    Bodart, Gaston. Losses of Life in Modern Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1916.
    _______. Militär-historiches Kriegs-Lexikon, 1618–1905. Wien: C. W. Stern, 1908.
    Bodart, Gaston, and Vernon Lyman Kellog. Losses of Life in Modern Wars and Race Deterioration. London: Clarendon Press, 1916.
    Boguslaw, Pacek. “The European Union Military Operation in Chad and Central African Republic.Military Review 90, no. 1 (2010): 2633.
    Boland, B. J. The Struggle of Islam in Modern Indonesia. The Hague, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 1971.
    Bollaert, William. The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain from 1826 to 1840. 2 vols. London: Edward Stanford, 1870.
    Bonachea, Ramón L., and Marta San Martín. The Cuban Insurrection, 1952–1959. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1974.
    Boon, Kristen E., Aziz Huq, and Douglas C. Lovelace Jr. Narco-terrorism. Vol. 105 of Terrorism: Commentary on Security Documents. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2010.
    Boorstein, Edward. Allende’s Chile: An Inside View. New York: International Publishers, 1977.
    Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
    Booth, John A., “A Guatemalan Nightmare: Levels of Political Violence, 1966–1972.Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 22, no. 2 (1980): 195225.
    Booth, John A., and Thomas W. Walker. Understanding Central America. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1999.
    Borjigin, Burensain. “The Complex Structure of Ethnic Conflict in the Frontier: Through the Debates around the ‘Jindandao Incident’ in 1891.Inner Asia 6, no. 1 (2004): 4160.
    Bose, Sumantra. “Flawed Mediation, Chaotic Implementation: The 1987 Indo-Sri Lankan Peace Agreement.In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens, 63159. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
    Bourne, Peter G. Men, Stress, and Vietnam. Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1970.
    Bournoutian, George A. A Concise History of the Armenian People (from Ancient Times to the Present).
    2nd ed
    . Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2003.
    Bouron, N.The Druze of al-Atrash.” In Druze History. Translated by Ed. F. Massey, 111114. Detroit, MI, 1952. Originally published 1927.
    Bouthoul, Gaston. War. New York: Walker and Company, 1962.
    Bouthoul, Gaston, and René Carrère. “A List of the 366 Major Armed Conflicts of the Period 1740–1974.” Peace Research 10, no. 3 (1978): 83108.
    Bowei, Lu, and Wang Guoping. The Revolution of 1911: Turning Point in Modern Chinese History. Translated by He Fei. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1991.
    Bowra, Ken. The War in Cambodia 1970–1975. Oxford, UK: Osprey, 1989.
    Bracamonte, José Angel Moroni, and David E. Spencer. Strategy and Tactics of the Salvadoran FMLN Guerrillas. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.
    Bracey, Audrey. Resolution of the Dominican Crisis, 1965: A Study in Mediation. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Diplomacy, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, 1980.
    Brackman, Arnold C. Indonesian Communism. New York: Praeger, 1963.
    Bradley, John. Allied Intervention in Russia. New York: Basic Books, 1963.
    Bravo Ugarte, José. Historia de México: Independencia, caracterización política e integración socia. Vol. 3. Mexico City: Editorial Jus, 1962.
    Brecher, Michael, and Jonathan Wilkenfeld. Crises in the Twentieth Century. New York: Pergamon Press, 1988.
    _______. A Study of Crisis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997.
    Brecher, Michael, Jonathan Wilkenfeld, and Sheila Moser. Handbook of International Crises. Vol. 1 of Crises in the Twentieth Century. New York: Pergamon Press, 1988.
    Brecke, Peter. “The Characteristics of Violent Conflict since 1400 A.D. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Washington, DC, February 17–20, 1999, and associated dataset.
    Bremer, Ian, and Ray Taras, eds. Nations and Politics in the Soviet Successor States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    Bremer, Stuart A.Dangerous Dyads: Conditions Affecting the Likelihood of Interstate War, 1816–1965.The Journal of Conflict 56, no. 2 (1992): 30941.
    Bremer, Stuart A., with Faten Ghosn. “Defining States: Reconsiderations and Recommendations.Conflict Management and Peace Science 20, no. 1 (2003): 24.
    Brewer, David. The Flame of Freedom: The Greek War of Independence, 1821–1833. London: John Murray, 2001.
    Brewster, Keith.Militarism and Ethnicity in the Sierra de Puebla, Mexico.The Americas 56, no. 2 (1999): 25375.
    Brewster, Keith, and Claire Brewster. “Ethereal Allies: Spiritism and the Revolutionary Struggle in Hidalgo.” In Faith and Impiety in Revolutionary Mexico, edited by Matthew Butler, 93109. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
    Brill, William H. Military Intervention in Bolivia: The Overthrow of Paz Estenssoro and the MNR. Washington, DC: Institute for the Comparative Study of Political Systems, 1967.
    Brinkley, George A. The Volunteer Army and Allied Intervention in Southern Russia, 1917–1921. South Bend, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1966.
    Britton, Peter, and Richard Nixon. “Indonesia’s NeoColonial Armed Forces.Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 7, no. 3 (1975): 14.
    Broadley, A. M. The Last Punic War: Tunis, Past and Present. Edinburgh, UK: William Blackwood and Sons, 1882.
    Brockett, Charles D. Political Movements and Violence in Central America. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    Brockett, L. P. The Cross and the Crescent. Philadelphia, PA: Hubbard Bros., 1887.
    Brogan, Patrick. World Conflicts. 3rd ed. London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 1998.
    Broiwn, Frederick Z.Cambodia in 1991: An Uncertain Peace.Asian Survey 32, no. 1 (1992): 996.
    Broomhall, Marshall. Islam in China: A Neglected Problem. London: Morgan and Scott, 1910.
    Broussard, Ray F.The Puebla Revolt: First Challenge to the Reform.Journal of the West 18, no. 1 (1979): 5257.
    Brovkin, Vladimir N. Behind the Front Lines of the Civil War: Political Parties and Social Movements in Russia, 1918–1922. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
    Brown, Bess A. 1997. “The Civil War in Tajikistan, 1992–1993.” In Tajikistan: Trials of Independence, edited by Mohammed-Reza Djalili, Frédéric Grare, and Shirin Akiner, 8696. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
    Brown, Gordon L.Guatemala: The Origins and Development of State Terrorism.” In Revolution and Counter-revolution in Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Donald E. Schulz and Douglas Graham, 26999. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.
    Brown, Macalister, and Joseph J. Zasloff. “Laos 1973: Wary Steps toward Peace.Asian Survey 14, no. 2 (February 1974): 16674.
    _______. “Laos in 1975: People’s Democratic Revolution–Lao Style,Asian Survey 16, no. 2 (February 1976): 19399.
    _______. “Laos 1979: Caught in Vietnam’s Wake.Asian Survey 20, no. 2 (February 1980): 10311.
    _______. War in Shangri-La, a Memoir of Civil War in Laos. New York: Radcliffe Press, 2001.
    Brown, Mervyn. A History of Madagascar. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publisher, 2001.
    Brown, Michael E., Owen R. Coté Jr., Sean M. Lynn Jones, and Steven E. Miller, eds. Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.
    Brown, Timothy C. The Real Contra War: Highlander Peasant Resistance in Nicaragua. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001.
    Browne, Dalls L.Rwanda and Burundi: Culture, History, Power, and Genocide.” In History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, vol. 1, edited by Sonia G. Benson, Nancy Matuszak, and Meghan Appel O’Meara. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
    Browne, Edward G. The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909. London: Frank Cass, 1966.
    _______. The Persian Revolution of 1905–1909. Washington, DC: Mage Publishers, 1995. Originally published 1910.
    Broxup, Marie Benningsen. “The Last Ghazawat: The 1920–1921 Uprising.” In The North Caucasus Barrier: The Russian Advance towards the Muslim World, edited by Marie Bennigsen Broxup, 11245. New York: St. Martin’s, 1992.
    Bruce, George. Harbottle’s Dictionary of Battles.
    3rd ed
    . New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1981.
    Brzozowski, Marie. La Guerre de Pologne en 1831. Leipzig: Brockhaus, 1833.
    Buck, James H.The Satsuma Rebellion of 1877: From Kagoshima through the Siege of Kumamoto Castle.Monumenta Nipponica 28, no. 4 (Winter 1973): 42746.
    Budiardjo, Carmel and Liem Soei Liong. The War against East Timor. New York: Zed Books, 1984.
    _______. West Papua: The Obliteration of a People. London: Tapol, 1988.
    Buendia, Rizal G.The GRP-MILF Peace Talks: Quo Vadis?” In Southeast Asian Affairs, 20521. 2004.
    Buffardi, Louis Nicholas. “Soviet Strategy in South Asia 1953–1977. Focus: Baluchistan. PhD diss., Georgetown University, Russian Area Studies, 1981.
    Bullion, Alan J. India, Sri Lanka, and the Tamil Crisis 1976–1994: An International Perspective. London: Pinter, 1995.
    Bunkley, Allison W.Sarmiento and Urquiza.Hispanic American Historical Review 30, no. 2 (May 1950): 17694.
    Burdett, A. L. P. Afghanistan Strategic Intelligence: British Records 1919–1970. Archive Editions, 2002.
    _______. Iraq: Defence Intelligence 1920–1973. Vol. 5. Archive Editions, 2005.
    _______, ed. King Abdul Aziz: Diplomacy and Statecraft 1902–1953. Vol. 1. Archive Editions, 1998.
    _______, ed. Records of the Hijaz 1798–1925. Archive Editions, 1996.
    Burke, Edmund.Pan-Islam and Moroccan Resistance to French Colonial Penetration, 1900–1912.The Journal of African History 13, no. 1 (1972): 97118.
    _______. Prelude to Protectorate in Morocco. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1976.
    Burma Is Forming an Antirebel Force.New York Times, August 22, 1965, 28.
    Burma Opens Drive on Bands of Rebels.New York Times, May 22, 1965, 6.
    Burns, E. Bradford. A History of Brazil. New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.
    _______. A History of Brazil.
    3rd ed
    . New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
    _______. Revolutionary Sudan: Hasan Al-Turabi and the Islamist State, 1989–2000. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2003.
    Burrell, R. M., ed. Iran Political Diaries 1881–1965. Vols. 4 and 6. Archive Editions, 1997.
    Burrowes, Robert D. Historical Dictionary of Yemen. New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2010.
    _______. The Yemen Arab Republic: The Politics of Development. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
    Burt, Jo-Marie. Political Violence and the Authoritarian State in Peru. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
    Bush, Kenneth. The Intra-Group Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
    Bushnell, David. The Making of Modern Colombia. Berkley: University of California Press, 1993.
    Butler, Matthew. Popular Piety and Political Identity in Mexico’s Cristero Rebellion: Michoacán, 1927–29. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2004.
    Butt, Ahsan Ishaq. “Goodbye or See You Later: Why States Fight Some Secessionists but Not Others. PhD diss., University of Chicago, Department of Political Science, 2012.
    Buttinger, Joseph. Vietnam: A Dragon Embattled. Vol. 2. London: Pall Mall Press, 1967.
    Bρås, Morten, and Kevin C. Dunn, eds. African Guerrillas; Raging against the Machine. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    Caballero Jurado, Carlos, and Nigel Thomas. Central American Wars, 1959–89. London: Osprey Publishing, 1990.
    Cady, John F. Foreign Intervention in the Rio de la Plata, 1838–50. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1929.
    Cady, John F. A History of Modern Burma. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1958.
    _______. “The Situation in Burma.Far Eastern Survey 22, no. 5 (April 22, 1953): 4954.
    Cady, Richard H., and William Prince. Political Conflicts, 1944–1966. Ann Arbor, MI: Bendix Social Sciences Division, 1966. Data available from ICPSR at the University of Michigan.
    Calcott, Welfrid Hardy. Santa Anna. Hamden, CT: Archon, 1964.
    Calderón de la Barca, Madame (Frances). Life in Mexico, during a Residence of Two Years in That Country. Vol. 1. Boston, MA: Charles C. Little and James Brown, 1843.
    Caldwell, Malcolm, and Lek Hor Tan. Cambodia in the Southeast Asian War. New York: Monthly Review, 1973.
    Call, Charles T.Assessing El Salvador’s Transition from Civil War to Peace.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens, 383420. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
    Callahan, Mary Patricia. Making Enemies: War and State-Building in Burma. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.
    _______. “The Origins of Military Rule in Burma.PhD diss., Cornell University, Department of Political Science, 1996.
    Callcott, Wilfred Hardy. Santa Anna. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1936.
    Calogeras, João Pandiá. A History of Brazil. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1939.
    _______. A History of Brazil. Translated and edited by Percy A. Martin. New York: Russell and Russell, 1963.
    Calvert, Peter.Paraguay–History.” In South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2002, edited by Jacqueline West, 63031. London: Europa Publications, 2001.
    Cambodia Stages Offensive against Khmer Rouge.New York Times, August 19, 1993, A7.
    Cambodians Open Offensive against Khmer Rouge Rebels.New York Times, December 23, 1993, A4.
    Camín, Hécton Aguilar, and Lorenzo Meyer. In the Shadow of the Mexican Revolution. Translated by Luis Alberto Fierro. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1993.
    Campos y Serrano, Martinez de. Espana Belica: El Siglo XIX. Madrid, Spain: Aguilar, 1961.
    Caplan, Karen Deborah. “Local Liberations: Mexico’s Indigenous Villagers and the State, 1812–1857.” PhD diss., Princeton University, Department of History, 2001.
    Cardoza, Efraim. Paraguay Independiente. Vol. 21 in Historia de America, edited by A. Ballesteros y Beretta. Barcelona, Spain: Salvat, 1949.
    Carey, James C.The Latin American Legacy: The Background for Civil War.” In Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century, edited by Robin Higham. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
    Carley, Kenneth. The Sioux Uprising of 1862. St. Paul: The Minnesota Historical Society, 1961.
    Carment, David, and Patrick James, eds. Wars in the Midst of Peace: The International Politics of Ethnic Conflict. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
    Carr, Raymond. Spain: 1808–1939. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1966.
    _______. Spain: 1808–1975. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1982.
    Carrêre, Rene. “1870–1871, Guerre Ancienne ou Guerre Moderne?Etudes Polemologiques 5 (July 1972): 234.
    Carriedo, Robert. “The Man Who Tamed Mexico’s Tiger: General Joaquin Amaro and the Professionalization of Mexico’s Revolutionary Army. PhD diss., University of New Mexico, 2005.
    Carroll, Rory. “Argentinian Founding Father Recast as Genocidal Murder.The Guardian, January 13, 2011.
    Castellan, Georges. History of the Balkans from Mohammed the Conqueror to Stalin. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1992.
    Cattaui, Rene, and Georges Cattaui. Mohamed Aly et L’europe. Paris, France: Libraire Orientaliste, 1950.
    Catton, Bruce. The Army of the Potomac: A Stillness at Appomattox. Vol. 3. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1953.
    _______. The Army of the Potomac: Glory Road. Vol. 2. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1952b.
    _______. The Army of the Potomac: Mr. Lincoln’s Army. Vol. 1. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1952a.
    Catudal, Honore M., Jr. “The War in Kurdistan: End of a Nationalist Struggle?International Relations 5 (1976): 102444.
    Cayley, Edward. The European Revolutions of 1848. 2 vols. London: Smith, Elder, 1856.
    Cbe, Najib Alamuddin. Turmoil: The Druzes, Lebanon and the Arab–Israeli Conflict. London: Quarter Books, 1993.
    Center for Balkan Development. “History of the War in Bosnia.1996. http://www.friendsofbosnia.org.
    Center for Defense Information. “Afghanistan: Re-Emergence of a State.December 21, 2001a. http://www.cdi.org.
    _______. “Forces in Play.October 26, 2001b. http://www.cdi.org.
    Central Intelligence Agency. Balkan Battlegrounds: A Military History of the Yugoslav Conflict, 1990–1995. Vol.1. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency, 2002.
    _______. “El Salvador: Evaluation of the Perquin Operation.July 15, 1982. http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs.asp?doc_no=0000809898.
    CERAC (Centro de Recursos para el Análisis de Conflictos). Colombia Conflict Database. Release 8, January 11, 2008. http://www.cerac.org.co.
    Chadha, Vivek. Low Intensity Conflicts in India. New Delhi, India: SAGE, 2005.
    Chalk, Peter. “Militant Islamic Extremism in the Southern Philippines.” In Islam in Asia, edited by Jason F. Isaacson and Colin Rubinstein, 187222. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
    Chandler, David P. A History of Cambodia.
    3rd ed
    . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
    _______. The Tragedy of Cambodian History: Politics, War, and Revolution since 1945. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.
    Chandler, James A.Spain and Her Moroccan Protectorate 1898–1927.Journal of Contemporary History 10, no. 2 (April 1975): 30122.
    Chapman, Tim. Imperial Russia: 1801–1905. London: Routledge, 2001.
    Chaqueri, Cosroe. The Soviet Socialist Republic of Iran, 1920–1921, Birth of the Trauma. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1995.
    Charbonneau, Louis. “Up to 3,000 African Peacekeepers Killed in Somalia since 2007: UN.Reuters, May 9, 2013. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/09/us-somalia-peacekeepers-killed-in-Sonalia-since-2007.
    Chasteen, John Charles. “Cabanos and Farrapos: Brazilian Nativism in Regional Perspective, 1822–1850.Locus 7, no. 1 (1994): 3146.
    _______. Heroes on Horseback: The Life and Times of the Last Gaucho. Caudillos. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.
    Chauvel, Richard. Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Islands from Colonialism to Revolt, 1880–1950. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2008.
    Chebabi, H. E.Iran and Lebanon in the Revolutionary Decade.” In Distant Relations: Iran and Lebanon in the Last 500 Years, edited by H. E. Chebabi and Rula Abasaab, 20130. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.
    Cheeseboro, Anthony Q. “Sudan: Slavery and Civil War.” In History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, vol. 1, edited by Sonia G. Benson, Nancy Matuszak, and Meghan Appel O’Meara. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
    Chelala, César. “Sudan: A War against the People.The Lancet 359, no. 9301 (2002, January 12): 16263.
    Chen, Jack. The Sinkiang Story. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., 1977.
    Ch’en, Jerome. “Defining Chinese Warlords and Their Factions.Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 31, no. 3 (1968): 563600.
    _______. The Military-Gentry Coalition: China under the Warlords. Downsview, Ontario: University of Toronto–York University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia, 1979.
    _______. Yuan Shi-K’ai.
    2nd ed
    . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1972.
    Chen, Leslie H. Dingyan. Chen Jiongming and the Federalist Movement: Regional Leadership and Nation Building in Early Republican China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center of Chinese Studies, 1999.
    Cheng, Peter. A Chronology of the People’s Republic of China. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield, 1972.
    Chesneaux, Jean, Marianne Bastid, and Marie-Claire Bergère. China from the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution. Translated by Anne Destenay. New York: Pantheon Books, 1976.
    Chew, Lee Kim. “‘Harsh’ Govt Helps Rebels Win Hearts.Straits Times, October 26, 2000.
    _______. “More Troops Won’t Solve Aceh Problem.Straits Times, March 22, 2001.
    Chi, Hsi-hseng. The Chinese Warlord System: 1916 to 1928. Washington, DC: American University Center for Research in Social Systems, 1969.
    Ch’i, Hsi-Sheng. Warlord Politics in China, 1916–1928. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976.
    Chiang Siang-Tseh. The Nien Rebellion. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1954.
    Chicago Tribune. Multiple articles, 2006–2014.
    Chien-Nung, Li. The Political History of China, 1840–1928. Translated by Ssu-Yu Teng and Jeremy Ingalls. Princeton, NJ: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1956.
    Chilcote, Ronald H., ed. Protest and Resistance in Angola and Brazil. Berkley: University of California Press, 1972.
    Chima, Judgep S. The Sikh Separatist Insurgency in India: Political Leadership and Ethnonationalist Movements. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2010.
    _______. “Why Some Ethnic Insurgencies Decline: Political Parties and Social Cleavages in Punjab and Northern Ireland Compared.The Journal of Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 35, no. 3 (1997): 126.
    China Reports on Fretilin.The Canberra Times, April 25, 1977, 5.
    Chinese Position.” The Straits Times, April 22, 1926, 9.
    Ching, Erik, and Virginia Tilley. “Indians, the Military and the Rebellion of 1932 in El Salvador.Journal of Latin American Studies 30 (1998): 12156.
    Chomsky, Noam. At War with Asia. London: Fontana, 1971.
    _______. “East Timor: The Press Coverup.Inquiry (1979, February 14): 1620.
    Christgau, John. Birch Coulie, The Epic Battle of the Dakota War. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012.
    Christia, Fotini. Alliance Formation in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
    Christopher, James William. Conflict in the Far East. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 1950.
    Chronicle of the 20th Century. Mount Kisco, NY: Chronicle Publications, 1987.
    Chronology of the Peasant War.Korea Journal (Winter 1994): 12526.
    Chu, Wen-Chang (Wen-Djang Chu). The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China 1862–1878. Paris, France: Mouton and Co., 1966.
    Chu, Wen-Djang. “The Moslem Rebellion in Northwest China, 1862–1878.Central Asiatic Studies 5 (1966).
    Churchill, Charles Henry. The Druzes and the Maronites under the Turkish Rule from 1840 to 1860. London: Berbard Quaritch, 1862.
    Ciccarelli, Orazio A. Militarism, Aprismo, and Violence in Peru: The Presidential Election of 1931. Buffalo: Council on International Studies, State University of New York at Buffalo, 1973.
    Cimbala, Stephen J., and Peter K. Forster. Multinational Military Intervention: NATO Policy Strategy and Burden Sharing. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, 2010.
    Ciment, James. Algeria: The Fundamentalist Challenge. New York: Facts on File, 1997.
    _______. “Angola: First War with UNITA, 1975–1992.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 8692. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007a.
    _______. “Angola: Second War with Unita, 1992–2002.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 936. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007f.
    _______. “Congo, Democratic Republic of: Invasions and Internal Strife, 1998–.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 14246. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007e.
    _______. “Congo, Democratic Republic of: Kabila Uprising, 1996–1997.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 13641. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007d.
    _______. “Congo, Republic of: Civil Conflict, 1997.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 14751. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007c.
    _______, ed. Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II.
    2nd ed
    . Vols. 1–4. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007g.
    _______. “Liberia: Anti-Taylor Uprising, 1998–2003.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007f: 20811.
    _______. “Liberia: Civil War, 1989–1997.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 2027. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007b.
    Ciment, James, and Daniel F. Cuthbertson. “Sierra Leone: Civil Conflict, 1990–Present.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 26973. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Ciment, James, and Luke Nichter. “Uganda: Civil Confilict since 1980.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 31518. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Ciment, James, and Emin Poljarevic. “Somalia: Civil War since 1991.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 27481. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Ciment, James, and Erika Quinn. “Rwanda: Civil War and Genocide since 1991.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 25868. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Ciment, James, and Julian Schofield. “Nigeria: Coups and Ethnic Unrest since 1966.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 25157. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Cioffi-Revilla, Claudio. “Ancient Warfare: Origins and Systems.” In Handbook of War Studies II, edited by Manus Midlarsky, 5989. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
    _______. “The Long-Range Analysis of War.The Journal of Interdisciplinary History 21, no. 4 (Spring 1991): 60329.
    _______. The Scientific Measurement of International Conflict. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1990.
    Clark, A. Kim. The Redemptive Work: Railway and Nation in Ecuador, 1895–1930. Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 1998.
    Clark, Peter. “The Maitatsine Movement in Northern Nigeria in Historical and Current Perspective.” In New Religious Movements in Nigeria, edited by Rosalind I. J. Hackett. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, 1987.
    Clarke, Henry Butler. Modern Spain, 1815–1898. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1906.
    Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War. Translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993. Originally published 1832.
    Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen: Warfare in Africa since 1950. London: UCL Press, 1999.
    Clayton, Govinda. “Quantitative and Econometric Methodologies.” In The Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, edited by Edward Newman and Karl DeRouen, Jr., 2840. London: Routledge, 2014.
    Clement, E. W. 1891. “The Mito Civil War.” In Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. Vol. XIX, 393419. Tokyo: The Hakubunsha.
    Clements, Frank. Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 2003.
    Clendenen, Clarence C.Tribalism and Humanitarianism: The Nigerian-Biafran Civil War.” In Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century, edited by Robin Higham. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
    Clessold, Stephen, ed. A Short History of Yugoslavia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
    Cleveland, William L. A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
    Cline, Lawrence. “The Islamic Insurgency in the Philippines.Small Wars & Insurgencies 11, no. 3 (2000): 11538.
    _______. The Lord’s Resistance Army. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2013.
    _______. “Spirits and the Cross: Religiously Based Violent Movements in Uganda.Small Wars and Insurgencies 14, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 11330.
    Clodfelter, Micheal. The Dakota War, the United States Army versus the Sioux, 1862–1865. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1998.
    _______. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1494–2007.
    3rd ed
    . Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2008.
    _______. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000.
    2nd ed
    . Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2001.
    _______. Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618–1991. Vols. I and II. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 1991.
    Close, David H. “The Changing Structure of the Right, 1945–1950.” In Greece at the Crossroads, the Civil War and Its Legacy, edited by John O. Iatrides and Linda Wrigley. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.
    Close, David H., and Thanos Veremis. “The Military Struggle, 1945–9.” In The Greek Civil War, 1943–1950, edited by David H. Close. New York: Routledge, 1993.
    Cloud, David S.US Airstrike Aims at Qaeda Cell in Somalia.New York Times, January 9, 2007. http://www.nytimes.com.
    Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Press, 2000.
    Clubb, O. Edmund. 20th Century China.
    2nd ed
    . New York: Columbia University Press, 1972.
    _______. “Manchuria in the Balance, 1945–1946.Pacific Historical Review 26, no. 4 (1957): 37789.
    _______. Twentieth Century China. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964.
    CNN. “In-Depth Specials—Focus on Kosovo—A Timeline of Tensions.1998. http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1998/10/kosovo/timeline.
    _______. “KLA Goes from Splinter Group to Potential Giant-Killer.1999. http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/europe/9903/24/kla.history.
    Coatsworth, John H.Patterns of Rural Rebellion in Latin America: Mexico in Comparative Perspective.” In Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution, Rural Social Conflict in Mexico, edited by Friedrich Katz. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Coghlan, Benjamin, Valeria Nkamgang Bemo, Pascal Ngoy, Tony Stewart, Flavien Mulumba, Jennifer Lewis, Colleen Hardy, and Richard Brennan. Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo, an Ongoing Crisis. New York: International Rescue Committee, 2004.
    Colaresi, Michael P., Karen Rasler, and William Thompson. Strategic Rivalries in World Politics: Position, Space and Conflict Escalation. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    Cole, Juan I. R., and Moojah Momen. “Mafia, Mob, and Shiism in Iraq: The Rebellion of Ottoman Karbala 1824–1843.Past & Present 112 (August 1986): 11243.
    Collier, Paul, V. L. Elliott, Havard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol, and Nicholas Sambanis. Breaking the Conflict Trap, Civil War and Development Policy. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2003.
    Collier, Simon. Chile: The Making of a Republic, 1830–1865. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    Collier, Simon, and William F. Sater. A History of Chile, 1808–1994. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    _______. The History of Chile, 1808–2002.
    2nd ed
    . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
    Collins, Charles D., Jr. Atlas of the Sioux Wars. 2nd ed. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2006.
    Collins, Robert O. “Africans, Arabs, and Islamists: From the Conference Tables to the Battlefields in the Sudan.African Studies Review 42, no. 2 (September 1999): 10523.
    _______. A History of Modern Sudan. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
    _______. The Southern Sudan in Historical Perspective. Tel Aviv, Israel: University of Tel Aviv Students Association, 1975.
    Colombia.” In The American Cyclopaedia. Vol. 5,
    2nd rev. ed
    . New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1879.
    Colombia ELN Rebels Edge Toward Peace Process.Colombia Report. November 12, 2012. http://colombiareports.com/colombia-news/peace-talks/26956-colombia-eln-rebels-edge-toward-peace-process.html.
    Colombia Tries Again to End Drug-Fed War.New York Times, October 18, 2012, 1.
    The Columbia Encyclopedia.
    5th ed
    . New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
    Comisão Executiva Central do Sesquicentenário sa Indepenêndencia do Brasil. História do Exército Brasilieiro. Vol. 2. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Edicão do Estado-Majoe do Exército, 1972.
    Communist Influence in Indonesia.Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Australia), July 1, 1954, 11.
    Conboy, Kenneth. Shadow War: The CIA’s Secret War in Laos. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1995.
    _______. The War in Laos, 1960–75. London: Osprey 1989.
    Conciliation Resources. “Mozambican Peace Process in Perspective.Accord, an International Review of Peace Initiatives 3 (1998). http://www.c-r.org.
    Conde, Carlos H.Philippines Again Declares ‘All-Out War’ against Rebels.International Herald Tribune, June 20, 2006, 3. InfoTrac Newsstand, EBSCOhost.
    The Congo: Death of a Rebel.Time, October 18, 1968. http://content.time.com/time.
    Congressional Quarterly. The Middle East.
    8th ed
    . Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1994.
    Congressional Research Service. “Kosovo: US and Allied Military Operations. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 2000.
    _______. “Kosovo Conflict Chronology: January–August 1998.” Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1998.
    Conquest, Robert. The Harvest of Sorrow. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987.
    Contreras, E. Lopez. Paginas Para la Historia Militar de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Tipografia Americana, 1944.
    Cook, C. P.The Era of Ne Win.The World Today 26, no. 6 (1970): 25966.
    Cooke, James J.Lyautey and Etienne: The Soldier and the Politician in the Penetration of Morocco, 1904–1906Military Affairs 36, no. 1 (February 1972): 148.
    Cooney, Daniel.Indonesia and Rebels Agree to a Cease-Fire.Contra Costa Times (California), May 13, 2000.
    Cooper, Chester. The Lost Crusade. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1970.
    Cooper, John. “Yemen: Brutal End to a Bitter Dispute.Middle East Economic Digest, December 23, 1994.
    Cordesman, Anthony H. After the Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993a.
    _______. Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, and the UAE: Challenges of Security. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
    _______. The Lessons of Modern War Volume III: The Afghan and Falklands Conflicts. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990b.
    _______. The Military Balance and Arms Sales in Yemen and the Red Sea States: 1986–1992. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993b.
    _______. A Tragedy of Arms: Military and Security Developments in the Maghreb. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
    Cornell, Svante E. Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 2001.
    Correia de Andrade, Manuel. “The Social and Ethical Significance of the War of the Cabanos.” In Protest and Resistance in Angola and Brazil, edited by Ronald H. Chilcote, 91107. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Correlates of War Project. National Material Capabilities Dataset. Version 3.02. 2009. http://cow.la.psu.edu/Datasets.htm.
    _______. National Material Capabilities Dataset. Version 4.0. 2010. http://cow.la.psu.edu/Datasets.htm.
    Cortés, Carlos E.Armed Politics in the Rio Grande do Sul.” In Perspectives on Armed Politics in Brazil, edited by Henry H. Keith and Robert A. Hayes, 11338. Tempe: Arizona State University, 1976.
    _______. Gaúcho Politics in Brazil: The Politics of Rio Grande do Sul, 1930–1964. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1974.
    Corum, James S. “Guatemala’s Protracted War—The Role of the Guatemalan Air Force.Air & Space Power Journal (Español). Terce Trimestre (2004). http://www.airpower.au.af.mil/apjinternational/apj-s/2004/3trimes04/corumeng.htm.
    Costello, Patrick.Guatemala: Historical Background.Accord (2002).
    Costeloe, Michael P.The Triangular Revolt in Mexico and the Fall of Anastasio Bustamante, August–October 1841.Journal of Latin American Studies 20, no. 2 (November 1988): 33760.
    Country Profile: Guatemala.BBC News: Americas, July 20, 2002. http://news/bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/country_profiles/1215758.stm.
    Cousin, Tracey L.Eritrean and Ethiopian Civil War.” In ICE Case Studies. Washington, DC: American University, November 1997.
    Coverdale, John F. Italian Intervention in the Spanish Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975.
    Cowell, Alan.War Deaths in Syria Said to Top 100,000.New York Times (Late ed.), June 27, 2013, 6.
    Coyle, James John.Nationalism in Iranian Kurdistan.” PhD diss., George Washington University, 1993.
    Craig, Albert M. Chōshū in the Meiji Restoration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1961.
    Crain, David A.Guatemalan Revolutionaries and Havana’s Ideological Offensive of 1966–1968.Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 17, no. 2 (May 1975): 175205.
    Crampton, R. J. Eastern Europe in the Twentieth Century and After.
    2nd ed
    . London: Routledge, 1997.
    _______. A Short History of Modern Bulgaria. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
    Crandall, Russell. “Requiem for the FARC?Survival: Global Politics and Strategy 53, no. 4 (2011): 23340.
    Crassweller, Robert D. Perón and the Enigmas of Argentina. New York: W. W. Norton, 1987.
    Crawley, Charles William. The Question of Greek Independence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1930.
    _______. The Question of Greek Independence. New York: Howard Fertig, 1973.
    Creasy, Edward S. History of the Ottoman Turks. Beirut: Khayats, 1961. Originally published 1878.
    Cribb, Robert. “Nation: Making Indonesia.” In Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society, Transition, edited by Donald K. Emmerson. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
    Crichfield, George Washington. American Supremacy: The Rise and Progress of the Latin American Republics and Their Relations to the United States under the Monroe Doctrine. New York: Brentano’s, 1908.
    Crocker, Chester A., Fen Osler Hampson, and Pamela Aall, eds. Grasping the Nettle: Analyzing Cases of Intractable Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 2005.
    Croissant, Michael P. The Armenia–Azerbaijan Conflict: Causes and Implications. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
    Cronin, Stephanie. The Army and the Creation of the Pahlavi State in Iran, 1910–1926. New York: Tauris Academic Studies, 1997.
    Crossette, Barbara. “War Adds 1.7 Million Deaths in Eastern Congo, Study Finds.New York Times, June 9, 2000. http://www.nytimes.com.
    Crow, John A. The Epic of Latin America. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1971.
    Cumberland, Charles C. The Mexican Revolution: The Constitutionalist Years. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1972.
    _______. Mexico: The Struggle for Modernity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1968.
    Cummins, Joseph. The War Chronicles: From Flintlocks to Machine Guns. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press, 2009.
    _______. Why Some Wars Never End: The Stories of the Longest Conflicts in History. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds, 2010.
    Cunha, Euclides Da. Rebellion in the Backlands (Os Sertoes). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1944.
    Curtis, Glenn E. Kazakstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan: Country Studies. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1997.
    Curtiss, John Shelton. The Russian Army under Nicholas I. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1965.
    Cushman, John R., Jr. “The Endless Battle, Iraq, the Kurds and the United States.New York Times, September 4, 1996.
    Cutter, Charles H. Africa. 42nd ed. Harpers Ferry, WV: Stryker-Post Publications, 2007.
    Daalder, Ivo H., and Michael E. O’Hanlon. Winning Ugly; NATO’s War to Save Kosovo. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2000.
    Dadrian, Vahakn N. The History of the Armenian Genocide: Ethnic Conflict from the Balkans to Anatolia to the Caucasus.
    4th rev. ed
    . Oxford, NY: Berghan Books, 2004.
    Dagmar-Hellmann, Rajanayagam. “The ‘Groups’ and the Rise of Militant Secessionism.” In The Sri Lankan Tamils: Ethnicity and Identity, edited by Chelvadurai Manogaran and Bryan Pfaffenberger, 169207. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
    Dakin, Douglas. The Greek Struggle for Independence 1821–1833. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
    _______. The Greek Struggle in Macedonia, 1897–1913. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966.
    _______. The Unification of Greece 1770–1923. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1972.
    Dallas Morning News. “Revolution in Honduras Breaks Anew.August 8, 1924, 1.
    Daneshvar, Parviz. Revolution in Iran. New York: St. Martin’s, 1996.
    Dann, Uriel. Iraq under Qassem: A Political History, 1958–1963. New York: Praeger, 1969.
    DaPonte, Beth Osborne. “A Case Study in Estimating Casualties from War and Its Aftermath: The 1991 Persian Gulf War.The PSR Quarterly 3, no. 2 (1993): 5766.
    Darlow, Michael, and Barbara Bray. Ibn Saud: The Desert Warrior Who Created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2012.
    Das Gupta, J. B. Islamic Fundamentalism and India. Kolkata, India: Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad Institute of Asian Studies, 2002.
    Dasgupta, Biplab. “The Naxalite Movement: An Epilogue.Social Scientist 6, no. 12 (1978): 324.
    Dau, Butros. History of the Maronites: Religious, Cultural, and Political. Lebanon: Butros Dau, 1984.
    Davenport, Richard A. The Life of Ali Pasha of Tepebni, Vizier of Epirus. London: Thomas Tegg and Son, 1837.
    Davis, Anthony. “How the Taliban Became a Military Force.” In Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban, rev. ed., edited by William Maley, 4371. Washington Square: New York University Press, 2001.
    Davis, H. P. Black Democracy, the Story of Haiti. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1967.
    Davis, Harold F. History of Latin America. New York: Ronald Press, 1968.
    Davis, John A. Naples and Napoleon: Southern Italy and the European Revolutions (1780–1860). New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
    Davis, Paul K. Encyclopedia of Invasions and Conquests from Ancient Times to the Present. Millerton, NY: Grey House, 2006.
    Davis, William C. Lone Star Rising: The Revolutionary Birth of the Texas Republic. New York: Free Press, 2004.
    Dawisha, Karen. Conflict, Cleavage and Change in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Dawson, Thomas Cleland. The South American Republics. 2 vols. New York: Knickerbocker Press (G. P. Putnam’s Sons), 1903.
    The Day the Katiba Fell.Al Jazeera English, March 1, 2011. http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/2011/03/20113175840189620.html.
    De Beauchamp, Alph. The Life of Ali Pacha, of Jannina.
    2nd ed
    . London: S. and R. Bentley, 1823.
    de la Fuente, Ariel. “Federalism and Opposition to the Paraguayan War in the Argentine Interior.” In I Die with My Country: Perspectives on the Paraguayan War, 1864–1870, edited by Hendrik Kraay and Thomas L. Whigham, 14053. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
    De La Peña, Guillermo. “Rural Mobilizations in Latin America since c. 1920.” In The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. VI, part 2, edited by Leslie Bethell, 379482. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
    de Mesa, Jose, Teresa Gisbert, and Carlos D. Mesa Gisbert. Historia de Bolivia.
    4th ed
    . La Paz, Bolivia: Editorial Gisbert y Cia S. A., 2001.
    de Silva, K. M. Reaping the Whirlwind: Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Politics in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1998.
    de Waal, Alex. “The Politics of Destabilization in the Horn, 1989–2001.” In Islamism and Its Enemies in the Horn of Africa, edited by Alex de Waal, 182230. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
    Deac, Wilfred P. Road to the Killing Fields: The Cambodian War of 1970–75. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.
    Deans, William. History of the Ottoman Empire. London: A. Fullerton, 1854.
    DeAtkine, Norvell B.The Arab as Insurgent and Counterinsurgent.” In Conflict and Insurgency in the Contemporary Middle East, edited by Barry M. Rubin, 2445. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2009.
    DeFronzo, James. Revolutions and Revolutionary Movements. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
    Degenhardt, Henry W., ed. Revolutionary and Dissident Movements: An International Guide. UK: Longman Group, 1987.
    DeGeorge, Barbara. “Liberia in Civil War: Haven for Freed Slaves Reduced to Anarchy.” In History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, vol. 1, edited by Sonia G. Benson, Nancy Matuszak, and Meghan Appel O’Meara. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
    Delpar, Helen. “Aspects of Liberal Factionalism in Colombia, 1875–1885.The Hispanic American Historical Review 51, no. 2 (1971): 25074.
    Delupis, Ingrid Detter. The Law of War.
    2nd ed
    . Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press, 2000.
    Demarest, Geoffrey. “War of the Thousand Days.Small Wars and Insurgencies 12, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 130.
    Demetriou, Spyros. “Rising from the Ashes? The Difficult (Re)Birth of the Georgian State.Development and Change 33, no. 5 (2002): 85983.
    Denial by Indonesia.The Canberra Times, November 2, 1977, 11.
    Deol, Harnik. Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab. London: Routledge, 2000.
    DePalo, William A., Jr. The Mexican National Army, 1822–1852. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1997.
    Deployment Health Clinical Center. “Operation Allied Force.2006. http://www.pdhealth,mil/508/deployments/alliedforce/background.asp.
    DeRouen, Karl, and Uk Heo. Civil Wars of the World. Vols. 1 and 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 2007.
    DeSilva-Ranasinghe, Sergei. “Strategic Analysis of Sri Lankan Military’s Counter-Insurgency Operations.Future Directions International, February, 12, 2010. http://www.futuredirections.org.au/files/1266992558-FDIStrategicAnalysisPaper-12February2010.pdf.
    Destani, B. Minorities in the Middle East: Druze Communities 1840–1974. Vol. 3. London: Archive Editions, 2006.
    Detter, Ingrid. The Law of War. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    Deutsch, Karl W. “Quincy Wright’s Contribution to the Study of War, a Preface to the Second Edition.” In A Study of War,
    2nd ed
    ., by Quincy Wright. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1965.
    Dhillon, K. S.A Decade of Violence, 1983–92.” In Punjab in Prosperity and Violence: Administration, Politics, and Social Change, 1947–1997, edited by J. S. Grewal and Indu Banga. Chandigarh, India: Institute of Punjab Studies, 1998.
    Dhiravegin, Likhit. Demi Democracy: The Evolution of the Thai Political System. Singapore: Times Academic Press, 1992.
    Diacon, Todd A. Millenarian Vision, Capitalist Rebellion: Brazil’s Contestado Rebellion, 1912–1916. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1991.
    Digital National Security Archive. Chronology: Results from January 1, 1979, to December 31, 1994. (Collections: El Salvador 1977–1984; El Salvador 1980–1994.)
    _______. Chronology: Results from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 1996. (Collection: Guatemala and the United States.)
    Dikötter, Frank. The Tragedy of Liberation: A History of the Chinese Revolution 1945–1957. New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2013.
    Dilebo, Getahun. “Emperor Menelik’s Ethiopia, 1865–1916: National Unification or Amhara Communal Domination. PhD diss., Howard University, Department of History, 1974.
    Dillon, Michael. China’s Muslim Hui Community: Migration, Settlement, and Sects. Sydney, Australia: Curzon Press, 1999.
    Dillon, Paul. “Strategy of Provocation That Keeps Aceh’s War in Public Eye.The Scotsman, May 17, 2001.
    Dingle, Edwin J. China’s Revolution. New York: McBride, Nast and Company, 1912.
    Dinstein, Yoram. War, Aggression, and Self-Defence.
    4th ed
    . New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    Dirlik, Arif. “The Guangzhou Uprising (11–13 December 1927) in Workers’ Perspective.Modern China 23, no. 4 (1997): 36397.
    Dix, Robert H. The Politics of Colombia. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1987.
    Dixon, J.Suggested Changes to the COW Civil War Dataset 3.0.Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Portland, Oregon, February 25–March 1, 2003.
    _______. “What Causes Civil Wars? Integrating Quantitative Research Findings.International Studies Review 11, no. 4 (2009): 70735.
    Dixon, Jeffrey, and Meredith Reid Sarkees. “Intervention, Recognition, and War Transformation: A Consistent Standard for Distinguishing Inter-state, Extra-state, and Intra-state Wars. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Honolulu Hawaii, March 1–5, 2005.
    Djilas, Milovan. Wartime. New York: Harcourt, 1977.
    Djordjevic, Dimitrije, and Stephen Fischer-Galati. The Balkan Revolutionary Tradition. New York: Columbia University Press, 1981.
    Dodwell, Henry. The Founder of Modern Egypt: A Study of Muhammad Ali. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University, 1931.
    Donia, Robert, and John Fine. Bosnia and Hercegovina. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
    Donnison, Frank S. V. Burma. New York: Praeger, 1970.
    Dontas, D. N. Greece and the Great Powers. Thessaloniki, Greece: Institute for Balkan Studies, 1966.
    Dorril, William F.The Fukien Rebellion and the CCP: A Case of Maoist Revisionism.China Quarterly 37, no. 1 (1969): 3153.
    Dorronsoro, Gilles. Revolution Unending, Afghanistan: 1979 to the Present. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005.
    Dougherty, Carter. “Burundi Inching Closer to Ending Long Civil War.World and I 19, no. 11 (November 2004).
    Douglas, J. Leigh. The Free Yemeni Movement 1935–1962. Beirut: American University of Beirut, 1987.
    Dougueli, Georges. “Chad: Habré and the Ghost of Hassan Djamous.Jeune Afrique, April 25, 2014.
    Doyle, Kate. “The Final Battle: Ríos Montt’s Counterinsurgency Campaign.” National Security Archive, Electronic Briefing Book No. 425. May 9, 2013. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB425.
    _______. Operation Sofia: Documenting Genocide in Guatemala. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 297. December 2, 2009. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB297/index.htm.
    Doyle, Kate, and Carlos Osario. “US Policy in Guatemala, 1966–1996.National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 11. n.d. http://www.nsarchiv.gwu.edu.
    Dresch, Paul. A History of Modern Yemen. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    Dreyer, Edward L. China at War: 1901–1949. New York: Longman, 1995.
    DronesTeam. “Somalia: Reported US Covert Actions 2001–2015.The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, February 22, 2012. http://www.thebureauinvestigates.com/2012/02/22.
    Droz, Jacques. Les Revolutions Allmandes de 1848. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France, 1957.
    Duarte, Maria Amalia. Tiempos de Rebellion: 1870–1873. Bueno Aires, Argentina: Academia Nacional de la Historia, 1988.
    Dubois, Jules. Fidel Castro: Rebel–Liberator or Dictator? Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959.
    Duggan, Christopher. The Force of Destiny: A History of Italy since 1796. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2008.
    Duke, Simon, Hans-Georg Ehrhart, and Matthias Karadi. “The Major European Allies: France, Germany and the United Kingdom.” In Kosovo and the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur. New York: United Nations University Press, 2000.
    Dulles, John W. F. Yesterday in Mexico: A Chronicle of the Revolution, 1919–1936. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1961.
    Dumas, Samuel, and Knud Otto Vedel-Peterson. Losses of Life Caused by War. London: Oxford University Press, 1923.
    Dumond, Don E. The Machete and the Cross, Campesino Rebellion in Yucatan. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
    Dumont, Jean, ed. Les Coups d’État. Paris: Hachette, 1963.
    Dunér, Bertil. Military Intervention in Civil Wars: The 1970s. London: Gower Publishing Co., 1985.
    Dunkerley, James. Rebellion in the Veins: Political Struggle in Bolivia, 1952–82. London: Verso Editions, 1984.
    Dunn, Kevin C.Uganda: The Lord’s Resistance Army.” In African Guerrillas: Raging against the Machine, edited by Morten BρÅs and Kevin C. Dunn. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    Dunn, Ross E.The Bu Himara Rebellion in Northeast Morocco: Phase I.Middle Eastern Studies 17, no. 1 (1981): 3148.
    _______. Resistance in the Desert: Moroccan Responses to French Imperialism, 1881–1912. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1977.
    Dupuy, R. Ernest, and Trevor N. Dupuy. The Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present. New York: Harper and Row, 1970.
    _______. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present. 4th ed. New York: HarperCollins, 1993.
    Dupuy, Trevor N. Attrition: Forecasting Battle Casualties and Equipment Losses in Modern War. Fairfax, VA: Hero Books, 1990.
    Durham, Mike. Buddha’s Warriors: The Story of the CIA-Backed Tibetan Freedom Fighters, the Chinese Invasion, and the Ultimate Fall of Tibet. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Penguin, 2004.
    Durham, Whitney Dylan. “The 1920 Treaty of Sèvres and the Struggle for a Kurdish Homeland in Iraq and Turkey Between World Wars.” PhD diss., Oklahoma State University, 2000.
    Dutt, Vidya Prakash. “The First Week of Revolution: The Wuchang Uprising.” In China in Revolution: The First Phase 1900–1913, edited by Mary Clabaugh Wright, 383418. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968.
    Duyvesteyn, Isabelle. Clausewitz and African War: Politics and Strategy in Liberia and Somalia. New York: Routledge, 2004.
    Dyer, Frederick H. Number and Organization of the Armies of the United States. Vol. 1 of A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion. New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1959.
    Dzhunaid-Khan, ‘King of the Karakum Desert.’Central Asian Review 13 (1965): 21626.
    E. Timor Expects ‘Invasion.’The Canberra Times, June 7, 1978, 11.
    Earle, Rebecca. “The War of the Supremes: Border Conflict, Religious Crusade or Simply Politics By Other Means?” In Rumors of Wars: Civil Conflict in Nineteenth-century Latin America, edited by Rebecca Earle, 11934. London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2000.
    Eastman, Lloyd E., Jerome Ch’en, Suzanne Pepper, and Lyman P. van Slyke. The Nationalist Era in China, 1927–1949. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
    Eberwein, Wolf Dieter, and Sven Chojnacki. “Scientific Necessity and Political Utility: A Comparison of Data on Violent Conflicts. Discussion paper P01304. Berlin, Germany: Arbeitsgruppe: Internationale Politik, 2001.
    Echenique, Rafael. Catálogo Alfabético y Cronológico de los Hechos de Armas. Mexico: Oficina Tipográfica de la Secretaría de Fomento, 1894.
    Edgerton, Robert B. Africa’s Armies, from Honor to Infamy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002.
    Edmonds, Martin. “Civil War and Arms Sales: The Nigerian-Biafran War and Other Cases.” In Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century, edited by Robert Higham, 20316. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1972.
    Edwards, David Busby. “Origins of the Anti-Soviet Jihad.” In Afghan Resistance: The Politics of Survival, edited by Grant M. Farr and John G. Merriam, 2150. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1987.
    Edwards, H. Sutherland. The Private History of a Polish Insurrection. London: Saunders, 1865.
    Eggers, Ellen K. Historical Dictionary of Burundi. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1997.
    Ekinci, Mehmet Ugur. “The Origins of the 1897 Ottoman-Greek War: A Diplomatic History.Master’s thesis, Bilkent University, Ankara, 2006.
    El Khazen, Farid. The Breakdown of the State in Lebanon, 1967–1976. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.
    _______. “Ending Conflict in Wartime Lebanon: Reform, Sovereignty and Power, 1976–88.Middle Eastern Studies 40 no. 11 (2004): 6584.
    El Salvador Leftists Take Refuge on University Campus.St. Petersburg Times, January 4, 1980, 2A.
    El Salvador Officials Resign.St. Petersburg Times, January 4, 1980, 2A.
    El Salvador 30 Day Truce Is Declared.Kentucky New Era, November 7, 1979, 16.
    El Salvador Violence.The Pittsburgh Press, October 23, 1979, A-4.
    El-Khattabi, Elizabeth. “Prelude to the Riffian War: Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Patterns of Precolonial Protest and Resistance in the Sharifian Empire. PhD diss., Princeton University, Department of History, 1998.
    Elleman, Bruce A. Modern Chinese Warfare, 1795–1989. London: Routledge, 2001.
    Elliadi, M. N. Crete, Past and Present. London: Heath Cranton Ltd., 1933.
    Ellis, John. A Short History of Guerilla Warfare. New York: St. Martin’s, 1976.
    Elmslie, Jim. Irian Jaya under the Gun: Indonesian Economic Development versus West Papuan Nationalism. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2003.
    Emerson, Edwin, Jr. A History of the Nineteenth Century, Year by Year. Vol 2. New York: P. F. Collier and Son, 1902.
    Emmerson, Donald K. Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society, Transition. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
    England, Shawn Louis. “The Curse of Huitzilopochtli: The Origins, Process, and Legacy of Mexico’s Military Reforms, 1920–1946.PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2008.
    Ensalaco, Mark. Chile under Pinochet: Recovering the Truth. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.
    Eprik, Cecil. War and Peace in the Sudan: 1955–1972. London: David Charles, 1972.
    Erikson, Hans, and Björn Hagströmer. Chad: Towards Democratisation or Petro-Dictatorship? Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2004.
    Ero, Comfort. “ECOMOG: A Model for Africa?” In Building Stability in Africa: Challenges for the New Millennium. Monograph 46, February 2000.
    Escott, Paul D., Lawrence N. Powell, James I. Robertson, Jr., and Emory M. Thomas. Encyclopedia of the Confederacy. Vol. 1. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
    Esherick, Joseph W. Reform and Revolution in China: The 1911 Revolution in Hunan and Hubei. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
    Estado Mayor General del Ejercito. Historia del Ejercito de Chile. Santiago, Chile: Estado Mayor General del Ejercito, 1980.
    Estep, Raymond. “Mexia, Jose Antonio.” In Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fme34.
    Europa Yearbook, 2005. New York: Freedom House, 2005.
    Evans, Alexander. “The Kashmir Insurgency: As Bad as It Gets.Small Wars and Insurgencies 11, no. 1 (Spring 2000): 6981.
    Evans, Grant. A Short History of Laos: The Land in Between. Crows Nest, Australia: Allen & Unwin, 2002.
    Eversley, Lord. The Turkish Empire from 1288 to 1914. London: Adelphi Terrace, 1924.
    Ewans, Martin. Afghanistan: A New History. Surrey, UK: Curzon, 2001.
    _______. Afghanistan: A Short History of Its People and Politics. New York: HarperCollins, 2002.
    Ewell, Judith. Venezuela: A Century of Change. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1984.
    Ezergailis, Andrew. The Latvian Impact on the Bolshevik Revolution. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 1983.
    Facts on File World News Digest. New York: Facts on File, multiple years (weekly since 1940).
    Fagg, John Edwin. Latin America: A General History. New York: Macmillan, 1963.
    Fahmy, Khaled. All the Pasha’s Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army, and the Making of Modern Egypt. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    _______.“The Era of Muhammad ‘Ali Pasha, 1805–1848.” In The Cambridge History of Egypt, vol. 2, edited by M. W. Daly, 13979. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
    _______. “Mutiny in Mechmed Ali’s New Nizami Army, April–May 1824.International Journal of Turkish Studies 8, nos. 1–2 (2002): 12938.
    Fairbank, John K. Edwin O. Reischauer, and A. M. Craig. East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1989. Also published 1958 and 1960.
    Falola, Toyin. Violence in Nigeria: The Crisis of Religious Politics and Secular Ideologies. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1998.
    Falola, Toyin, and Matthew Heaton. A History of Nigeria. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
    Fanatics Hold Java in Terror.Newcastle Morning Herald and Miners’ Advocate, March 14, 1953, 2.
    Fanatics in Indonesia.The Northern Miner (Australia), December 1, 1951, 1.
    Far Eastern Economic Review. Asia Yearbook. Hong Kong: Far Eastern Economic Review, 1970–72, 1974.
    Farah, Caesar E.The Anglo-Ottoman Confrontation in Yemen, 1840–1849.International Journal of Turkish Studies 3, no. 2 (Winter 1985/1986): 6993.
    _______. “The Lebanese Insurgence of 1840 and the Powers.Journal of Asian History 1, no. 2 (1967): 10532.
    _______. The Politics of Interventionism in Ottoman Lebanon, 1830–1861. London: I. B. Tauris, 2000.
    _______. “Reaffirming Ottoman Sovereignty in Yemen, 1825–1840.International Journal of Turkish Studies 3, no. 1 (Winter 1984/1985): 101116.
    _______. The Sultan’s Yemen: Nineteenth-century Challenges to Ottoman Rule. London: I. B. Tauris, 2002.
    Fariní, Juan Angel. Cronologia de Mitre, 1821–1906. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Institucion Mitre, 1970.
    Farouk-Sluglett, Marion, and Peter Sluglett. Iraq since 1958: From Revolution to Dictatorship. Rev. ed. London: I. B. Tauris, 2001.
    Farwell, Byron. The Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-century Land Warfare. New York: W. W. Norton, 2001.
    FAS Intelligence Resource Program. “Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA).2005. http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/kla.htm.
    Fathi, Ashgar. “The Role of the ‘Rebels’ in the Constitutional Movement in Iran.International Journal of Middle East Studies 10, no. 1 (1979): 5566.
    Fausto, Boris. A Concise History of Brazil. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    Fawaz, Leila Tarazi. An Occasion for War: Civil Conflict in Lebanon and Damascus in 1860. London: I. B. Tauris, 1994.
    Fearon, James D., and David D. Laitin. “Burma.Ethnicity, Insurgency and Civil War Research Project, July 7, 2006. http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnic/randomnarratives.
    Fedyshyn, Oleh S. Germany’s Drive to the East and the Ukrainian Revolution, 1917–1918. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1971.
    Fehrenbach, T. R. Fire and Blood, a History of Mexico. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Inc., 1973.
    Feith, Herbert. “Indonesia.” In Government and Politics in Southeast Asia, edited by G. Kahin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1964.
    Felter, Joseph H., III. “Taking Guns to a Knife Fight: A Case for the Empirical Study of Counterinsurgency.PhD diss., Stanford University, Political Science, 2005.
    Fermoselle, Rafael. The Evolution of the Cuban Military, 1492–1986. Miami, FL: Ediciones Universal, 1987.
    Ferris, Cornelius Jr. “Report on the Insurrection in Paraguay in February and March, 1911.” In Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States 1912, 12651267. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Feuerwerker, Albert. Rebellion in Nineteenth-century China. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1975.
    Fields, Lanny B. Tso Tsung-T’ang and the Muslims: Statecraft in Northwest China, 1868–1880. Kingston, Ontario: Limestone Press, 1978.
    Figes, Orlando. A People’s Tragedy, The Russian Revolution: 1891–1924. New York: Penguin Books, 1996.
    Fighting in Paraguay.Poverty Bay Herald (New Zealand) XXXIX, no. 12721 (March 25, 1912): 5.
    Financial Times (London), January 30, 2001, 13.
    Finkel, Caroline. Osman’s Dream: The Story of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1923. New York: Basic Books, 2005.
    Finlay, George. History of the Greek Revolution. Edinburgh, UK: William Blackwood and Sons, 1861.
    Firro, Kais M. A History of the Druzes. New York: E. J. Brill, 1992.
    Fisher, Howard T., and Marion Hall Fisher, eds. Life in Mexico, the Letters of Fanny Calderón de la Barca. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1970. With new material from the author’s private journals.
    Fitchen, E.Self-Determination or Self-Preservation? The Relations of Independent Yucatán with the Republic of Texas and the United States 1847–1849.Journal of the West 18, no. 1 (January 1979).
    Five Killed in Clash Between Northern Soldiers, Southern Villagers.Agence France-Presse, November 19, 1993.
    Flandrau, Charles E.The Indian War of 1862–1864 and Following Campaigns in Minnesota.” In Board of Commissioners, Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars. Vol. II. St. Paul, MN: Pioneer Press, 1890. http://www.openlibrary.org.
    Fletcher, Arnold. Afghanistan: Highway of Conquest. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1965.
    Florinsky, Michael T. Russia: A History and an Interpretation. Vol. 2. New York: Macmillan, 1953.
    Fluharty, Lee Vernon. Dance of the Millions: Military Rule and the Social Revolution in Colombia, 1930–1956. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1957.
    Folwell, William Watts. A History of Minnesota. Saint Paul: Minnesota Historical Society, 1924.
    Foote, Shelby. Fort Sumter to Perryville. Vol. 1 of The Civil War, a Narrative. New York: Vintage Books, 1986a.
    _______. Fredericksburg to Meridian. Vol. 2 of The Civil War, a Narrative. New York: Vintage Books, 1986b.
    _______. Red River to Appomattox. Vol. 3 of The Civil War, a Narrative. New York: Vintage Books, 1986c.
    Forbes, Andrew D. W. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
    Ford, Peter. “Contra’s Lament.The Telegraph, February 13, 1987, 69.
    Forest, James J. F. Confronting the Terrorism of Boko Haram in Nigeria. MacDill Air Force Base, FL: Joint Special Operations University, 2012.
    Forster, Edward Seymour. A Short History of Modern Greece, 1821–1956. London: Methuen & Co., 1958.
    Fortoul, Jose Gil. “Santa Ines y La Cople.” In La Federacion y La Guerra Historiografía, edited by Ezequiel y su tiempo Zamora. Caracas, Venezuela: Oficina Central de Informacion, 1976.
    Foster, Charles. “Indonesia and West Papua.Contemporary Review 282, no. 1645 (February 2003): 736.
    Fowler, Will. “Civil Conflict in Independent Mexico, 1821–57 an Overview.” In Rumours of Wars: Civil Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, edited by Rebecca Earle. London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2000a.
    _______. Malcontents, Rebels, and Pronunciados: The Politics of Insurrection in Nineteenth-century Mexico. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2012.
    _______. Santa Anna of Mexico. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.
    _______. Tornel and Santa Anna: The Writer and the Caudillo, Mexico, 1795–1853. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000b.
    Franke, Wolfgang. A Century of Chinese Revolution, 1851–1949. Oxford, UK: Blackwell, 1970.
    Fraser-Tyler, William K. Afghanistan. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.
    Fredholm, Michael. Burma: Ethnicity and Insurgency. Westport, CT: London, 1993.
    Freeman, Colin, Barney Henderson, and Mark Oliver. “Al Qaeda Map.The Telegraph, June 12, 2014. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/al-qaeda/10893889/Al-Qaeda-map-Isis-Boko-Haram-and-other-affiliates-strongholds-across-Africa-and-Asia.html.
    Freeman-Grenville, F. S. P. A Chronology of African History. London: Oxford University Press, 1973.
    Freij, Hanna Yousef. “Tribal Identity and Alliance Behaviour among Factions of the Kurdish National Movement in Iraq.Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 3, no. 3 (1997): 86110.
    Frère, Marie-Soleil. The Media and Conflicts in Central Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    Fretilin Leader Shot.The Canberra Times, January 3, 1979, 4.
    Friedman, Edward. Backward Toward Revolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1974.
    Friend, Theodore. Indonesian Destinies. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
    Frilley, G., and Jovan Wlahovitj. Le Monténégro Contemporain. Paris, France: E. Plon et Cie, Imprimeurs-Éditeurs, 1876.
    Frost, John. The History of Mexico and Its Wars. New Orleans, LA: Armand Hawkins, 1882.
    Frundt, Henry J. “Guatemala in Search of Democracy.Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 32, no. 3 (1990): 2474.
    G. G. D. V. (Vaudoncourt, Frédéric Baron Guillaume de). Letters on the Internal Political State of Spain During the Years 1821, 22, & 23. London: Lupton Relfe, 1824.
    Gaasholt, Ole Martin. “Northern Mali 2912: The Short-lived Triumph of Irredentism.Strategic Review for Southern Africa 35, no. 2 (November 2013): 68+.
    Gagnon. V. P., Jr. The Myth of Ethnic War, Serbia and Croatia in the 1990s. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004.
    Galbraith, W. O. Columbia. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1953.
    Gambill, Gary. “The Pivotal Role of Lebanon’s Armenian Christians.Tayyar (Beirut), September, 18, 2009.
    Gambone, Michael D. Capturing the Revolution: The United States, Central America, and Nicaragua, 1961–1972. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
    Gambra, Rafael. La Primera Guerra Civil de Espana (1821–1823). Madrid, Spain: Esceliecer, 1972.
    Gammer, Moshe. The Lone Wolf and the Bear, Three Centuries of Chechen Defiance of Russian Rule. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2006.
    _______. Muslim Resistance to the Tsar: Shamil and the Conquest of Chechnia and Daghestan. London: Frank Cass, 2003.
    _______. “Was General Klüge-von-Klugenau Shamil’s Desmichels?Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique 33, no 2–3 (Avril–Septembre 1992): 20721.
    Ganguly, Rajat, and Raymond C. Taras. Understanding Ethnic Conflict. New York: Longman, 1998.
    Gankovsky, Yuri V.Ibrahim Beg Lakai: An Outstanding Leader of the Basmachi Movement in Central Asia.Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies 16 (1993): 18.
    _______. “Ibrahim Beg Lokai (1899–1932).Pakistan Journal of History and Culture 17 (1996): 10514.
    Gao, James Z. Historical Dictionary of Modern China (1800–1949). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2009.
    Garcia, Gabriel Cevallos. Historia del Ecuador. Segunda parte. Cuenca, Ecuador: Editorial Von Bosco, 1979.
    García-Pérez, Gladys Marel Insurrection & Revolution, Armed Struggle in Cuba, 1952–1959. Translated by Juan Ortega. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.
    Gardner, Paul F. Shared Hopes, Separate Fears: Fifty Years of US-Indonesian Relations. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1977.
    Garner, Paul. Porfirio Díaz. New York: Longman, 2001.
    Garthwaite, Gene R. Khans and Shahs: A Documentary Analysis of the Bakhtiyari in Iran. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
    Garver, John W. Chinese-Soviet Relations, 1937–1945. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1988.
    Gavin, Robert. “The Ottoman Reconquest of Arabia 1871–73.History Today 13 (1963): 77484.
    Gawrych, George W. The Crescent and the Eagle: Ottoman Rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2006.
    Gediminas, Vitkus. “‘Forest Brothers’ and the Consequences of the Metropole-periphery Distinction Elimination in the ‘Correlates of War’ Typology.Journal of Baltic Studies 43, no. 4 (2012): 51527.
    _______, ed. Wars of Lithuania, a Systematic Quantitative Analysis of Lithuania’s Wars in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Vilnius, Lithuania: EUGRIMAS, 2014.
    Geller, Daniel S., and J. David Singer. Nations at War: A Scientific Study of International Conflict. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
    Gemie, Sharif. French Revolutions, 1815–1914. Edinburgh, Scotland: Edinburgh University Press, 1999.
    General Promises to Punish Sikh Mutineers.New York Times, July 2, 1984. http://www.nytimes.com/1984/07/02/world/general-promises-to-punish-sikh-mutineers.html.
    General Rafael Franco Reported Leading Paraguay Rebels.News and Courier (Charleston, SC, morning edition), March 24, 1947, 3.
    Georgieva, Valentina, and Sasha Konechni. Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998.
    Gerolymatos, André. The Balkan Wars: Conquest, Revolution, and Retribution from the Ottoman Era to the Twentieth Century and Beyond. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
    Gerome, Frank A. “Race and Politics in Cuba and the US Intervention of 1912.SECOLAS Annals: Journal of the Southeastern Council on Latin American Studies 28 (1997): 526.
    Gerrard, Craig. “The Foreign Office and British Intervention in the Finnish Civil War.Civil Wars 3, no. 3 (Autumn 2000): 87100.
    Gettleman, Jeffrey. “Somalia Forces Retake Capital from Islamists.New York Times, December 29, 2006. www.nytimes.com.
    Gettleman, Marvin, ed. Vietnam. New York: Fawcett, 1970a.
    Gettleman, Marvin, S., L. Kaplan, and C. Kaplan, eds. Conflict in Indochina. New York: Vintage, 1970.
    Gewehr, Wesley M. The Rise of Nationalism in the Balkans, 1800–1930. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1967.
    Ghalib, Abbas. “South Says Northern Units Resisting Withdrawal to Barracks.Associated Press Worldstream, March 2, 1994.
    Ghareeb, Edmund. The Kurdish Question in Iraq. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1981.
    Ghattas, Samir. “Government Says It Controls Last Southern Strongholds.Associated Press, July 10, 1994.
    Ghosn, Faten, Glenn Palmer, and Stuart Bremer. “The MID3 Data Set, 1993–2001: Procedures, Coding Rules, and Description.Conflict Management and Peace Science 21 (2004): 13354.
    Giaffo, Lou. Albania: Eye of the Balkan Vortex. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corporation, 2000.
    Gibbs, Brian H., and J. David Singer. Empirical Knowledge on World Politics: A Summary of Quantitative Research, 1970–1991. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993.
    Gibler, Douglas M., and Meredith Reid Sarkees. “Measuring Alliances: The Correlates of War Formal Interstate Alliance Dataset, 1816–2000.Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 2 (March 2004).
    Giglio, Mike. “Hezbollah Comes Clean.Newsweek Global 161, no. 20 (May 29, 2013).
    Gillin, Donald G. Warlord: Yen Hsi-shan in Shansi Province 1911–1949. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967.
    Gilmore, Robert L. Caudillism and Militarism in Venezuela, 1810–1910. Athens: Ohio University Press, 1964.
    Girling, J. L. S. “Laos: Falling Domino?Pacific Affairs 43, no. 3 (Autumn 1970): 37083.
    Giustozzi, Antonio. “The Demodernisation of an Army: Northern Afghanistan, 1992–2001.Small Wars & Insurgencies 15, no. 1 (2004): 118.
    Gleditsch, N. P., P. Wallensteen, M. Eriksson, M. Sollenberg, and H. Strand. “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset.Journal of Peace Research 39, no. 5 (2002): 61537.
    Gleijeses, Piero. The Dominican Crisis. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978.
    Glenny, Misha. The Balkans: Nationalism, War, and the Great Powers 1804–1999. New York: Penguin Books, 1999.
    Glickson, Roger C.Counterinsurgency in Southern Sudan: The Means to Win?Journal of Conflict Studies 15, no. 1 (2005). http://journals.hil.unb.ca/index.php/JCS/article/view/4594.
    Global Terrorism Index, 2014. New York: Institute for Economics and Peace, 2014.
    GlobalSecurity.org. “Burundi Civil War.2006. www.globalsecutiry.org/military/world/war/burundi.htm.
    _______. “Congo Civil War.2005a. http://www.globalsecurity.org.
    _______. “Free Aceh (Aceh Merdeka) Free Aceh Movement [Gerakin Aceh Merdeka (GAM)] Aceh Security Disturbance Movement (GPK).2005b. http://www.globalsecurity.org.
    _______. “Insurgency in Nepal.2005c. http://www.globalsecurity.org.
    _______. “Ivory Coast Conflict.2002, 2003, 2004. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/ivory-coast.htm.
    _______. “Ivory Coast Conflict.2010, 2011. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/ivory-coast.htm.
    _______. “Liberia—First Civil War—1989–1996.” 2005d. http://www.globalsecurity.org.
    _______. “Liberia—Second Civil War—1997–2003.” 2005e. http://www.globalsecurity.org.
    Gnorowski, S. B. Insurrection of Poland. London: James Ridgeway, 1839.
    Gochman, Charles S., and Zeev Moaz. “Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1916–1976.” In International War: An Anthology and Study Guide, edited by Melvin Small and J. David Singer, 2736. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1985.
    Godechot, Jacques. Les Revolutions de 1848. Paris, France: Albin Michel, 1971.
    Gohdes, A., and Price, M.First Things First: Assessing Data Quality Before Model Quality.Journal of Conflict Resolution (November 15, 2012).
    Gold, Eva. “Military Encirclement.” In Reagan Versus the Sandinistas, edited by Thomas W. Walker. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
    Goldschmidt, Arthur J. A Concise History of the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
    Goldstein, Joshua S. War and Gender. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.
    Goldstein, Martin. American Policy Toward Laos. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1973.
    Goldstein, Melvyn C. The Storm Clouds Descend. 1955–1957. Vol. 3 of A History of Modern Tibet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014.
    Goldstone, Jack A. The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1998.
    Gonçalves de Magalthhaes, Domingos José. “Uprising in Maranhão, 1839–1840.” In The Brazil Reader, edited by Robert M. Levine and John J. Crocitti. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
    Gonzales, Michael J. The Mexican Revolution, 1910–1940. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2002.
    _______. “Neo-colonialism and Indian Unrest in Southern Peru, 1867–1898.Latin American Research 6, no. 1 (1987): 126.
    Goodhand, Jonathan. Aiding Peace? The Role of NGOS in Armed Conflict. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2006.
    Goodsell, James Nelson. “‘Viet War’ Growing in Argentina.The Baltimore Sun, January 18, 1976.
    Goodson, Larry P. Afghanistan’s Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.
    Gopal, Anand, Mansur Khan Mahsud, and Brian Fishman. “The Taliban in North Waziristan.” In Talibanistan: Negotiating the Borders Between Terror, Politics, and Religion, edited by Peter Bergen and Katherine Tiedemann, 12863. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
    Gopcevic, Spiridion. Le Monténégro et les Monténégrins. Paris, France: Octare Doin, 1877.
    Goria, Wade R. Sovereignty and Leadership in Lebanon 1943–1976. London: Ithaca Press, 1985.
    Górka, Olgierd. Outline of Polish History, Past and Present. London: M. I. Kolin, Ltd., 1942.
    Gorleri, Claudio Morales. Luis María Campos: “El General Petit.” Buenos Aires, Argentina: Edivérn S. R. L., 2003.
    Gorman, John. “Bulldog’s Bite.” In Sea Classics 35, no. 1 (January 2002).
    Gosman, Keith. “Fear for Children in PNG Blockade.Sun Herald (Sydney), December 1, 1991, 29.
    Goss, Jon. “Understanding the “Maluku Wars:” Overview of Sources of Communal Conflict and Prospects for Peace.Cakalele: Maluku Research Journal 11 (2000): 739.
    Graham, Richard. Patronage and Politics in Nineteenth-century Brazil. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1990.
    Gramizzi, Claudio, and Jérôme Tubiana. New War, Old Enemies: Conflict Dynamics in South Kordofan. Geneva, Switzerland: Small Arms Survey, 2013.
    Grant, Jonathan, Jonathan Unger, and Laurane A. G. Moss, eds. Cambodia: The Widening War in Indochina. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1970.
    Grasso, June, Jay Corrin, and Michael Kort. Modernization and Revolution in China. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1997.
    Grau, Lester. “Breaking Contact Without Leaving Chaos: The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan.Journal of Slavic Military Studies 20, no. 2 (2007): 23561.
    Gray, Jack. Rebellions and Revolutions: China from the 1800s to the 1980s. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Green, Stanley C. The Mexican Republic: The First Decade, 1823–1832. Pittsburgh, PA: Pittsburgh University Press, 1987.
    Greenfield, Richard. Ethiopia, a New Political History. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965.
    Greenlees, Don. “Army Wants to Crush Stricken Aceh Rebels.The Weekend Australian, July 13, 2002.
    Greentree, Todd. Crossroads of Intervention: Insurgency and Counterinsurgency Lessons from Central America. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008.
    Greenwood, Christopher. “The Concept of War in Modern International Law.International and Comparative Law Quarterly 36, no. 2 (1987): 283306.
    Gregorian, Vartan. The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1969.
    Gregory, John S. “British Intervention against the Taiping Rebellion.Journal of Asian Studies 19 (November 1959): 1124.
    Grenier, Yvonne. “Understanding the FMLN: A Glossary of Five Words.Conflict Quarterly XI, no. 2 (1991): 5175.
    Gross, Liza. Handbook of Leftist Guerrilla Groups in Latin America and the Caribbean. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
    Grubel, James. “More PNG Troops Land on Island.The Advertiser, May 21, 1992.
    Grunwald, Constantin de. Tsar Nicholas I. Translated by Brigit Patmore. New York: Macmillan, 1955.
    Grynspan, Dévora. “Nicaragua: A New Model for Popular Revolution in Latin America.” In Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century, edited by Jack A. Goldstone, Ted Robert Gurr, and Farrokh Moshiri, 88115. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
    Guan, Ang Chen. The Vietnam War from the Other Side: The Vietnamese Communists’ Perspective. London: Routledge Curzon, 2002.
    Guáqueta, Alexandra. “The Colombian Conflict: Political and Economic Dimensions.” In The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance, edited by Karen Ballentine and Jake Sherman, 73106. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
    Guarak, Mawut Achiecque Mach. Integration and Fragmentation of the Sudan: An African Renaissance. Bloomington, IL: AuthorHouse, 2011.
    Guatemalan Guerrillas Admit They Are Retreating.United Press International, April 15, 1983.
    Güell y Mercader, José. Guzmán Blanco y Su Tiempo. Caracas, Venezuela: Imprenta de “La Opinion Nacional,” 1883.
    Guevara, Che. Guerrilla Warfare. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985.
    Guha-Sapir, Debarati, and Olivier Degomme. Darfur: Counting the Deaths. Brussels, Belgium: Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 2005.
    Guillermaz, J.The Nanchang Uprising.The China Quarterly 11 (July–September 1962): 16068.
    Gukiina, Peter M. Uganda: A Case Study in African Political Development. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1972.
    Gunaratna, Rohan. “Burning Bright.Himal (April 1999). http://old.himalmag.com/himal-feed/53/2217-Burning-bright.html.
    _______. Sri Lanka, a Lost Revolution? The Inside Story of the JVP. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Institute of Fundamental Studies, 2001.
    _______. Sri Lanka’s Ethnic Crisis and National Security. Colombo, Sri Lanka: South Asian Network on Conflict Research, 1998.
    Gunson, Phil, Greg Chamberlain, and Andrew Thompson. The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of Central America and the Caribbean. New York: Routledge, 1991.
    Gunter, Michael M. “The KDP-PUK Conflict in Northern Iraq.Middle East Journal 50, no. 2 (Spring 1996): 22541.
    _______. “The Kurds Struggle for ‘Kurdistan.’” In Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts, edited by Joseph R. Rudolph. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
    Gurr, Ted Robert. Minorities at Risk: A Global View of Ethnopolitical Conflict. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1993.
    Gurr, Ted Robert, and Barbara Harff. Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
    Gvosdev, Nikolas K. Imperial Policies and Perspectives towards Georgia, 1760–1819. Oxford, UK: St. Antony’s College, 2000.
    Haber, Stephen, Armando Razo, and Noel Maurer. The Politics of Property Rights: Political Instability, Credible Commitments, and Economic Growth in Mexico, 1876–1929. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    Habib, John S. Ibn Sa’uds Warriors of Islam. Leiden, Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1978.
    Haddad, George M. Part I: Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Jordan. Vol. II of Revolution and Military Rule in the Middle East: The Arab States. New York: Robert Speller and Sons, 1971.
    Hadid, Diaa, and Bassem Mroue. “West-backed Syria Rebels Shaken on Multiple Fronts.Tulsa World, November 15, 2014.
    Hadžiselimovic’, Omer. At the Gates of the East: British Travel Writers on Bosnia and Hercegovina from the Sixteenth to the Twentieth Centuries. Boulder, CO: East European Monographs, 2001.
    Hafez, Mohammed M. Why Muslims Rebel: Repression and Resistance in the Islamic World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
    Hafizullah, Emadi. “The Hazaras and Their Role in the Process of Political Transformation in Afghanistan.Central Asian Survey 16, no. 3 (1997): 36387.
    Haglund, David G., and Allen Sens. “Kosovo and the Case of the (Not So) Free Riders: Portugal, Belgium, Canada, and Spain.” In Kosovo and the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur. New York: United Nations University Press, 2000.
    Halaf, Samir. Civil and Uncivil Violence in Lebanon: A History of the Internationalization of Communal Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
    Hale, Charles R. Resistance and Contradiction: Miskitu Indians and the Nicaraguan State, 1894–1987. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996.
    Haley, Edward P., and Lewis W. Snider, eds. Lebanon Crisis. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1979.
    Hall, D. G. E. A History of South-East Asia,
    4th ed
    . New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1981.
    Hall, John Whitney. Japan: From Prehistory to Modern Times. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1968.
    Hall, Richard Andrew. “Theories of Collective Action and Revolution: Evidence from the Romanian Transition of December 1989.” Europe–Asia Studies 52, no. 6 (September 2000): 106993.
    Halleck, Henry Wager. Elements of International Law and Laws of War. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1885.
    Hallenbeck, Ralph A. Military Force as an Instrument of US Foreign Policy: Intervention in Lebanon, August 1982–February 1984. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    Hamilton, Richard E.German Revolution (1918).” The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions, edited by Jack A. Goldstone. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1998.
    Hamilton-Merritt, Jane. Tragic Mountains: The Hmong, the Americans, and the Secret War for Laos, 1942–1992. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1992.
    Hammer, Kenneth M. “Huks in the Philippines.” In Modern Guerrilla Warfare, edited by F. Osanka. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, 1962.
    Hamnett, Brian. A Concise History of Mexico. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    _______. “Mexican Conservatives, Clericals, and Soldiers: The ‘Traitor’ Tomás Mejía through Reform and Empire, 1855–1867.Bulletin of Latin American Research 20, no. 2 (2001): 187209.
    Hancock, Anson Uriel. A History of Chile. Chicago, IL: Charles H. Sergel and Co., 1893.
    _______. A History of Chile. Indiana: Repressed Publishing, 2014.
    Handy, Jum. Revolution in the Countryside: Rural Conflict and Agrarian Reform in Guatemala, 1944–1954. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994.
    Hannum, Hurst. Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
    Hansis, Randall. “The Political Strategy of Military Reform: Álvaro Obregón and Revolutionary Mexico, 1920–1924.” The Americas 36, no. 2 (1979): 199233.
    Hara, Fabienne. “Hallow Peace Hopes in Shattered Congo.International Crisis Group: D.R. Congo, July 7, 2002. http://www.crisisweb.org/projects/showreport.cfm?reportid=695.
    Harbottle, Thomas Benfield, and George Bruce. Dictionary of Battles. New York: Stein and Day, 1971.
    Harcave, Sidney. The Russian Revolution of 1905. London: Collier-Macmillan, 1964.
    Harden, Blaine. “Africa’s Diamond Wars.New York Times (Outlook), 2001. http://www.nytimes.com/library/world/africa.
    Harding, Harry. “The Chinese State in Crisis: 1966–9.” In The Politics of China,
    2nd ed
    ., edited by Roderick MacFarquhar, 148247. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
    Harff, Barbara. “Cambodia: Revolution, Genocide, Intervention.” In Revolutions of the Late Twentieth Century, edited by Jack A. Goldstone, Ted Robert Gurr, and Farrokh Moshiri, 21834. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
    Harik, Iliya. Politics and Change in a Traditional Society: Lebanon, 1711–1845. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1968.
    Harmer, Tanya. Allende’s Chile and the Inter-American Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2011.
    Harnisch, Chris. “Operation Briefer: The Upcoming Battle for Mogadishu.AEI: Critical Threats. April 1, 2010. http://www.criticalthreats.org.
    Harris, David. A Diplomatic History of the Balkan Crisis of 1875–1878: The First Year. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1936.
    Harris, Mark. Rebellion on the Amazon: The Cabanagem, Race, and Popular Culture in the North of Brazil, 1798–1840. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
    Harris, Walter B. France, Spain, and the Rif. London: Arnold, 1927.
    _______. A Journey through the Yemen. London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1893.
    Harris, William W. Faces of Lebanon: Sects, Wars, and Global Extensions. Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener, 1997.
    _______. Lebanon: A History, 600–2011. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
    Harrison, Selig S. In Afghanistan’s Shadow: Baluch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations. New York: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1981.
    Hart, John Mason. Empire and Revolution: The Americans in Mexico since the Civil War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.
    Hartsock, E. H. The Air Force in Southeast Asia: The End of the US Involvement, 1973–1975. Arlington, VA: Office of Air Force History, Headquarters USAF, 1980. http://www.affiso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-110323–032.pdf.
    Hartzell, Caroline. “The Role of an Implementation Regime in Nicaragua.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild, and Elizabeth M. Cousens, 35382. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
    Harvey, Barbara Sillers. Permesta: Half a Rebellion. Monograph series—Publication No. 57. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1977.
    _______. Tradition, Islam, and Rebellion: South Sulawesi, 1950–1965. New York: Cornell University, Department of Political Science, 1974.
    Has Fortified Position.Montreal Gazette, December 4, 1923, 17.
    Hasbrouck, Alfred. “The Argentine Revolution of 1930.Hispanic American Historical Review 18 (August 1938): 285321.
    _______. “The Conquest of the Desert.Hispanic Historical Review 15, no. 2 (May 1935): 195228.
    Hashim, Ahmed S. When Counterinsurgency Wins: Sri Lanka’s Defeat of the Tamil Tigers. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.
    Hasnat, Syed Farooq. Global Security WatchPakistan. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2011.
    Hazard, Samuel. Santo Domingo, Past and Present; With a Glance at Hayti. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1873.
    Headley, P. C. The Life of Louis Kossuth. Auburn, NY: Derby and Miller, 1852.
    Heard, Isaac V. D. History of the Sioux War and Massacres of 1862 and 1863. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1864.
    Hearder, H., and P. Waley. A Short History of Italy: From Classical Times to the Present Day. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1963.
    Hearder, Harry. Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento 1790–1870. New York: Routledge, 2014.
    Heath, Ian, and Michael Perry. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851–66. London: Osprey, 1994.
    Heaton, William R., and Richard MacLeod. “People’s War in Thailand.” In Insurgency in the Modern World, edited by Bard E. O’Neill, William R. Heaton, and Donald J. Alberts. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1980.
    Heflin, Jean. Unpublished notes about major power conflicts, memo to R. C. North, January 19, 1970.
    Hehn, Paul. “Capitalism and the Revolutionary Factor in the Balkans and Crimean War Diplomacy.East European Quarterly XVIII, no. 2 (June 1984): 15584.
    Heidler, David S., and Jeanne T. Heidler. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War, a Political, Social, and Military History. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 2000.
    Heinl, Robert Debs, and Nancy Gordon Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People 1492–1971. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978.
    Heinl, Michael, Nancy Gordon Heinl, and Michael Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People 1492–1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996.
    _______. Written in Blood.: The Story of the Haitian People 1492–1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005.
    Helg, Aline. Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886–1912. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
    Hellenic Resources Network. “Summary Data.February 24, 2006. http://www.hri.org/docs/nato/summary.html.
    Henao, Jesus Maria, and Gerardo Arrubla. Historia de Colombia. Tomo 2. Bogota, Colombia: Plaza & Jones, 1910. Originally published 1984.
    _______. History of Colombia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1938.
    Henderson, Errol A. Democracy and War: The End of an Illusion. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2002.
    Henderson, Errol, and J. David Singer. “New Wars and Rumors of New Wars.International Interactions 28 (2002): 16590.
    Henderson, James D. When Columbia Bled: A History of the Violencia in Tolima. University: University of Alabama Press, 1985.
    Henderson, Timothy J. The Worm in the Wheat: Rosalie Evans and Agrarian Struggle in the Puebla–Tlaxcala Valley of Mexico, 1906–1927. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.
    Hentea, Calin. Brief Romanian History. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2007.
    Henze, Paul. Rebels and Separatists in Ethiopia. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation, 1985.
    Herr, Michael. Dispatches. New York: Knopf, 1977.
    Herring, George. America’s Longest War. New York: Wiley, 1979.
    Herring, Hubert. A History of Latin America from the Beginnings to the Present. New York: Knopf, 1966.
    Hewitt, Vernon. “Ethnic Construction, Provincial Identity, and Nationalism in Pakistan: The Case of Baluchistan.” In Subnational Movements in South Asia, edited by Subrata K. Mitra and R. Alison Lewis, 4367. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1996.
    Hey, Hilda. Gross Human Rights Violations: A Search for Causes. The Hague, Netherlands: Kluwer Law International, 1995.
    Hicks, Elahé Sharifpour, and Neil Hicks. “The Human Rights of Kurds and the Islamic Republic of Iran.” In Kurdish Identity: Human Rights and Political Status, edited by Charles MacDonald and Carole O’Leary, 20112. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007.
    Higgins, Noelle. Regulating the Use of Force in Wars of National Liberation: The Need for a New Regime. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2010.
    Higgonet, Etelle, and Marcie Mersky. Quiet Genocide: Guatemala 1981–1983. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2009.
    Higham, Robin, ed. Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
    Hill, Richard Leslie. On the Frontiers of Islam: Two Manuscripts concerning the Sudan under Turco-Egyptian Rule, 1822–1841. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1970.
    Hillman, James. A Terrible Love of War. New York: Penguin Press, 2004.
    Hiro, Dilip. Apocalyptic Realm: Jihadists in South Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2001b.
    _______. Apocalyptic Realm: Jihadists in South Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2011.
    _______. The Essential Middle East: A Comprehensive Guide. New York: Basic Books, 2003.
    _______. Iran under the Ayatollahs. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
    _______. Lebanon: Fire and Embers. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1993.
    _______. The Middle East. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1996.
    _______. Neighbors, Not Friends: Iraq and Iran after the Gulf Wars. London: Routledge, 2001a.
    Hitchens, Keith. Rumania, 1866–1947. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1994.
    Hitti, Philip Khuri. A History of the Arabs. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1970.
    _______. Lebanon in History from the Earliest Times to the Present. London: Macmillan, 1962.
    Ho, Ping-ti. Studies on the Population of China, 1368–1953. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1959.
    Hobbes, Thomas. Leviathan. Rev. student ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Originally published 1651.
    Hodges, Donald C. The Legacy of Che Guevara: A Documentary Study. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977.
    Hoensch, Jörg K. A History of Modern Hungary, 1867–1994. London: Longman, 1996.
    Holsti, Kalevi J. The State, War, and the State of War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    Holt, Edgar. The Carlist Wars in Spain. Chester Springs, PA: Dufour Editions, 1967.
    Holt, P. M. The Mahdist State in the Sudan, 1881–1898. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1958.
    _______. A Modern History of the Sudan, from the Funj Sultanate to the Present Day. New York: Grove Press, 1961.
    Holt, P. M., and M. W. Daly. The History of the Sudan from the Coming of Islam to the Present Day.
    3rd ed
    . London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1979.
    _______. The History of the Sudan from the Coming of Islam to the Present Day.
    5th ed
    . Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education, 2000.
    Holub, Norman. “The Brazilian Sabinada (1837–38) Revolt of the Negro Masses.” The Journal of Negro History 54, no. 3 (1969): 27583.
    Home Office. “Burundi Country Report.Country Information and Policy Unit (April 2004).
    Honey, Martha. Hostile Acts: U.S. Policy in Costa Rica in the 1980s. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.
    Hoole, Francis W., and Dina A. Zinnes, eds. Quantitative International Politics. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1976.
    Horam, M. Naga Insurgency: The Last Thirty Years. New Delhi, IN: Cosmo Publications, 1988.
    Hordynski, Joseph. History of the Late Polish Revolution. Boston, MA: Carter and Hendle, 1832.
    Horne, Alastair. A Savage War of Peace. New York: Viking Press, 1977.
    Horton, Lynn. Peasants in Arms: War and Peace in the Mountains of Nicaragua, 1979–1994. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1998.
    Hösch, Edgar. The Balkans. New York: Crane, Russak & Company, 1972.
    Hoskyns, Catherine. The Congo since Independence, January 1960–December 1961. London: Oxford University Press, 1965.
    Howard, Douglas A. The History of Turkey. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
    Howe, Herbert. “Lessons of Liberia: ECOMOG and Regional Peacekeeping.” In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, edited by Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.
    Hozier, Henry Montague. The Russo-Turkish War. 2 vols. London: W. Mackenzie, 1878.
    Hsüan-chih, Tsai. The Red Spears, 1916–1949. Translated by Ronald Suleski. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Center for Chinese Studies, 1985.
    Hsüeh, Chün-tu. Huanh Hsing and the Chinese Revolution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1961.
    Hubbard, Ben. “Syrian Rebels Eject Qaeda Extremists.International New York Times, January 10, 2014, 4.
    Hu-DeHart, Evelyn. Yaqui Resistance and Survival: The Struggle for Land and Autonomy, 1821–1920. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984.
    Hudson, Miles. Intervention in Russia 1918–1920: A Cautionary Tale. South Yorkshire, UK: Leo Cooper, 2004.
    Hudson, Rex A. Brazil a Country Study. Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1997.
    Human Rights Watch. “Abducted and Abused: Renewed Conflict in Northern Uganda.Human Rights Watch 15, no. 12(A) (July 2003b).
    _______. “Afghanistan: Crisis of Impunity.Human Rights Watch 13, no. 3 (July 2001a).
    _______. Angola: Arms Trade and Violations of the Laws of War since the 1992 Elections. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1994a.
    _______. Angola: Violations of the Laws of War by Both Sides. New York: Human Rights Watch, April 1989b.
    _______. “Annual Report 1989, Guatemala. 1989a. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1989/WR89/Guatemala.htm.
    _______. “Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign. 2000a. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2000/nato/natbm200–01.htm.
    _______. “Human Rights Abuses by the Liberian Peace Council and the Need for International Oversight,Reports 6, no. 3 (May 17, 1994c).
    _______. “Hundreds of Lives Lost on Ivory Coast Amidst Slow International Response. March 25, 2011. http://www.hrw.org/news/2022/03/25.
    _______. “Indonesia: Aceh under Martial Law: Inside the Secret War.Human Rights Watch 15, no 10(C) (December 2003b).
    _______. Indonesia: The May 3, 1999 Killings in Aceh. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999. http://www.hrw.org/legacy/campaigns/indonesia/aceh0515.htm.
    _______. “Ituri: Bloodiest Corner of Congo. 2003a. http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/congo/ituri/ituri.htm.
    _______. “Pentagon Report Whitewashes Civilian Deaths in Yugoslavia.” In HRW World Report. 2000b. http://www.hrw.org/press/2000.
    _______. “Rwanda, Observing the Rules of War?Human Rights Watch 13, no. 8 (December 2001b).
    _______. “Somalia, Human Developments. 1994b. www.hrw.org/reports/1994.
    _______. “Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo—2. Background. 2001c. http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/kosovo/underword-01.htm.
    _______. “Waging War to Keep the Peace: The ECOMOG Intervention and Human Rights,” Reports 5, no. 6 (June 1993). http://www.hrw.org.reports/1993/liberia.
    Human Security Centre. Human Security Report 2005: War and Peace in the 21st Century. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2005.
    Human Security Project. Human Security Report 2009/2010. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011.
    Hume, Martin A. S. Modern Spain, 1788–1898. London: Putnam, 1900.
    Hunt, Jeffrey William. The Last Battle of the Civil War: Palmetto Ranch. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2002.
    Hunt, Steve. “Rethinking a Model for Peace in Guatemala.Reports, Science from the Developing World (September 20, 2002).
    Huntington, Samuel. “Patterns of Violence in World Politics.” In Changing Patterns of Military Politics, edited by Samuel Huntington. New York: Free Press, 1962.
    Hupchick, Dennis P. The Balkans: From Constantinople to Communism. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
    Hupchick, Dennis, and Harold Cox. The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of Eastern Europe. Rev. and upd. ed. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
    Hurst, Christopher O.Pakistan’s Ethnic Divide.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 19 (1996): 17998.
    Hussain, Rizwan. Pakistan and the Emergence of Islamic Militancy in Afghanistan. Hampshire, UK: Ashgate, 2005.
    Hussein, Tahiri. Structure of Kurdish Society and the Struggle for a Kurdish State. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2007.
    Hutchful, Eboe. “The ECOMOG Experience with Peacekeeping in West Africa.Wither Peacekeeping in Africa? Monograph No. 36, April 1999.
    Hutchinson, Sharon E.A Curse from God? Religious and Political Dimensions of the Post-1991 Rise of Ethnic Violence in South Sudan.The Journal of Modern African Studies 39, no. 4 (2001): 30731.
    Hutt, Michael. “Introduction.” In Himalayan People’s War: Nepal’s Maoist Rebellion, edited by Michael Hutt, 120. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
    Hydrick, Blair, and Barbara Brown. A Guide to the Microfilm Edition of Confidential US State Department Central Files: Laos, 1960–January 1963. Bethesda, MD: Lexis-Nexis, 2003.
    Hylton, Forrest. Evil Hour in Colombia. London: Verso, 2006.
    Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. Chad: Leadership of the United Front for Democratic Change (Front uni pour le changement, FUC) in 2005–2006.April 29, 2009. http://www.refWorld.org/docid/4b20i02e3c.html.
    _______. “The Movement for Democracy and Justice in Chad (MDJT).December 1999. http://www.ecoi.net/local_link/196298/314974_de.html.
    The Implications of the Iran–Iraq Agreement.” Joint Intelligence Analysis by the U.S. State Department, CIA, and DIA. May 1, 1975. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB167/01.pdf.
    Inbaraj, Sonny. East Timor: Blood and Tears in ASEAN. Rev. ed. Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 1997.
    Independent International Commission on Kosovo. The Kosovo Report. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Indonesia Denies 1,000 Killed.The Canberra Times, March 17, 1967, 5.
    Indonesia’s Indigesation Troubles.Cairns Post, June 12, 1954, 9.
    Indonesian Army Fighting Terrorists in Java.The West Australian (Perth), March 21, 1952, 4.
    Indonesians Hunt Rebel Irian Chief.The Canberra Times, August 27, 1966, 3.
    Indonesians Hunt West Irian Rebels.The Canberra Times, December 5, 1968, 2.
    Ingram, Doreen, and Leila Ingram, eds. Records of Yemen, 1798–1960. Vols. 4–5. 1993.
    Ingrams, Harold. The Yemen. London: John Murray, 1963.
    INS Resource Information Center. “Somalia, Things Fall Apart.” In Alert Series. Department of Justice, January 1993.
    Insurgents Crushed, Ben Bella Reports.Dallas Morning News, December 12, 1962, 16.
    Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN). “Yemen: The Conflict in Saada Governorate—Analysis.2008. http://www.refworld.org/docid/488f180d1e.html.
    International Crisis Group. “Aceh: A Slim Chance for Peace.Indonesia Briefing (March 27, 2002a): 115.
    _______. “The Burundi Rebellion and the Ceasefire Negotiations.Africa Briefing (August 6, 2002c).
    _______. “Central African Republic: Better Late Than Never.Africa Briefing 96 (December 2, 2013a).
    _______. “CrisisWatch Database: Central African Republic.2012–2014. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/crisiswatch.aspx.
    _______. “CrisisWatch Database: Nigeria,2011–2015. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/crisiswatch.aspx.
    _______. “A Critical Period for Ensuring Stability in Côte d’Ivoire.Africa Report, 176 (August 1, 2011).
    _______. “Curbing Violence in Nigeria (II): The Boko Haram Insurgency.Africa Report 216 (April 4, 2014).
    _______. “Ethiopia: Ethnic Federalism and Its Discontents.Africa Report 153 (September 3, 2009).
    _______. “Guinea: Reforming the Army.Africa Report 164 (September 23, 2010a).
    _______. “Liberia Unravelling.August 2002b. http://www.crisisweb.org/projects.
    _______. “Northern Nigeria: Background to Conflict.Africa Report 168 (December 20, 2010b).
    _______. “Rwanda/Uganda: A Dangerous War of Nerves.Africa Briefing (December 21, 2001): 115.
    _______. “Sudan’s Spreading Conflict (I): War in South Kordofan.Africa Report 198 (February 14, 2013c). http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/sudan/198-sudans-spreading-conflict-i-war-in-south-kordofan.pdf.
    _______. “Sudan’s Spreading Conflict (II): War in Blue Nile.Africa Report 204 (June 18, 2013d). http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/africa/horn-of-africa/sudan/204-sudans-spreading-conflict-ii-war-in-blue-nile.
    _______. “A Tentative Peace in Myanmar’s Kachin Conflict.Crisis Group Asia Briefing 140 (June 12, 2013b). http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-east-asia/burma-myanmar/b140-a-tentative-peace-in-myanmars-kachin-conflict.pdf.
    International Institute for Strategic Studies. “International Terrorism.Armed Conflict Database, 2003. http://acd/iiss.org/armedconflict.
    _______. “Sri Lanka (LTTE)” Armed Conflict Database, 2006. http://acd/iiss.org/armedconflict.
    International Rescue Committee. “The IRC in Democratic Republic of Congo.December 2004. http://www.theirc.org/drc.
    _______. “Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: An Ongoing Crisis. 2008.
    Iorio, Anthonty di. “Italy and Rumania in 1914: The Italian Assessment of the Rumanian Situation, 1907 to 1914.” In Rumanian Studies, an International Annual of the Humanities and Social Sciences, 1976–1979, vol. IV, edited by Keith Hitchens. Leiden, the Netherlands: E. J. Brill, 1979.
    IPS—Inter-Press Service. “Guatemala: Government, Army Spurn Rebel Offer to Dialogue. January 26, 1990.
    Iralu, Kaka D. The Naga Saga. 3rd ed. Kohima, India: ACLS Offset Press, 2009.
    Iraq Body Count. “Iraq 2014: Civilian Deaths Almost Doubling Year on Year. 2015. https://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2014/.
    _______. “Iraqi Deaths from Violence 2003–2011.2012. http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2011/.
    _______. “Iraqi Deaths from Violence in 2010. 2010. http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2010/.
    _______. “Iraqi Deaths from Violence in 2012. 2013. http://www.iraqbodycount.org/analysis/numbers/2012/.
    IRIN (Integrated Regional Information Networks). “Burundi: IRIN Focus on Rebel Movements. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, November 2001.
    _______. “DRC: Ituri Conflict Linked to Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, September 3, 2004.
    _______. “DRC: Who’s Who in Ituri–Militia Organizations, Leaders UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, April 29, 2005.
    _______. “West Africa Update 224.UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, June 6–8, 1998.
    IRIN News Reports. Multiple stories 1999–2013. http://www.irinnews.org/reports.
    Irwin, Domingo, and Ingrid Micett. Caudillos, Militares y Poder: Una Historia del Pretorianismo en Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, 2008.
    Isaacs, Arnold R., Gordon Handy, Macalister Brown, and the Editors of Boston Publishing Company. Pawns of War: Cambodia and Laos. Boston, MA: Boston Publishing Company, 1987.
    Isaacs, Harold R. The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1961.
    ISIL Says It Faces War with Nusra in Syria.Al Jazeera, March 8, 2014. http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2014/03/isil-says-it-faces-war-with-nusra-syria-20143 719484991740.html.
    ISIS Attack on Northern Syria Continues—Turkish Daily.BBC Monitoring Europe—Political. July 14, 2014.
    ISIS, Islamist Rebels Clash over Eastern Oil Fields.The Daily Star (Lebanon), March 28, 2014.
    Islamic State Faces War of Attrition in Syria Border Town.Al-Arab, November 15, 2014.
    Ismael, Tareq Y., and Jacqueline S. Ismael. PRD Yemen, Politics, Economic, and Society. London: Frances Pinter, 1986.
    Iyob, Ruth, and Gilbert M. Khadiagala. Sudan, the Elusive Quest for Peace. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2006.
    Jack, Freeman. “The al Houthi Insurgency in the North of Yemen: An Analysis of the Shabab al Moumineen.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 32, no. 11 (2009): 100819.
    Jackson, Karl D. Traditional Authority, Islam, and Rebellion: A Study of Indonesian Political Behavior. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980.
    Jackson, Paul. “Legacy of Bitterness: Insurgency in North West Rwanda.Small Wars and Insurgencies 15, no. 1 (Spring 2004): 1937.
    _______. “The March of the Lord’s Resistance Army: Greed or Grievance in Northern Uganda?Small Wars and Insurgencies 13, no. 3 (Autumn 2002): 2952.
    Jackson, Richard. “Critical Perspectives.” In The Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, edited by Edward Newman and Karl DeRouen, Jr., 7990. London: Routledge, 2014.
    Jackson, Wanda Faye. The Diplomatic Relationship Between the United States and Haiti 1862–1900. PhD diss., University of Kentucky, Department of History, 1999.
    Jacques, Tony, ed. Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first Century. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
    Jae-gen, Cho. “The Connection of the Sino-Japanese War to the Peasant War of 1894.Korea Journal 34, no. 4 (1994): 4558.
    Jakarta Adds to Amboina Force.New York Times, October 30, 1950, 2.
    Jakarta Battles North’s Rebel Reign of Terror.Sunday Herald Sun (Melbourne), July 29, 1990.
    Jamal, Ahmed Abdullah. “Mukti Bahini and the Liberation War of Bangladesh: A Review of Conflicting Views.Asian Affairs 30, no. 4 (2008): 517.
    Jamal, Arif. Shadow War: The Untold Story of Jihad in Kashmir. Brooklyn, NY: Melville House, 2009.
    James, W. Martin, III. A Political History of the Civil War in Angola. Rev. ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2011.
    Jane’s Defense. “Kosovo: Background to Crisis (March 1999).1999. http://www.janes.com/defence/news/kosovo/misc990301_03_n.shtml.
    Jankauskiene, Edita. “Chapter 4, the 1944–1953 Lithuanian Partisan War with the Soviet Union.” In Wars of Lithuania, a Systematic Quantitative Analysis of Lithuania’s Wars in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, edited by Gediminas Vitkus. Vilnius, Lithuania: EUGRIMAS, 2014.
    Jansen, Marius B. The Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2000.
    _______. “The Meiji Restoration.” In The Emergence of Meiji Japan, edited by Marius B. Jansen, 144202. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
    Jansz, Frederica. “Haunting Memories of the JVP that Linger.The Sunday Leader (Colombo, Sri Lanka) 36, no. 10 (March 21, 2004). http://www.thesundayleader.lk/archive/20040321/spotlight.htm.
    Jaques, Tony. Battles and Sieges: A Guide to 8,500 Battles from Antiquity through the Twenty-first Century. Vols. 1–3. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2007.
    Jasci, Oscar. Revolution and Counter-revolution in Hungary. New York: Howard Fertig, 1969.
    Jawad, Sa’ad. Iraq & the Kurdish Question 1958–1970. London: Ithaca Press, 1981.
    Jeffrey, William H. Mitre and Argentina. New York: Library Publishers, 1952.
    Jelavich, Barbara. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
    Jelavich, Charles, and Barbara Jelavich. The Establishment of the Balkan National States, 1804–1920. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1977.
    Jen Yu-Wen. The Taiping Revolutionary Movement. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973.
    Jendia, Catherine. The Sudanese Civil Conflict: 1969–1985. New York: Peter Long, 2002.
    Jenks, Robert D. Insurgency and Social Disorder in Guizhou: The “Miao” Rebellion, 1854–1873. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.
    Jensen, Amy Elizabeth. Guatemala. New York: Exposition, 1955.
    _______. The Makers of Mexico. Philadelphia, PA: Dorrance, 1953.
    Jochmus, Augustus. The Syrian War and the Decline of the Ottoman Empire. 2 vols. Berlin, Germany: Albert Cohn, 1883.
    Joes, Anthony. Victorious Insurgencies: Four Rebellions That Shaped Our World. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010.
    Joffé, George. “National Reconciliation and General Amnesty in Algeria.Mediterranean Politics 13 no. 2 (2008): 21328.
    Johnson, Donald. The Northern Expedition. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1976.
    Johnson, Douglas H. The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars. Oxford, UK: James Currey, 2003.
    _______. The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004.
    Johnson, Douglas H., and Gerard Prunier. “The Foundation and Expansion of the Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Army.” In Civil War in the Sudan, edited by M.W. Daly and Ahmad Alawad Sikainga, 11741. London: British Academic Press, 1993.
    Johnson, Robert. The Afghan Way of War: How and Why They Fight. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011.
    Johnson, Thomas H. “Ismail Khan, Herat, and Iranian Influence.Strategic Insights 3, no. 7 (2004). http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA485209.
    Johnston, Katie A. “Transformations of Conflict Status in Libya.Journal of Conflict and Security Law 17 no. 1 (2012): 81115.
    Jok, Jok Madutm, and Sharon Elaine Hutchinson. “Sudan’s Prolonged Second Civil War and the Militarization of Nuer and Dinka Ethnic Identities.African Studies Review 42, no. 2 (1999): 12545.
    Jolliffe, Jill. “Timor: Resistance Goes On.The Canberra Times, May 23, 1980, 7.
    Jonas, Susanne. The Battle for Guatemala, Rebels, Death Squads, and US Power. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
    _______. “Dangerous Liaisons: The US in Guatemala.Foreign Policy 103 (Summer 1996): 144+.
    _______. Of Centaurs and Doves: Guatemala’s Peace Process. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
    Jones, Adam. “Kosovo: Orders of Magnitude.IDEA–A Journal of Social Issues 5, no. 1 (2000). http://www.ideajournal.com/articles.php?Id=24.
    Jones, Daniel M., Stuart A. Bremer, and J. David Singer. “Militarized Interstate Disputes, 1816–1992: Rationale, Coding Rules, and Empirical Patterns.Conflict Management and Peace Science 15, no. 2 (1996): 163213.
    Jones, Gregg R. Red Revolution: Inside the Philippine Guerilla Movement. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1989.
    Jones, Seth G., and Christine Fair. Counterinsurgency in Pakistan. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2010.
    Jonson, Lena. Tajikistan in the New Central Asia: Geopolitics, Great Power Rivalry and Radical Islam. London: I. B. Tauris, 2006.
    Jordan, Karl G. Der Aegyptisch-Turkische Krieg, 1839. Zurich, Germany: Borsig, 1923.
    Joshi, Manoj. The Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books India, 1999.
    Jowett, Philip, and Stephen Andrew. Chinese Civil War Armies 1911–1949. Oxford, UK: Osprey, 1997.
    Juan Cristosomo Falcon.” n.d. http://www.efemeridesvenezolanas.com/html/falcon.htm.
    Juba-Based Observer. “The Military Dynamics of South Sudan’s Civil War.Enough Forum. July 21, 2014. http://www.enoughproject.org/reports/enough-forum-military-dynamics-south-sudan%E2%80%99s-civil-war.
    Judah, Tim. Kosovo: War and Revenge. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
    Jung, Harald. “Behind the Nicaraguan Revolution.” In Revolution in Central America, edited by Stanford Central America Action Network. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983.
    Jurado, Carlos Caballero, and Nigel Thomas. Central American Wars 1959–89. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, 1990.
    Jurado, Jonni Alexander Giraldo. La Guerra Civil de 1860 en el Estado de Antioquia. Medellin, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 2003. http://biblioteca-virtual-antioquia.udea.edu.co/pdf/11/11_604352368.pdf.
    Jureidini, Paul A., R. D. McLaurin, and James M. Price. Military Operations in Selected Lebanese Built-Up Areas, 1975–1978. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD: US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, 1979.
    Jwaideh, Wadie. “The Kurdish Nationalist Movement: Its Origins and Development.” PhD diss., Syracuse University, Political Science, International Law and Relations, 1960.
    Kagan, Robert. A Twilight Struggle: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977–1990. New York: Free Press, 1996.
    Kahin, Audrey R., and George McTuman Kahin. Rebellion to Integration: West Sumatra and the Indonesian Polity. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press, 1999.
    _______. Subversion as Foreign Policy: The Secret Eisenhower and Dulles Debacle in Indonesia. New York: New Press, 1995.
    Kahin, George. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952.
    Kahin, George, and John Lewis. The United States in Vietnam. New York: Dial, 1969.
    Kaiser, Daniel R. “The Regional Response to the Crisis in Colombia.Master’s thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 2003.
    Kaldor, Mary. New and Old Wars. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
    Kallendar, George. Tonghak Heterodoxy and Early Modern Korea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2013.
    Kalyvas, Stathis N. The Logic of Violence in Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
    Kant, Immanuel. The Metaphysics of Morals. Translated by Mary Gregor. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Originally published 1797.
    _______. Perpetual Peace and Other Essays. Translated by Ted Humphrey. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1983. Originally published 1795.
    Kaplonski, Christopher. “Resorting to Violence: Technologies of Exception, Contingent States and the Repression of Buddhist Lamas in 1930s Mongolia.Ethnos: Journal of Anthropology 77, no. 1 (2012): 7292.
    Kapp, Robert Alexander. “Szechwanese Provincial Militarism and Central Power in Republican China.” PhD diss., Yale University, Department of History, 1970.
    Karpat, Kemal. “The Transformation of the Ottoman State, 1789–1908.International Journal of Middle East Studies 3, no. 3 (July 1972): 24381.
    Kasturi, Bhashyam. The State of War with Pakistan. A Military History of India and South Asia. Edited by Daniel P. Marston and Chandar S. Sundaram. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2007.
    Kaszeta, Daniel J.Lithuanian Resistance to Foreign Occupation, 1940–1952.Lituanus 34, no. 3 (1988): 532.
    Kataoka, Tetsuya. Resistance and Revolution in China: The Communists and the Second United Front. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974.
    Katra, William H. The Argentine Generation of 1837: Echeverría, Alberdi, Sarmiento, Mitre. Cranbury, NJ: Associated University Presses, 1996.
    Katumba-Wamala, Edward. “The National Resistance Army (NRA) as a Guerrilla Force.Small Wars and Insurgencies 11, no. 3 (Winter 2000): 16071.
    Katz, Friedrich, ed. Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution, Rural Social Conflict in Mexico. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Katz, Mark N., ed. Revolution: International Dimensions. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2001.
    Katzman, Kenneth. “Iraq’s Opposition Movements.Congressional Research Service. June 27, 2000.
    Kaufman, Stuart J. Modern Hatreds: The Symbolic Politics of Ethnic War. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001.
    _______. “Spiraling to Ethnic War: Elites, Masses and Moscow in Moldova’s Civil War.” In Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict, edited by Michael E. Brown, Owen R. Coté Jr., Sean M. Lynn-Jones, and Steven E. Miller. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.
    Kaur, Harminder. Blue Star over Amritsar. Delhi: Ajanta Publications, 1990.
    Kazemi, Farhad, and John Waterbury, ed. Peasants and Politics in the Modern Middle East. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1991.
    Keenan, Jeremy. “Mali’s Tuareg Rebellion: What’s Next?Al Jazeera, March 20, 2012. http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opnion/2012/03/20.
    Keenan, Jerry. The Great Sioux Uprising, Rebellion on the Plains, August–September 1862. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2003.
    Keesing’s Contemporary Archives. London, multiple years.
    Keesing’s Record of World Events (formerly Keesing’s Contemporary Archives: Weekly Diary of World Events). 60, no. 5 (May 2014).
    _______. “Developments in Bosnia-Hercegovina. March 1992.
    _______. London, multiple years.
    Keleher, William Aloysius. Turmoil in New Mexico, 1846–1868. Santa Fe, NM: Sunstone Press, 2008. Originally published 1952.
    Kell, Tim. The Roots of Acehnese Rebellion, 1989–1992. Singapore: Equinox Press, 2010.
    Kempster, Norman. “US Copters Fly Guatemala Combat Troops.Los Angeles Times, May 6, 1987. http://articles.latimes.com/print.1987–05–06/news/mn-2413_1_guatemala.
    Kende, Istvan. “Twenty-Five Years of Local Wars.Journal of Peace Research 8 (1971): 522.
    Kenez, Peter. Civil War in South Russia 1919–1920. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
    Kerkevliet, Benedict J. The Huk Rebellion: A Study of Peasant Revolt in the Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
    Kerr, George H. Formosa Betrayed. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1965.
    Kerr, Malcolm. “The Lebanese Civil War.” In The International Regulation of Civil Wars, edited by Evan Luard, 6590. New York: New York University Press, 1972.
    Kessel, William B., and Robert Wooster, eds. Encyclopedia of Native American Wars and Warfare. New York: Facts on File, 2005.
    Kessler, Glenn. “Sudanese Rebels Sign Peace Plan for Darfur.Washington Post, May 6, 2006, A01.
    Kessler, Richard J. Rebellion and Repression in the Philippines. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989.
    Kevin, Tony. “Cambodia’s International Rehabilitation, 1997–2000.Contemporary Southeast Asia 22, no. 3 (2000): 594612.
    A Key Battle Cheers Syrian Capital.Los Angeles Times, June 7, 2013, part A, 1.
    Khalid, Mansour. The Government They Deserve: The Role of the Elite in Sudan’s Political Evolution. New York: Kegan Paul International, 1990.
    Khalidi, Walid. Conflict and Violence in Lebanon: Confrontation in the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: Center for International Affairs at Harvard University, 1979.
    Khan, Imtiyaz Gul. “Afghanistan: Human Cost of Conflict since the Soviet Invasion.Perceptions 17, no. 4 (2012): 20924.
    Khobe, Mitikishe Maxwell. “The Evolution and Conduct of ECOMOG Operations in West Africa.Boundaries of Peace Support Operations. Monograph no. 44, February 2000.
    Kiasatpour, Soleiman M.Regime Transition in Post-Soviet Central Asia: The Cases of Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.” PhD diss., University of California, Riverside, 1998.
    Kieh, George Klay, Jr. “The Somali Civil War.” In Zones of Conflict in Africa: Theories and Cases, edited by George Klay Kieh Jr. and Ida Rousseau Mukenge. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
    Kiernan, Ben. How Pol Pot Came to Power: A History of Communism in Kampuchea, 1930–1975. London: Verso, 1985.
    Kieser, Hans-Lukas. “Alevis, Armenians and Kurds in Unionist-Kemalist Turkey (1908–1938).” In Turkey’s Alevi Enigma: A Comprehensive Overview, edited by Paul J. White and Joost Jongerden, 17796. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2003.
    Kifner, John. “Newsmen Reaching Aden Get Story of Civil War.Milwaukee Journal, January 31, 1986, 14.
    Kilavuz, Idil Tunçer. “The Role of Networks in Tajikistan’s Civil War: Network Activation and Violence Specialists.Nationalities Papers 37, no. 5 (2009): 693717.
    Kim, Eugene C. I. Korea and the Politics of Imperialism 1876–1910. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
    Kim, Hodong. Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864–1877. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.
    Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From “Land of the Morning Calm” to States in Conflict. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2012.
    Kimmerling, Baruch S., and Joel Samuel Migdal. The Palestinian People: A History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003.
    King, Bolton. A History of Italian Unity. Vol. 1. London: James Nisbet, 1899.
    King, Charles. Ending Civil Wars. Adelphi Paper 308. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1997.
    _______. The Ghost of Freedom: A History of the Caucasus. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2008.
    _______. The Moldovans: Romania, Russia, and the Politics of Culture. Studies of Nationalities. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 2000.
    Kingsbury, Damien. “The Free Aceh Movement: Islam and Democratisation.Journal of Contemporary Asia 37, no. 2 (2007): 16689.
    Kirişci, Kemal, and Gareth M. Winrow. The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-State Ethnic Conflict. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1997.
    Kirkpatrick, Frederick A. A History of the Argentine Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1931.
    _______. Latin America: A Brief History. New York: Macmillan, 1939.
    Kisangani, Emizet François. Civil Wars in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 1960–2010. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2012.
    Kisirwani, Maroun. “Foreign Interference and Religious Animosity in Lebanon.Journal of Contemporary History 15, no. 4 (October 1980): 685700.
    Klaiber, Jeffrey L. Religion and Revolution in Peru, 1824–1976. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1977.
    Klarén, Peter F. Modernization, Dislocation, and Aprismo: Origins of the Peruvian Aprista Party, 1870–1932. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1973.
    _______. Peru: Society and Nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Klein, Herbert S. Parties and Political Change in Bolivia 1880–1952. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1969.
    Klein, Herbert S., and Francisco Vidal Luna. Slavery in Brazil. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
    Kline, Harvey F. State Building and Conflict Resolution in Colombia, 1986–1994. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999.
    Knight, Alan. The Mexican Revolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
    Koblas, John. Fire. Vol. II in Let Them East Grass, the 1862 Sioux Uprising in Minnesota. St. Cloud, MN: North Star Press of St. Cloud, Inc., 2006.
    Kochan, Lionel. Russia in Revolution 1890–1918. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1966.
    Kohn, George Childs. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts on File, 1986.
    _______. Dictionary of Wars,
    Rev. ed
    . New York: Facts on File, 1999.
    _______. Dictionary of Wars,
    3rd ed
    . New York: Checkmark Books, 2007.
    Kolinski, Charles J. Historical Dictionary of Paraguay. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1973.
    _______. Independence or Death. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1965.
    König, Marietta. “The Georgian-South Ossetian Conflict.Instutut für Friedensforschung und Sicherheitspolitik (IFST) an der Universität Hamburg, 2014.
    Koprowski, Mike. “Defeating the FATA Insurgency.Yale Journal of International Affairs 4, no. 2 (2009): 6686.
    Korb, Richard K.Cold War along the ‘Cactus Curtain.’VFW Magazine 86, no. 5 (January 1999): 36+. http://www.Questia.com.
    Korbani, Agnes G. US Intervention in Lebanon, 1958 and 1982: Presidential Decisionmaking. New York: Praeger, 1991.
    Kornbluh, Peter. Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents Relating to the Military Coup, September 11, 1973. National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 8. http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchive on October 23, 2014.
    _______. “The Covert War.” In Reagan Versus the Sandinistas, edited by Thomas W. Walker. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
    Koschmann, J. Victor. “The Mito Ideology: Discourse, Reform, and Insurrection in Late Tokugawa Japan, 1790-1864.Monumenta Nipponica 43, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 24143.
    Kostakos, Georgios. “The Southern Flank: Italy, Greece, Turkey.” In Kosovo and the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur. New York: United Nations University Press, 2000.
    Kostiner, Joseph. Yemen: The Tortuous Quest for Unity, 1990–94. London: Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1996.
    Kosut, Hal, ed. Indonesia: The Sukarno Years. New York: Facts on File, 1967.
    Koth, Karl B. Waking the Dictator: Veracruz, the Struggle for Federalism, and the Mexican Revolution, 1870–1927. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary Press, 2002.
    Kraay, Hendrik. “‘As Terrifying as Unexpected’: The Bahian Sabinda, 1837–1838.Hispanic American Historical Review 72, no. 4 (November 1992): 50127.
    Krauze, Enrique. Mexico: Biography of Power: A History of Modern Mexico, 1810–1996. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. (Kindle version)
    Kubijovych, Volodymyr E. Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Toronto, Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 1963.
    Kudryashev, Sergei. “The Central Asian Revolt of 1916.” In Arming the State: Military Conscription in the Middle East and Central Asia 1775–1925, edited by Erik Jan Zürcher, 7994. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1999.
    Kuhnke, LaVerne. Lives at Risk: Public Health in Nineteenth-Century Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
    Kuneralp, Sinan. “Military Operations During the 1904–1905 Uprising in the Yemen.” Studies on Turkish Arab Relations 2 (1987): 6370.
    Kuodytė, Dalia, and Rokas Tracevskis. The Unknown War: Armed Anti-Soviet Resistance in Lithuania in 1944–1953. Vilnius: Genocide and Research Centre of Lithuania, 2006.
    Kurdish People’s Protection Unit YPG.” 2015. GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ypg.htm.
    Kurds Enter Northern Syria to Protect Kobane: NGO.” NGO Daily News, July 16, 2014.
    Kurzman, Charles. The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
    Kutschera, Chris. “Mad Dreams of Independence: The Kurds of Turkey and the PKK.Middle East Report, 189 (July–August 1994): 1215.
    Lacey, Marc. “Sudan Government and Rebels Agree to Cease-Fire.New York Times (late edition), October 16, 2002, A6.
    Lacey, Robert. The Kingdom of Arabia and the House of Saud. New York: Avon, 1981.
    Lachica, Eduardo. The Huks: Philippine Agrarian Society in Revolt. New York: Praeger, 1971.
    Lacina, B., and N. P. Gleditsch. “Monitoring Trends in Global Combat: A New Dataset of Battle Deaths.European Journal of Population/Revue Européenne de Démographie 21, no. 2 (2005): 14566.
    _______. “The Waning of War Is Real: A Response to Gohdes and Price.Journal of Conflict Resolution (November 15, 2012).
    Lacina, B., N. P. Gleditsch, and B. Russett. “The Declining Risk of Death in Battle.International Studies Quarterly 50, no. 3 (2006): 67380.
    Lafeber, Walter. Inevitable Revolutions: The United States in Central America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1993. Originally published 1983.
    Laffin, John. War Annual 3. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1989.
    _______. War Annual 4. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1990.
    _______. War Annual 5. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1991.
    _______. War Annual 6. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1994.
    _______. War Annual 7. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1996.
    _______. War Annual 8. London: Brassey’s Defence Publishers, 1997.
    Lake, David A., and Donald Rothchild, eds. The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.
    Lampe, John R. Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country.
    2nd ed
    . Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    Landau, Saul. The Guerilla Wars of Central America. London: Weisenfield and Nicolson, 1993.
    Landingin, Roel. “Manila Focuses on Maoist Threat.Financial Times (USA Edition), July 24, 2006, 5.
    Lang, David Marshall. A Modern History of Soviet Georgia. New York: Grove Press, 1962.
    Langer, Paul F. “Laos: Search for Peace in the Midst of War.Asian Survey 8, no. 1 (January 1968): 8086.
    Langer, P. F., and J. J. Zasloff. North Vietnam and Laos. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970.
    _______. Revolution in Laos: The North Vietnamese and the Pathet Lao. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 1969.
    Langer, William L., ed. An Encyclopedia of World History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1952. Originally published 1948.
    _______. European Alliances and Alignments, 1871–1890. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1931.
    Langley, Lester D., and Thomas Schoonover. The Banana Men: American Mercenaries and Entrepreneurs in Central America, 1880–1930. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1995.
    Laps, Leo. “Os Camponeses do Contestado.” A Nova Democracia 1, no. 9 (2003). http://www.anovademocracia.com.br/09/15.htm.
    Larrosa, Augusto Solza. “Relación Histórica de la Medicina y Cirugía Militares en el Uruguay, 1811–1904.Salud Militar 25, no. 1 (2003). http://www.dnsffa.gub.uy/revista/Vol25/P97a128V25.htm.
    Larson, Krista. “More than 5,000 Dead in C. African Republic.AP, September 12, 2014.
    Lary, Diana. Warlord Soldiers: Chinese Common Soldiers, 1911–1937. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985.
    Latimer, Elizabeth Wormeley. Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago, IL: A. C. McClurg & Co., 1898.
    Lattimore, Owen. Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Afghan Frontiers of China and Russia. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Co., 1950.
    Lauderbaugh, George M. The History of Ecuador. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press, 2012.
    Lawson, Fred H. “Rural Revolt and Provincial Society in Egypt, 1820–24.International Journal of Middle East Studies 13, no. 2 (1981): 13153.
    Lear, Jody B., Diane Macaulay, and Meredith Reid Sarkees, eds. Advancing Peace Research: Leaving Traces, Selected articles by J. David Singer. London: Routledge, 2012.
    Lederer, Edith. “Is Death Estimate for Darfur Too Low?AP, March 28, 2008.
    LeDonne, John P. The Grand Strategy of the Russian Empire, 1650–1831. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
    _______. The Russian Empire and the World, 1700–1917: The Geopolitics of Expansion and Containment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.
    Lee, Gary Y. “Minority Policies and the Hmong.” In Contemporary Laos: Studies in the Politics and Society of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, edited by Martin Stuart-Fox, 199219. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press, 1982.
    Lee, Ki-baik. A New History of Korea. Translated by Edward W. Wagner. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984.
    Leezenberg, Michiel. “Chapter 12: The Anfal Operations in Iraqi Kurdistan.” In A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, edited by Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny. New York: Routledge, 2004.
    Lefebvre, Jeffrey A.Middle East Conflicts and Middle Level Power Intervention in the Horn of Africa.Middle East Journal 50, no. 3 (Summer 1996): 387404.
    LeFefvre, Edith E.Jane Addams: Peace Activist, Intellectual, and Nobel Prize Winner.” In Women Who Speak for Peace, edited by Colleen E. Kelley and Anna L. Eblen. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2002.
    Lefever, Ernest W. Crisis in the Congo, a United Nations Force in Action. Washington: The Brookings Institution, 1965.
    _______. “Peacekeeping by Outsiders: The UN Congo Expeditionary Force.” In Civil Wars in the Twentieth Century, edited by Robin Higham. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1972.
    _______. Spear and Scepter: Army, Police, and Politics in Tropical Africa. Washington: Brookings Institution, 1970.
    “Leftists Free 276 Hostages.The Tuscaloosa News, October 30, 1979, 1.
    Leftists Revolution Seen in Future of El Salvador.Lodi News-Sentinel, October 15, 1979, 3.
    Leger, J. N. HAITI, Her History and Her Detractors. Westport, CT: Negro Universities Press, 1970. Originally published 1907.
    Legion de los Andes. “Batallas y Combates de la Historia de Chile.” n.d. http://legionarios.webhispana.net/33%20Batallas%20y%20Combates/index%20Batallas%20 y%20Combates.htm.
    Leifer, Michael. “The International Dimensions of the Cambodian ConflictInternational Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944 51, no. 4 (October 1975): 53143.
    Leitenberg, Milton. “Deaths in Wars and Conflicts Between 1945 and 2000.” In Peace Studies: Critical Concepts, edited by Matthew Evangelista, 88141. New York: Routledge, 2005.
    Leitenberg, Milton, and Richard Dean Burns, comps. The Vietnam Conflict. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 1973.
    Leitman, Spencer Lewis. “The Black Ragamuffins: Racial Hypocrisy in Nineteenth Century Southern Brazil.Americas 33, no. 3 (1977): 50418.
    _______. “Cattle and Caudillos in Brazil’s Southern Borderland, 1828 to 1850.Ethnohistory 20, no. 2 (1973): 18898.
    _______. “Socio-Economic Roots of the Ragamuffin War: A Chapter in Early Brazilian History.” PhD diss., University of Texas at Austin, 1972.
    Lemarchand, René. Burundi, Ethnocide as Discourse and Practice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1994.
    _______. “Chapter 10: The Burundi Genocide.” In A Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, edited by Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny. New York: Routledge, 2004.
    _______. “Ethnic Genocide.Society 12, no. 2 (January–February 1975): 5060.
    _______. Rwanda and Burundi. New York: Praeger, 1970.
    Lenczowski, George. The Middle East in World Affairs.
    4th ed
    . Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987.
    _______. Russia and the West in Iran, 1918–1948: A Study in Big-Power Rivalry. New York: Greenwood Press, 1968.
    Leng, Russell, and J. David Singer. “Militarized Interstates Crises: The BCOW Typology and Its Applications,” International Studies Quarterly 32 (1988): 11574. Reprinted in J. David Singer and Paul Diehl, eds. Measuring the Correlates of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
    Lesch, Ann Mosely. The Sudan: Contested National Identities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.
    Lesch, David W. 1979: The Year That Shaped the Modern Middle East. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001.
    _______. Syria: The Fall of the House of Assad. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2012.
    Leslie, R. F. Polish Politics and the Revolution of November. London: London University, 1956. Originally published 1930.
    _______. Reform and Insurrection in Russian Poland. London: London University, 1963.
    Lessons of Nicaragua’s Revolt Don’t Quite Fit in El Salvador.New York Times, September 16, 1979, 4.
    Levene, Ricardo. A History of Argentina. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1963. Originally published 1937.
    Levine, Robert M. The History of Brazil. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
    _______. “‘Mud-Hut Jerusalem’: Canudos Revisited.Hispanic American Historical Review 68, no. 3 (August 1988): 52572.
    _______. Vale of Tears: Revisiting the Canudos Massacre in Northeastern Brazil. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
    Lew, Christopher R. The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945–49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership. New York: Routledge, 2009.
    Lew, Christopher R., and Edwin Pak-wah Leung. Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Civil War.
    2nd ed
    . Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2013.
    Lewis, Paul H. Guerrillas and Generals: The “Dirty War” in Argentina. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
    _______. Political Parties and Generations in Paraguay’s Liberal Era, 1869–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
    Leys, M. D. R. Between Two Empires. London: Longmans, Green, 1955.
    Li, Chien-Nung. The Political History of China, 1840–1928. Princeton, NJ: Van Nostrand, 1956.
    Li, Xiaobing. A History of the Modern Chinese Army. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2007.
    Li, Xiaoxiao. “Fourth Field Army (1948–1955).” In China at War: An Encyclopedia, edited by Xiaobing Li, 12628. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC–CLIO, 2012.
    Library of Congress (Federal Research Division). Lebanon: A Country Study. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1989.
    Liebman, Marcel. The Russian Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1970.
    Linantud, John L. “Backs against the Wall: War, Dictatorship, and Democracy in the Philippines, South Korea, and Thailand.” PhD diss., Arizona State University, 2000.
    Lincoln, W. Bruce. Red Victory: A History of the Russian Civil War. New York: Simon and Schuster 1989.
    Linebarger, Paul M. A. The China of Chiang K’ai-Shek. Boston, MA: World Peace Foundation, 1941.
    Ling, Dwight L. Tunisia: From Protectorate to Republic. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1967.
    Linke, Lilo. Ecuador, Country of Contrasts. London: Oxford University Press, 1960.
    Lin-Le. Ti Ping Tien-Kwoh: The History of the Ti-Ping Revolution. London: Day and Son, 1866.
    Lintner, Bertil. Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency since 1948.
    2nd ed
    . Chiang Mai, Thailand: Silkworm Books, 1999.
    _______. The Rise and Fall of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB). Ithaca, NY: Southeast Asian Program, Cornell University, 1990.
    Lipman, Jonathan Neaman. “The Border World of Gansu, 1895–1935.” PhD thesis, Stanford University, 1981.
    _______. “Ethnicity and Politics in Republican China: The Ma Family Warlords of Gansu.Modern China 10, no. 3 (July 1984): 285316.
    _______. Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997.
    Lisbon Correspondent. “East Timor.The Economist, May 26, 1979.
    Litten, Frederick S. “The CCP and the Fujian Rebellion.Republican China 14, no. 1 (1988): 5774.
    Little, Michael R. A War of Information: The Conflict Between Public and Private US Foreign Policy on El Salvador, 1979–1992. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1994.
    Livermore, H. V. A New History of Portugal.
    2nd ed
    . New York: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
    Livermore, Thomas L. Numbers and Losses in the Civil War in America: 1861–65. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1957. Originally published 1900.
    Lizee, Pierre P. “Cambodia in 1995: From Hope to Despair.Asian Survey 36, no. 1 (1996): 8388.
    _______. “Cambodia in 1996: Of Tigers, Crocodiles, and Doves.Asian Survey 37, no. 1 (1997): 6571.
    Llano, Alonso Valencia. “Tomás Cipriano de Mosquera y la Guerra en el Cauca Entre 1859 y 1862.” In Las Guerras Civiles Desde 1830 y su Proyección en el Siglo XX, edited by Ernesto Restrepo Tirado, 91104. Bogotá, Colombia: Museo Nacional de Colombia, 1997.
    Lobato, Chantal. “Chronology (1977–1987).” In Afghanistan: The Terrible Decade 1978–1988, edited by Curtis Cate, 942. New York: American Foundation for Resistance International, 1988.
    Locke, John. Second Treatise of Government. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1980. Originally published 1690.
    Loeb, Vernon. “Yugoslav Military Is Formidable Foe.Washington Post, April 3, 1999, A9. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/daily/april99/forces040399.htm.
    London Times. Issues from July 1, 1875, to June 30, 1876.
    Long Time to Crush Rebels on Timor, Malik Says.” The Canberra Times, February 21, 1977, 3.
    Longman, Timothy. Christianity and Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
    Lorimer, John Gordon. Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, ‘Oman, and Central Arabia. Vol. I, Part 1B. Westmead, England: Gregg International Publishers Limited, 1970. Originally published 1915.
    Love, Joseph. Rio Grande do Sul and Brazilian Regionalism, 1882–1930. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1971.
    Loveman, Brian, and Thomas M. Davies Jr. “Che on Guerrilla Warfare.” In Guerrilla Warfare, by Che Guevara. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985a.
    _______. “Colombia.” In Guerrilla Warfare, by Che Guevara. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1985b.
    Lowry, Robert. The Armed Forces of Indonesia. St. Leonards, NSW: Allen and Unwin, 1996.
    Loxton, Edward. “Hundreds Die in Obscure War on Burma’s border with China.The Week (UK), November 25, 2011. http://www.theweek.co.uk/world-news/42982/hundreds-die-obscure-war-burmas-border-china.
    Luciak, Ilya A. After the Revolution: Gender and Democracy in El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001.
    Luckett, Richard. The White Generals: An Account of the White Movement and the Russian Civil War. London: Longman Group Ltd., 1971.
    Lundry, Chris. “Separatism and State Cohesion in Eastern Indonesia.” PhD diss., Arizona State University, Department of Political Science, 2009.
    Lynch, Dov. Russian Peacekeeping Strategies in the CIS: The Cases of Moldova, Georgia & Tajikistan. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2000.
    Lynch, John. Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800–1850. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1992.
    Ma’oz, Moshe. Ottoman Reform in Syria and Palestine, 1840–1861. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1968.
    _______. Syria and Israel: From War to Peacemaking. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
    Macartney, C. A. The Hapsburg Empire, 1790–1918. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968.
    MacDonald, Martin. Kawthoolei Dreams, Malaria Nights. Bangkok, Thailand: White Lotus Press, 1999.
    MacFarquhar, Roderick, and Michael Schoenhals. Mao’s Last Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 2006.
    MacGahan, J. A. The Turkish Atrocities in Bulgaria. London: Bradbury, Agnew, and Co., 1876.
    Machado, Kit G. “The Philippines in 1978: Authoritarian Consolidation Continues.Asian Survey 19, no. 2 (1979): 13140.
    Machado, Manuel A. “The United States and the de la Huerta Rebellion.Southwestern Historical Quarterly 75, 3 (1972): 30324.
    Mackenna, Benjamín Vicuña. Historia de los Diez Años de la Administracion de Don Manuel Montt. Tomo I. Santiago, Chile: Imprenta Chilena, 1862.
    MacKenzie, David. The Serbs and Russian Pan-Slavism, 1875–1878. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1967.
    Mackie, J. Milton. Life of Schamyl and Narrative of the Circassian War of Independence against Russia. Boston, MA: John P. Jewett and Company, 1856.
    Mackowski, Joanne. “Table of Military Assets.” In Short War, Long Shadow: The Political and Military Legacies of the 2011 Libya Campaign, edited by Adrian Johnson and Saqeb Mueen, ixxii. London, UK: Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies, 2012.
    MacNair, Harley F. China in Revolution. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1931.
    MacQueen, Benjamin. An Introduction to Middle East Politics: Continuity, Change, Conflict and Co-operation. London: Sage, 2013.
    Madden, Lori. “The Canudos War in History.Luso-Brazilian Review 30, no. 2 (1993): 522.
    Mafinezam, Alidad, and Aria Mehrabi. Iran and Its Place Among Nations. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2008.
    Magnus, Ralph H., and Eden Naby. Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx and Mujahid. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
    Magocsi, Paul R. A History of Ukraine. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
    Maier, Karl. This House Has Fallen: Midnight in Nigeria. New York: Public Affairs, 2000.
    Maillart, Ella K. Forbidden Journey: From Peking to Kashmir. London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1937.
    Makdisi, Ussama. “Corrupting the Sublime Sultanate: The Revolt of Tanyus Shahin in Nineteenth-century Ottoman Lebanon.Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, no. 1 (January 2000): 180208.
    Makino, Valerie. “Kosovo Conflict Chronology: January–August 1998.CRS Report for Congress. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, 1998.
    Malamud, Carlos. “The Origins of Revolution in Nineteenth-century Argentina.” In Rumors of Wars: Civil Conflict in Nineteenth-Century Latin America, edited by Rebecca Earle, 2948. London: Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Malaquias, Assis. “Angola: How to Lose a Guerrilla War.” In African Guerrillas; Raging against the Machine, edited by Morten BρÅs and Kevin C. Dunn. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    Malcolm, Noel. Bosnia, A Short History. London: Macmillan, 1994.
    Maley, William. The Afghanistan Wars. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
    _______. “Interpreting the Taliban.” In Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban, rev. ed., edited by William Maley, 128. Washington Square: New York University Press, 2001a.
    _______. “Preface.” In Fundamentalism Reborn?Afghanistan and the Taliban, rev. ed., edited by William Maley, vix. Washington Square: New York University Press, 2001b.
    Malian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation. “Mapping of Non-State Armed Groups in the ECOWAS Region.” Paper presented at the 6th Ministerial Meeting of the Human Security Network, Bamako, Mali, May 27–29, 2004.
    Maliti, Tom. “Rebels, Troops Clash in Chad Capital.Chicago Tribune, February 3, 2008, 1, 15.
    Mallay, Michael. “Regions: Centralization and Resistance.” In Indonesia Beyond Suharto: Polity, Economy, Society, Transition, edited by Donald K. Emmerson. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1999.
    Mallin, Jay, Sr. Cuba’s Armed Forces: From Colony to Castro. Reston, VA: Ancient Mariners Press, 2000.
    Mallon, Florencia E. “Nationalist and Antistate Coalitions in the War of the Pacific: Junín and Cajamarca, 1879–1902.” In Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World, 18th to 20th Centuries, edited by Steve J. Stern, 23279. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
    Malloy, James M. Bolivia: The Uncompleted Revolution. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1970.
    Mamdani, Mahmood. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002.
    Man, W. K. Che. Muslim Separatism: The Moros of the Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
    Mananghaya, James. “AFP: Communist Influence Weakens.” Philippine Star, January 1, 2008.
    Mankekar, D. R. On the Slippery Slope in Nagaland. Bombay, India: Manaktalas, 1967.
    Manwaring, Max G. “Nonstate Actors in Colombia: Threat and Response.” Strategic Studies Institute, May 2002.
    Manz, Beatriz. Refugees of a Hidden War. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.
    Maoz, Zeev. “The Controversy over the Democratic Peace: Rearguard Action or Cracks in the Wall?International Security 22 (1997).
    Maoz, Zeev, and Errol A. Henderson. “The World Religion Dataset, 1945–2010: Logic, Estimates, and Trends.” International Interactions 39, no. 3 (2013).
    Marchak, M. Patricia. Reigns of Terror. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2003.
    Marchak, Patricia, and William Marchak. God’s Assassins: State Terrorism in Argentina in the 1970s. Montreal, Québec: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999.
    Marcus, Harold G. A History of Ethiopia. Updated ed. Berkley: University of California Press, 2002.
    _______. Haile Selassie I. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1987.
    _______. The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia 1844–1913. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1975.
    Mardsen, Peter. The Taliban: War and Religion in Afghanistan. Rev. ed. London: Zed Books, 2002.
    Marett, Robert. Peru. New York: Praeger, 1969.
    Markham, Clements R. A History of Peru. Chicago: Charles H. Sergel, 1892.
    _______. “Travels in Peru and India.” Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art LIX, no. 1 (1868): 120.
    Marks, Thomas Andrew. “Insurgency in Nepal.” Strategic Studies Institute, December 2003.
    _______. “Making Revolution: The Insurgency of the Communist Party of Thailand (CPT) in Structural Perspective.” PhD diss., University of Hawaii: Political Science, 1991.
    Marks, Thomas P. Insurgency in Nepal. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2003.
    Marley, David M. Wars of the Americas: A Chronology of Armed Conflicts in the New World, 1492 to the Present. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1998.
    Marples, David R. Heroes, and Villains. Creating National History in Contemporary Ukraine. New York: Central European University Press, 2007.
    _______. Stalinism in Ukraine in the 1940s. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
    Márquez, Rafael Angel Rondón. Crespo y la Revolución Legalista. Caracas, Venezuela: Ediciones de la Contraloria, 1973.
    Marsans-Sakly, Sylvia. Personal correspondence regarding Tunisian Archives, 2003.
    Marshall, A.Phased Withdrawal, Conflict Resolution and State Reconstruction.” Master’s thesis, Conflict Studies Research Center, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom, 2006.
    Marshall, Monty G. “Major Episodes of Political Violence 1946–2013.” Center for Systemic Peace, 2014. http://systemicpeace.org/warlist.htm.
    Marsland, William D., and Amy L. Marsland. Venezuela through Its History. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1954.
    Martell, Peter. “50,000 and Not Counting: South Sudan’s War Dead.” Agence France-Presse, November 15, 2014.
    Martin, B. G. “Ghūma bin Khalifa, a Libyan Rebel, 1795–1858.” In Studies on Ottoman Diplomatic History V: The Ottomans and Africa, edited by Selim Deringil and Sinan Kuneralp, 5773. Istanbul, Turkey: Isis Press, 1990.
    Martin, Michael R., and Gabriel H. Lovett. Encyclopedia of Latin American History. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill, 1968.
    Martin, Percy Falcke. Maximilian in Mexico: The Story of the French Intervention (1861–1867). New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1914.
    Martinez, Luis. The Algerian Civil War 1990–1998. Translated by John Derrick. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.
    _______. “Why the Violence in Algeria?” In Islam, Democracy and the State in Algeria, edited by Michael Bonner, Megan Reif, and Mark Tessler, 1427. London: Routledge, 2005.
    Martinkus, John. “Aceh a Forbidden Province as Military Step up War on Rebels.” New Zealand Herald, July 2, 2003.
    Marwah, Ved. India in Turmoil: Jammu & Kashmir, the Northeast and Left Extremism. Kolkata, India: Rupa & Company, 2009.
    Mason, T. D., J. P. Weingarten Jr., and P. J. Fett. “Win Lose, or Draw: Predicting the Outcomes of Civil Wars.” Political Research Quarterly 52, no. 2 (1999): 23968.
    Mason, Thomas David. Caught in the Crossfire: Revolutions, Repression, and the Rational Peasant. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
    Masters, Bruce. “The 1850 Events in Aleppo: An Aftershock of Syria’s Incorporation into the Capitalist World-System.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 13, no. 2 (1990): 25157.
    Masterson, Daniel M. Militarism and Politics in Latin America: Peru from Sánchez Cerro to Sendero Luminoso. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1991.
    Mathews, Rohan D. “The Telengana Movement: Peasant Protests in India, 1946–51.” Ritimo, July 1, 2011. http://www.ritimo.org/article885.html Last Accessed on May 14, 2014.
    Mathieu, Henri. La Turquie. Paris, France: E. Dentu, 1856.
    Matthews, Bruce. “Sri Lanka in 1989: Peril and Good Luck.” Asian Survey 30, no. 2 (1990): 14449.
    Matthews, Matt M. The US Army on the Mexican Border: A Historical Perspective. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, 2007.
    Maullin, Richard L. Soldiers, Guerrillas and Politics in Colombia. Lexington, MA: D. C. Heath, 1973.
    Maurice, C. Edmund. The Revolutionary Movement of 1848–49 in Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Germany. New York: Putnam, 1887.
    May, R. J. “Muslim Mindanao: Four Years after the Peace Agreement.” In Southeast Asian Affairs, 26375. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2001.
    May, Rachel A. “‘Surviving All Changes is Your Destiny’: Violence and Popular Movements in Guatemala.” Latin American Perspectives 26, no. 2 (March 1999): 6891.
    _______. Terror in the Countryside, Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954–1985. Athens: Ohio University Center for International Studies, 2001.
    Mays, Terry M. Africa’s First Peacekeeping Operation: The OAU in Chad, 1981–1982. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003.
    Mbaria, John. “Exit of the Islamists Will See a Revival of Clan Conflicts.” Analysis, January 9, 2007. http://allafrica.com.
    McAleavy, Henry. Black Flags in Vietnam. New York: Macmillan, 1968a.
    _______. The Modern History of China. London: Weidenfield and Nicholson, 1968b.
    McBeth, Brian S. Gunboats, Corruption, and Claims: Foreign Intervention in Venezuela, 1899–1908. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
    McCaa, Robert. “Missing Millions: The Demographic Costs of the Mexican Revolution.” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 19, no. 2 (Summer 2003): 367400.
    McCaffrey, Cecily. “From Chaos to a New Order: Rebellion and Ethnic Regulation in Late Qing Inner Mongolia.” Modern China 37 no. 5 (2011): 52861.
    McCann, Frank D. Soldiers of the Pátria: A History of the Brazilian Army, 1889–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2004.
    McCann, James. “The Political Economy of Rural Rebellion in Ethiopia: Northern Resistance to Imperial Expansion, 1928–1935.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 18, no. 4 (1985): 60123.
    McCarthy, Justin. Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims 1821–1922. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press Inc., 1995.
    _______. The Ottoman Turks, An Introductory History to 1923. New York: Longman, 1997.
    McCarthy, Roger E. Tears of the Lotus: Accounts of Tibetan Resistance to the Chinese Invasion, 1950–1962. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 1997.
    McCarthy, Terry. “Indonesian Soldiers Accused of Brutality against Separatists.” The Independent (London), January 21, 1991.
    McClain, James L. Japan: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton and Co., 2002.
    McCleary, Rachel M. Dictating Democracy: Guatemala and the End of Violent Revolution. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1999.
    McCord, Edward A. Military Force and Elite Power in the Formation of Modern China. New York: Routledge, 2014.
    _______. The Power of the Gun: The Emergence of Modern Chinese Warlordism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.
    McCormack, Gavin. Chang Tso-lin in Northeast China, 1911–1928: Japan and the Manchurian Idea. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1977.
    McCoy, James W. Secrets of the Viet Cong. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1992.
    McDermott, Jeremy. “Colombian Death Squads Cut Down 100 ‘Rebels.’The Scotsman, January 11, 1999, 7.
    McDowall, David. A Modern History of the Kurds. New York: I. B. Tauris, 1996.
    McGranahan, Carole. “Arrested Histories: Between Empire and Exile in 20th Century Tibet.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, Anthropology and History, 2001.
    McGregor, Andrew. A Military History of Modern Egypt. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2006.
    McHenry, J. Patrick. A Short History of Mexico. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1962.
    McKenna, Thomas M. Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in the Southern Philippines. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.
    McKiernan, Kevin. “Turkey’s War on the Kurds.” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (March–April 1999): 2637.
    McLaughlin, Sean J. “Ivory Coast: Civil Disorder since 1999.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 19094. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    McLynn, F. J. “The Montonero Risings in Argentina during the Eighteen-Sixties.” Canadian Journal of History 15, no. 1 (1980): 4966.
    _______. Villa and Zapata, a History of the Mexican Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 2000.
    McPherson, James. The Illustrated Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War. New York: Tess Press, 2008.
    McQuerry, Elizabeth. “Central American Women’s Organizations: Two Case Studies of Political Participation.” Master’s thesis, University of Arizona, 1988.
    Mehsud, Mansur Khan. “The Taliban in South Waziristan.” In Talibanistan: Negotiating the Borders between Terror, Politics, and Religion, edited by Peter Bergen and Katherine Tiedemann, 164201. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.
    Mehta, Ashok, and Mahendra Lawoti. “Military Dimensions of the ‘People’s War’: Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Nepal.” In The Maoist Insurgency in Nepal: Revolution in the Twenty-first Century, edited by Mahendra Lawoti and Anup Pahari, 17594. New York: Routledge, 2010.
    Meiselas, Susan. Kurdistan: In the Shadow of History. New York: Random House, 1997.
    Mejia, Alvaro Tirado. Aspectos Sociales de las Guerras Civiles en Colombia. Instituto Colombiano de Cultura, 1976.
    Melady, Thomas Patrick. Burundi: The Tragic Years. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1974.
    Memoria de la Direccion General de Estadistica al Presidente de los Estados Unidos de Venezuela en 1873.” 1873. http://books.google.com/books?id=vc8TAAAAYAA.
    Mende, Tibor. The Chinese Revolution. London: Thames and Hudson, 1961.
    Méndez, Juan E. Political Murder and Reform in Colombia: The Violence Continues. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1992.
    Mendis, L. M. H. Assignment Peace in the Name of the Motherland: Eelam War I, IPKF Operations, Eelam War II, Eelam War III, and the Undeclared Eelam War IV. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Social Scientists’ Organization, 2009.
    Mendoza, Hugo Andrés Arenas. ¿Estado Irresponsable o Responable?: La Reponsabilidad Patrimonial del Estado Colombiano Luego de la Guerra Civil de 1876–1877. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Universidad del Rosario, 2008.
    Menendez Pidal, Ramon. Historia de Espana. Vol. 26. Madrid, Spain: Espasa-Calpe, 1968.
    Menkhaus, Ken. “Non-state Actors and the Role of Violence in Stateless Somalia.” In Violent Non-state Actors in World Politics, edited by Klejda Mulaj. New York: Columbia University Press, 2010.
    Mennecke, Martin. “Genocide in Kosovo?” In Century of Genocide,
    2nd ed
    ., edited by Samuel Totten, William S. Parsons, and Israel W. Charny. New York: Routledge, 2004.
    Meo, Leila. “The War in Lebanon.” In Ethnic Conflict in International Relations, edited by Astri Suhrke and Lela Garner Nobel. New York: Praeger, 1977.
    Mercer, John. “The Cycle of Invasion and Unification in the Western Sahara.” African Affairs, 75, no. 301 (October 1976): 498510.
    Meredith, Martin. The Fate of Africa: From the Hopes of Freedom to the Heart of Despair. New York: Public Affairs, 2005.
    Merrill, Tim, ed. Honduras: A Country Study. Washington, DC: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995. http://countrystudies.us/honduras/17.htm.
    Merritt, Richard L., and Dina A. Zinnes, “Foreword.” In Measuring the Correlates of War, edited by J. David Singer and Paul F. Diehl. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
    Metz, Helen Chapin. Persian Gulf States: Country Studies,
    3rd ed
    . Washington, DC.: Library of Congress, 1994.
    Meyer, Jean. La Cristiada: La Guerra de los Cristeros.
    22nd ed
    . Mexico City: Siglio XXI. 2005. Originally published 1973.
    Meyer, Michael C. Mexican Rebel: Pascual Orozco and the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1915. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1967.
    Meyer, Michael C., and William H. Beezley, eds. The Oxford History of Mexico. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.
    Meyer, Michael C., William L. Sherman, and Susan M. Deeds. The Course of Mexican History.
    6th ed
    . New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
    _______. The Course of Mexican History.
    7th ed
    . New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
    Michael, Franz. “T’ai Ping T’ien-Kuo.” Journal of Asian Studies 17, no. 1 (November 1957): 6776.
    _______. The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents. Vol. I. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996.
    Michno, Gregory F. Encyclopedia of Indian Wars: Western Battles and Skirmishes, 1850–1890. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Co., 2003.
    Middle East Watch. Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign against the Kurds. New York: Human Rights Watch, 1993.
    _______. Syria Unmasked: The Suppression of Human Rights by the Asad Regime. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1991.
    Midlarsky, Manus. On War: Political Violence in the International System. New York: Free Press, 1975.
    Mietzner, Marcus. Military Politics, Islam, and the State in Indonesia: From Turbulent Transition to Democratic Consolidation. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asian Studies, 2009.
    Milani, Mohsen M. The Making of Iran’s Islamic Revolution: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic.
    2nd ed
    . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1994.
    The Military Balance. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, year as provided.
    Military Cites Gains against Insurgents.” Manila Standard, December 29, 2006.
    Miller, Benjamin. States, Nations, and the Great Powers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    Miller, Robert Ryan. Mexico: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1985.
    Miller, William. The Balkans: Romania, Bulgaria, Servia, and Montenegro. Freeport, NY: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1972.
    _______. The Ottoman Empire, 1801–1913. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1913.
    _______. The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1927.
    _______. The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801–1927, with an Appendix, 1927–1936. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1936.
    Millett, Richard L. Colombia’s Conflicts: The Spillover Effects of a Wider War. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College, 2002.
    Milliken, Robert. “How Papua New Guinea Terrorised Rebel Island.” The Independent (London), November 27, 1990, 9.
    Minahan, James. Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: Ethnic and National Groups around the World. 4 vols. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
    _______. Nations without States: A Historical Dictionary of Contemporary National Movements. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
    Ministère de La Défense. “‘OPÉRTION LÉOPARD,’ Une intervention humanitaire Kolwezi 17 mai–16 juin 1978.” n.d. http://www.defense.gouv.fr.
    Ministerio de Defense Nacional. “Avance de la Politica de Defensa y Seguridad: Información de Criminalidad, Resultados Operacionales, Afectación de las Propias Tropas y Pie de Fuerza. Año Corrido.” 2012. http://www.mindefensa.gov.co/irj/go/km/docs/Mindefensa/Documentos/descargas/estudios%20sectoriales/info_estadistica/Avance%20de%20la%20Politica%20de%20 Defensa%20y%20Seguridad.pdf.
    Minnesota Historical Society. Minnesota in the Civil and Indian Wars, 1861–1865. Vol. 1. Minneapolis: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2005.
    Minorities at Risk Project. “Chronology for Acehnese in Indonesia.2010b. http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/chronology.asp?groupId=85006.
    _______. “Chronology for Kurds in Iraq.” 2010a. http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/chronology.asp?groupId=64504.
    _______. “Chronology for Kurds in Turkey.” 2013. http://www.cidcm.umd.edu/mar/chronology.asp?groupId=64005Last accessed 6/23/2013.
    Miranda, Roger, and William Ratliff. The Civil War in Nicaragua: Inside the Sandinistas. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 1993.
    Mishaqa, Mikhayil. Murder, Mayhem, Pillage, and Plunder: The History of the Lebanon in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Translated by Wheeler M. Thackston Jr. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.
    _______. The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940–1990. Exp. and upd. ed. London: Hurst and Co., 1993.
    Mobley, Richard A.US Joint Military Contributions to Countering Syria’s 1970 Invasion of Jordan.” Joint Force Quarterly 55 (2009): 16067.
    Møller, Bjørn. “The Nordic Countries: Whither the West’s Conscience?” In Kosovo and the Challenges of Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur. New York: United Nations University Press, 2000.
    Montgomery, Tommie Sue. Revolution in El Salvador: From Civil Strife to Civil Peace. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
    _______. Revolution in El Salvador, Origins and Evolution. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982.
    Moore, Mick. Thoroughly Modern Revolutionaries: The JVP in Sri Lanka. Modern Asian Studies 27, no. 3 (1993): 593642.
    Moore, Perry. Stamping Out the Virus: Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War 1918–1920. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History, 2002.
    Moorehead, Alan. The Russian Revolution. New York: Harper, 1958.
    Moosa, Matti. The Maronites in History. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986.
    Mora, Enrique Ayala. Historia de la Revolución Liberal Equatoriana. Quito, Ecuador: Corporacion Editora Nacional, 1994.
    Morales, Waltraud Q. A Brief History of Bolivia. New York: Facts on File, 2003.
    Morell, David. “Thailand: Military Checkmate.” Asian Survey 12, no. 2 (February 1972): 15667.
    Moreno, Pedro Carlos Verdugo. La Guerra Civil de 1876–77 y el Ocaso del Liberalismo Radican en los Estados Unidos de Colombia. San Juan de Pasto, Colombia: Impresos la Castellana, 2001.
    Moreno, Segundo Luis. “La Campaña de Esmereldas de 1913–1916.” Revista: Del Centro de Estudios Historicos y Geograficos IX, no 33 (1939): 149.
    Morfill, William R. Poland. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1972. Reprint of 1893.
    Morón, Guillermo. A History of Venezuela. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1964.
    Morozova, Irina. “Revolutionary Mongols, Lamas, and Buddhism (1921–1941).” IIAS Newsletter 31 (July 2003): 24.
    Morris, Richard B., ed. Encyclopedia of American History. New York: Harper, 1970.
    Mortensen, Inge Demont. Nomads of Luristan. London: Thames and Hudson, 1993.
    Mortimer, Robert. “Islamists, Soldiers, and Democrats: The Second Algerian War.” Middle East Journal 50, no. 1 (Winter 1996): 1839.
    Morwood, William. Duel for the Middle Kingdom: The Struggle Between Chiang Kai-shek and Mao Tse-tung for Control of China. New York: Everest House, 1980.
    Moseley, Edward H. “Chapter 6: The United States and Mexico, 1810–1850.” In United States–Latin American Relations, 1800–1850: The Formative Generations, edited by Shurbutt, T. Ray. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1991.
    Mosley, Melinda M. “Operation Deliberate Force.” Air Force Library (March 2000). http://www.au.af.mil.
    Mounsey, Augustus H. The Satsuma Rebellion: An Episode of Modern Japanese History. Washington, DC: University Publishers of America, 1979. Reprint of 1879.
    Mowafi, Reda. Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Abolition Attempts in Egypt and the Sudan 1820–1882. Stockholm, Sweden: Esselte Studium, 1981.
    Mukhopadhyay, Ashoke Kumar. “Through the Eyes of the Police: Naxalites in Calcutta in the 1970s.” Economic and Political Weekly 41, no. 29 (2006): 3227233.
    Mullenbach, Mark. DADM—Intrastate Dispute Narratives: Asia/Pacific Region: 15. Philippines (1946–Present). 2013a. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific-region/philippines-1946-present/.
    _______. DADM—Intrastate Dispute Narratives: Asia/Pacific Region: 16. Philippines/Moro National Liberation Front (1946–Present). 2013b. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific-region/philippinesmoro-national-liberation-front-1968-present/.
    _______. DADM—Intrastate Dispute Narratives: Asia/Pacific Region: 16. Philippines/Moro Islamic Liberation Front (1977–Present). 2014. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/asiapacific-region/philippinesmoro-islamic-liberation-front-1978-present/.
    _______. DADM—Intrastate Dispute Narratives: Middle East/North Africa/Persian Gulf Region: 8. Kingdom of Nadj-Hijaz (1916–1932). n.d. http://uca.edu/politicalscience/dadm-project/middle-eastnorth-africapersian-gulf-region/kingdom-of-nadj-hijaz-1916–1932/.
    Munro, Dana Gardner. Intervention and Dollar Diplomacy in the Caribbean 1900–1921. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1964.
    _______. The Latin American Republics. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1942.
    _______. The Latin American Republics: A History. New York: D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960.
    _______. The United States and the Caribbean Republics 1921–1933. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1974.
    Murdoch, James. A History of Japan. Vol. III, part 2, rev. ed. Edited by Joseph H. Longford. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1964.
    Murray, William Smith. The Making of the Balkan States. New York: Columbia University, 1910.
    Muslim, Macapado A., and Rufa Cagoco-Guiam. “Mindanao: Land of Promise.” Accord (1999). http://www.c-r.org/sites/default/files/Accord%2006_2Mindanao%20land%20of%20promise_1999_ENG.pdf.
    _______. “Mindanao: Land of Promise.” Accord (2002). http://www.c-r.org/accord.
    Mydans, Carl, and Shelly Mydans. The Violent Peace. New York: Atheneum, 1968.
    Nachmani, Amikam. Turkey: Facing a New Millennium, Coping with Intertwined Conflicts. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2003.
    Nadarajah, Suthaharan, and Luxshi Vimalarajah. The Politics of Transformation: The LTTE and the 2002–2006 Peace Process in Sri Lanka. Berlin, Germany: Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management, 2008.
    Nahaylo, Bohdan, and Victor Swoboda. Soviet Disunion: A History of the Nationalities Problem in the USSR. New York: Free Press, 1990.
    Nantet, Jacques. Histoire du Liban. Paris, France: Editions de Minuit, 1963.
    Nathan, Andrew J. Peking Politics, 1918–1923: Factionalism and the Failure of Constitutionalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    National Archives. Defense Casualty Analysis System (DCAS) Public Use File, 1950–2005, June 28, 1950–May 28, 2006. 2006. http://aad.archives.gov/aad/series-list.jsp?cat=WR28.
    _______. Statistical Information about Fatal Casualties of the Vietnam War. 2008. http://www.archives.gov/research/military/vietnam-war/casualty-statistics.html.
    NationMaster. “Chad Military Stats.” 2005, 2006. http://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/profiles/Chad/Military.
    NATO. “NATO’s Role in Relation to the Conflict in Kosovo.” 1999. http://www.nato.int/kosovo/history.htm.
    _______. “Operation Deliberate Force.” NATO-OTAN AF SOUTH Fact Sheets (December 16, 2002). http://www.afsouth.nato.int/factsheets.
    Nawawi, Mohammed Ansori. “Regionalism and Regional Conflicts in Indonesia.” PhD diss., Princeton University, Department of Political Science, 1968.
    Nazzal, Nafez Y., and Laila A. Nazzal. Historical Dictionary of Palestine. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1997.
    Ndarubagiye, Léonce. Burundi: The Origins of the Hutu–Tutsi Conflict. Nairobi, Kenya: Léonce Ndarubagiye, 1996.
    NDC Extends Hadi’s Term for One Year on a Day Marked by an Assassination.” Yemen Times, January 23, 2014.
    Ndikumana, Léonce, and Emizet F. Kisangani. “The Case of the Democratic Republic of Congo.” In Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, vol. 1, edited by Paul Collier and Nicholas Sambanis, 6388. Washington: World Bank, 2005.
    Nelson, Harold D., and Irving Kaplan. Ethiopia, a Country Study. Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 1981.
    Neumann, Caryn E.Guinea-Bissau: Civil War, 1998–2000.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 18689. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    New Violence Flares in Indonesia.” Canberra Times, March 10, 1959, 3.
    New York Times, July 15, 1868, 1.
    New York Times, September 24, 1869, 1.
    New York Times, November 24, 1869, 1.
    New York Times, January 21, 1870. 5.
    New York Times, February 17, 1870, 1.
    New York Times, June 18, 1870, 1.
    New York Times, August 28, 1870, 1.
    New York Times, October 23, 1870, 1.
    New York Times, November 24, 1870, 1.
    New York Times, February 5, 1924, 14.
    New York Times, February 9, 1924, 8.
    New York Times, February 28, 1924, 23.
    New York Times, March 10, 1959, 1, 7.
    New York Times, March 11, 1959, 1, 34.
    New York Times, December 7, 1986, 28.
    New York Times. Multiple articles, 2010, 2011. http://www.nytimes.com.
    New York Times, multiple years.
    New York Times Index, 1909, 1947.
    Newman, Edward. Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and Change in Intrastate Conflict. London, Routledge, 2014.
    Newman, Edward, and Karl DeRouen, Jr., eds. The Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars. London: Routledge, 2014.
    Newman, Stephen Morrell. America: An Encyclopedia of Its History and Biography. Chicago, IL: G. W. Borland, 1881.
    Nhem, Boraden. The Khmer Rouge: Ideology, Militarism, and the Revolution That Consumed a Generation. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2013.
    Nickson, R. Andrew. Historical Dictionary of Paraguay. 2nd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1993.
    Nietupski, Paul Kocot. Labrang: A Tibetan Buddhist Monastery at the Crossroads of Four Civilizations. Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, 1999.
    Nkundabagenzi, Félix. “Ethnicity and Intra-State Conflict: Types, Causes and Peace Strategies—A Survey of Sub-Saharan Africa.” In Ethnicity and Intra-State Conflict, edited by Håkan Wiberg and Christian P. Scherrer, 28098. Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1999.
    Noble, Lela G.Muslim Separatism in the Philippines, 1972–1981: The Making of a Stalemate.” Asian Survey 21, no. 11 (1981): 1097114.
    Nodal, Roberto. “The Black Man in Cuban Society: From Colonial Times to the Revolution.” Journal of Black Studies 16, no. 3 (March 1986): 25167.
    Nofi, Albert A. A Civil War Treasury: Being a Miscellany of Arms and Artillery, Facts and Figures, Legends and Lore, Muses and Minstrels, Personalities and People. De Capo Press, 1995.
    Nojumi, Neamatollah. The Rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan: Mass Mobilization, Civil War, and the Future of the Region. New York: Palgrave, 2002.
    Nolutshungu, Sam C. Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1996.
    Norbu, Dawn. “The 1959 Tibetan Rebellion: An Interpretation.” The China Quarterly 77 (1979): 7493.
    Norbu, Jamyang. “The Tibetan Resistance Movement and the Role of the CIA.” In The History of Tibet, vol. 3, edited by Alex McKay, 610618. London: Routledge Curzon.
    _______. Warriors of Tibet: The Story of Aten and the Khampas’ Fight for the Freedom of their Country. London: Wisdom Publications, 1986.
    Norden, Deborah L. Military Rebellion in Argentina: Between Coups and Consolidation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
    Nourzhanov, Kirill. “Saviours of the Nation or Robber Barons? Warlord Politics in Tajikistan.” Central Asian Survey 24 (2005): 10930.
    Nunn, Frederick M. The Military in Chilean History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1976.
    Nusra Front Kills 90 ISIL Militants in Syria.” FARS News Agency, May 25, 2014.
    Nzongola-Ntalaja, G. The Congo: From Leopold to Kabila: A People’s History. London: Zed Books, 2002.
    O’Ballance, Edgar. Afghan Wars, 1839–1992. New York: Brassey’s, 1993.
    _______. Arab Guerilla Power, 1967–1972. London: Faber and Faber, 1974.
    _______. Civil War in Lebanon 1975–1992. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.
    _______. The Cyanide War: Tamil Insurrection in Sri Lanka, 1973–88. London, UK: Brassey’s, 1989.
    _______. The Greek Civil War, 1944–1949. New York: Praeger, 1966.
    _______. Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism, 1979–95: The Iranian Connection. Washington Square: New York University Press, 1997.
    _______. The Kurdish Struggle, 1920–94. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996.
    _______. Sudan, Civil War, and Terrorism 1956–99. New York: St. Martin’s, 2000.
    _______. The War in the Yemen. Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1971.
    Oberst, Robert C. “Sri Lanka: The Levels of Violence during the War & After.” The Sri Lanka Guardian, August 19, 2014. http://www.srilankaguardian.org/2014/08/sri-lanka-levels-of-violence-during-war.html.
    O’Brien, Thomas F. The Revolutionary Mission: American Enterprise in Latin America, 1900–1945. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    O’Callaghan, Mary-Louise. “Attack on Army Camp Leaves 15 Dead, 6 Injured.” Sydney Morning Herald, November 5, 1991a, 9.
    _______. “Painful Peace in Paradise.” Sydney Morning Herald, February 23, 1991b, 45.
    _______. “PNG Gives Self-rule to Island.” Sydney Morning Herald, October 24, 1991c, 7.
    _______. “Troops Poised to Launch Assault on Jungle Rebels.” Sydney Morning Herald, June 26, 1989, 9.
    Ocampo, Antonio Vélez. Cartago, Pereira, Manizales: Cruce de Caminos Históricos. Pereira, Colombia: Editorial Papiro, 2007. http://www.banrepcultural.org/blaavirtual/modosycostumbres/crucahis/indice.htm.
    Odom, Thomas P. Shaba II: The French and Belgian Intervention in Zaire in 1978. Fort Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute, 1993.
    Oehler, C. M. The Great Sioux Uprising. New York: Oxford University Press, 1959.
    Ofransky, Thomas P. “Warfare and Instability along the Sudan-Uganda Border: A Look at the 20th Century.” In While Nile, Black Blood: War, Leadership, and Ethnicity from Khartoum to Kampala, edited by Jay Spaulding and Stephanie Beswick. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 2000.
    O’Kane, Trish. Guatemala in Focus: A Guide to the People, Politics, and Culture. Northampton, MA: Interlink Books, 2006.
    Olarte, Guillermo Plazas. “El Ejército y Los Conflictos del Siglo XIX.” In Historia de las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia, edited by Alvaro Valencia Tovar, 147278. Bogotá: Planeta Colombia Editorial S.A., 1993.
    Olcott, Martha B. “The Basmachi or Freemen’s Revolt in Turkestan, 1918–24.” Soviet Studies 33, no. 3 (July 1981): 35268.
    _______. The Kazakhs.
    2nd ed
    . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1995.
    Olitho, Harold. “The Echigo War, 1868.” Monumenta Nipponica 34, no. 3 (1979): 25977.
    Oliver, Robert T. A History of the Korean People in Modern Times: 1800 to the Present. Newark, NJ: University of Delaware Press, 1993.
    Oliver, Roland, and Anthony Atmore. Africa since 1800. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Originally published 1972, 1994.
    Oliveira, A. R. Politics, Economics and the Men of Modern Spain. London: Victor Gollancz, 1946.
    Olonisakin, Funmi. “Liberia.” In Dealing with Conflict in Africa: The United Nations and Regional Organizations, edited by Jane Boulden. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
    Olson, Robert. The Emergence of Kurdish Nationalism and the Sheikh Said Rebellion, 1880–1925. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1989.
    _______. Imperial Meanderings and Republican By-Ways: Essays on Eighteenth Century Ottoman and Twentieth Century History. Istanbul, Turkey: Isis Press, 1996.
    _______. “The Kurdish Rebellions of Sheikh Said (1925), Mt. Ararat (1930), and Dersim (1937–8): Their Impact on the Development of the Turkish Air Force and on Kurdish and Turkish Nationalism.” Die Welt Des Islams 40, no. 1 (2000): 6694.
    Onacewicz, Wlodzimierz. Empires by Conquest. Fairfax, VA: HERO Books, 1985.
    One Step Forward, Two Steps Back.” Al-Ahram Weekly, February 28, 2014.
    One Thousand Die in Fierce Battle.” Rome News Tribune, November 9, 1962, 1.
    Onesto, Li. Dispatches from the People’s War in Nepal. London: Pluto Press, 2005.
    Onishi, Norimitsu. “Guinea in Crisis as Area’s Refugees Pour In.” New York Times, February 24, 2001.
    Operation Deliverance.” Details/Information for Canadian Forces (CF), Canada National Defense Operations Database, November 28, 2009. http://www.cmp-cpm.forces.gc.ca.
    Oppenheim, Lassa. International Law: A Treatise. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1906.
    Oquist, Paul. “Colombia’s ‘La Violencia.’” In The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions, edited by Jack A. Goldstone. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1998.
    _______. Violence, Conflict, and Politics in Colombia. New York: Academic Press, 1980.
    Orend, Brian. The Morality of War. Peterborough, Canada: Broadview Press, 2006.
    Orsi, Pietro. Cavour and the Making of Modern Italy. New York: Putnams’, 1914.
    Ortega, Enrique Montalvo. “Revolts and Peasant Mobilizations in Yucatán: Indians, Peons, and Peasants from the Caste War to the Revolution.” In Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution, Rural Social Conflict in Mexico, edited by Katz, Friedrich. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988.
    Ortiz, Venancio. “Historia de la Revolución del 17 de Abril de 1854.” 2004. Originally published 1855. http://www.lablaa.org/blaavirtual/historia/histrevo/indice.htm.
    Osorio, Elisa. “AFP Casualty Tally Exceeds NPA’s.” BusinessWorld (Philippines), June 29, 2006, S1/12.
    Ottaway, David, and Marina Ottaway. Algeria: The Politics of a Socialist Revolution. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970.
    Ottaway, Marina. South Africa: The Struggle for a New Order. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 1993.
    Páez, Rámon. Wild Scenes in South America, or, Life in the Llanos of Venezuela. New York: Charles Scribner, 1862.
    Page, Joseph F. Perón: A Biography. New York: Random House, 1983.
    Page, Stanley W., and Andre Ezergailis. “The Lenin-Latvian Axis in the November Seizure of Power.” Canadian Slavonic Papers 19, no. 1 (1977): 3249.
    Pahta, Ghulamuddin. “Soviet-Chinese Collaboration in Eastern Turkestan: The Case of the 1933 Uprising.” Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 11 (1990): 24353.
    Paige, Jeffery M. “Social Theory and Peasant Revolution in Vietnam and Guatemala.” Theory and Society 12, no. 6 (November 1983): 699736.
    Paine, S. C. M. The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge Press, 2003.
    Palacio, Ernesto. Historia de la Argentina. Tomo IV. Argentina: Editorial Revisión, 1975.
    Palacios, Marco. Between Legitimacy and Violence: A History of Colombia. Translated by Richard Stoller. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
    Palmer, Alan. The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 1992.
    Palmer, David Scott. “The Revolutionary Terrorism of Peru’s Shining Path.” In Terrorism in Context. Edited by Martha Crenshaw. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.
    Papageorgiou, Stephanos P. “The Army as an Instrument for Territorial Expansion and for Repression by the State: The Capodistrian Case.” Journal of the Hellenic Diaspora 12, no. 4 (1985): 2134.
    Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs, Accompanying the Annual Message of the President to the Second Session, Thirty-Eighth Congress. Part IV. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1865.
    Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States. Vol. 19, part 2. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, n.d.
    Paquin, Lyonel. The Haitians: Class and Color Politics. Brooklyn, NY: Multi-Type, 1983.
    Paraguay Rebels Routed.” New York Times, May 14, 1912.
    Paraguay Revolution.” Thames Star (New Zealand) XLVII, no. 10310 (March 4, 1911): 2.
    Paratroopers in Sheba’s City.” The Glasgow Herald, December 6, 1962, 8.
    Pardo-Maurer, Rogelio. The Contras, 1980–1989: A Special Kind of Politics. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1990.
    Park, Alexander G. Bolshevism in Turkestan 1917–1927. New York: Columbia University Press, 1957.
    Park, James William. Rafael Núñez and the Politics of Colombian Regionalism, 1863–1886. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985.
    Parkes, Henry Bamford. A History of Mexico.
    3rd ed
    . Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1966.
    Parsa, Misagin. Social Origins of the Iranian Revolution. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1989.
    Parsons, Laila. The Druze Between Palestine and Israel, 1947–49. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
    Parvanova, Zorka. “Changes in the Political Status of the Island of Crete 1894–1899.” Etudes Balkaniques 25, no. 4 (1989): 6484.
    Patterson, George N. “China and Tibet: Background to the Revolt.” The China Quarterly 1 (January–March 1960b): 87102.
    _______. Tibet in Revolt. London: Faber and Faber, 1960a.
    Paul, Christopher, Colin P. Clarke, Beth Grill, and Molly Dunigan. Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2013.
    Paul, Matthew Robert, Jr. “Rural Violence and Social Unrest in Venezuela, 1840–1858: Origins of the Federalist War.” PhD diss., New York University, Department of History, 1974.
    Payne, James L. Patterns of Conflict in Colombia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1968.
    Payne, Robert. The Civil War in Spain, 1936–1939. New York: Capricorn, 1970.
    _______. Massacre. New York: Macmillan, 1973.
    Payne, Stanley G. The Franco Regime 1936–1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987.
    Payno, Manuel. “Compendio de la Historia de México, Cuarte Part, Leccíon XXXVII.” n.d. http://www.antorcha.net/biblioteca_virtual/historia/compendio/4_37.html.
    Pearson, Owen. Albania and King Zog. Vol 1 of Albania in the Twentieth Century: A History. London: I. B. Tauris, 2004.
    Pelissier, Roger. The Awakening of China, 1793–1949. London: Secker and Warburg, 1963.
    Pelletiere, Stephen C. The Kurds: An Unstable Element in the Gulf. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.
    Peña, Mario Aguilera. Insurgencia Urbana en Bogotá: Motín, Conspiración y Guerra Civil, 1893–1895. Bogotá: Instituto Colombiano de Cultura, 1997.
    Pennell, C. R. Morocco since 1830: A History. London: Hurst & Co., 2000.
    Pennington, A. Stuart. The Argentine Republic. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1910.
    Peou, Sorpong. “Cambodia: A Ray of Hope?Southeast Asian Affairs (1997): 83103.
    Peralta, Gabriel Aguilera, and John Beverly. “Terror and Violence as Weapons of Counterinsurgency in Guatemala.” Latin American Perspectives 7, no. 2/3 (Late Spring–Summer, 1980): 91113.
    Pérez, Antonio García. Estudio Político-Militar de la Campaña de Mejico 1861–67. Madrid, Spain: Imprenta de Avrial, 1901.
    Perez, Louis A., Jr. “Cuba, c. 1930–1959.” In Cuba: A Short History, edited by Leslie Bethell. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
    Perkins, Kenneth J. Tunisia: Crossroads of the Islamic and European Worlds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1986.
    Perlez, Jane. “Indonesian Province Enjoying First Signs of Peace.” New York Times, January 15, 2003, A3.
    Pernell, Jennie. “Cristero Rebellion.” In Concise Encyclopedia of Mexico, edited by Michael Werner, 14650. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, 2001.
    Perovic, Jeronim. “The North Caucasus on the Brink.” International Relations and Security Network (August 29, 2006). http://www.isn.ethz.ch.
    Perris, George Herbert. The Eastern Crisis of 1897 and British Policy in the Near East. London: Chapman and Hall, 1897.
    Perry, Alex. “Bitter Divide Remains in Ivory Coast a Year after Civil War.” Time (June 11, 2012). http://world.time.com/2012/06/11.
    Perry, Elizabeth J. “Social Banditry Revisited: The Case of Bai Lang, a Chinese Brigand.” Modern China 9, no. 3 (1983): 35582.
    Perry, Elizabeth J., and Tom Chang. “The Mystery of Yellow Cliff: A Controversial ‘Rebellion’ in the Late Qing.” Modern China 6, no. 2 (April 1980): 12360.
    Perry, Laurens Ballard. Juárez and Díaz: Machine Politics in Mexico. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1978.
    Perry, Richard O. “Warfare on the Pampas in the 1870s.” Military Affairs 36, no. 2 (April 1972): 5258.
    Petersen, Alexander.The 1992–93 Georgia-Abkhazia War: A Forgotten Conflict.” Caucasian Review of International Affairs 2, no. 4 (Autumn 2008): 18899.
    Petran, Tabitha. The Struggle over Lebanon. New York: Monthly Review Books, 1987.
    Petras, James. “Revolution and Guerrilla Movements in Latin America: Venezuela, Guatemala, Colombia, and Peru.” In Latin America: Reform or Revolution?, edited by J. Petras and M. Zeitlin. Greenwich, CT: Fawcett, 1968.
    Petrovich, Michael Boro. A History of Modern Serbia: 1804–1918. Vol. II. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976.
    Petterson, Donald. Inside Sudan: Political Islam, Conflict, and Catastrophe.
    Rev. ed
    . Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2003.
    Pettersson, Therése. “UCDP Battle-Related Deaths Dataset, version 5.0.” 2014. http://www.pcr.uu.se/research/ucdp/datasets/ucdp_battle-related_deaths_dataset.
    Philipp, Thomas. Acre: The Rise and Fall of a Palestinian City, 1730–1831. NY: Columbia University Press, 2001.
    Philippines Information Bulletin 2, no. 2 (April 1974).
    Phillips, Charles, and Alan Axelrod. Encyclopedia of Wars. Vols. 1–3. New York: Facts on File, 2005.
    Phillips, Christopher. “Syria’s Torment.” Survival 54, no. 4 (2012): 6782.
    Phillips, Steven E. Between Assimilation and Independence: The Taiwanese Encounter Nationalist China, 1945–1950. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003.
    Phillips, Walter Alison. The War of Greek Independence. London: Smith, Elder, 1897.
    Phisterer, Frederick. Statistical Record of the Armies of the United States. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1868.
    Pholsena, Vatthana, and Ruth Banomyong. Laos: From Buffer State to Crossroads. Chiang Mi, Thailand: MeKong Press, 2006.
    Picard, Elizabeth. Lebanon: A Shattered Country.
    Rev. ed
    . Holmes & Meier Pub., 2002.
    Picon, Alirio Gomez. El Golpe Militar del 17 de Abril de 1854. Bogotá, Colombia: Editorial Kelly, 1972.
    Pierce, Richard A. Russian Central Asia 1867–1917: A Study in Colonial Rule. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1960.
    Pike, Douglas. Viet Cong. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1966.
    Pike, Frederick. The Modern History of Peru. New York: Praeger, 1967.
    Pineo, Ronn F. Social and Economic Reform in Ecuador: Life and Work in Guayaquil. Tallahassee: University Press of Florida, 1996.
    Pinson, Mark. “Ottoman Bulgaria in the First Tanzimat Period: The Revolts in Nish (1841) and Vidin (1850).” Middle Eastern Studies 11, no. 2 (1975): 10346.
    Pitsch, Anne. “The Democratic Republic of Congo (Congo-Kinshasa): The African World War.” In History Behind the Headlines: The Origins of Conflicts Worldwide, vol. 1, edited by Sonia G. Benson, Nancy Matuszak, and Meghan Appel O’Meara. Detroit, MI: Gale Group, 2001.
    Plater, Diana. “Ken Fry Believes in Timor’s Dream.” The Canberra Times, May 26, 1977, 23.
    Platt, Stephen R. Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom: China. The West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012.
    PNG Signs Peace Pact with Rebels.” Herald Sun, August 22, 1991.
    Poggi, Rinaldo Alberto. Crisis en el Ejército de Operaciones en Entre Rios, 1870. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Editorial Dunken, 2004.
    Polites, Athanase G. Le Conflict Turko-Egyptien. Cairo, Egypt: Institut Francaise d’Archeologie Oriental du Caire, 1931.
    Polk, William R. The Opening of South Lebanon, 1788–1840: A Study of the Impact of the West on the Middle East. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1963.
    Pollack, Kenneth M. Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, 1948–1991. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004.
    Pollo, Stefanaq, and Arben Puto. The History of Albania from Its Origins to the Present Day. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1981.
    Polo, Marco, Jr. “Ibrahim Pacha, the Conqueror of Syria.” New Monthly Magazine XXXVII, no. CXLVI (February 1833): 15354.
    Porch, Douglas, and María José Rasmussen. “Demobilization of Paramilitaries in Colombia: Transformation or Transition?Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 31 (2008): 52040.
    Posada-Carbo, Eduardo. “Elections and Civil Wars in Nineteenth-century Colombia: The 1875 Presidential Campaign.” Journal of Latin American Studies 26, no. 3 (October 1994): 62149.
    Pottier, Johan. Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
    Poujol, Catherine. “Some Reflections on Russian Involvement and Interests in Tajikistan: The Role of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.” In Tajikistan: Trials of Independence, edited by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili, and Frederic Grare. New York: Routledge, 1997.
    Prazmowska, Anita. A History of Poland. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
    Preston, Matthew. “Stalemate and the Termination of Civil War: Rhodesia Reassessed.” Journal of Peace Research 41, no. 1 (2004): 6583.
    Preston, Paul. The Coming of the Spanish Civil War: Reform, Reaction, and Revolution in the Second Republic. New York: Routledge, 1994.
    _______. Revolution and War in Spain, 1931–1939. New York: Routledge, 1993.
    Prevost, Gary. “The ‘Contra War’ in Nicaragua.” Conflict Quarterly VII, no. 3 (1987): 521.
    Price-Mars. Jean-Pierre Boyar Bazelais et la Drame de Miragoane. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Imprimerie de l’Etat, 1948.
    Priestley, Herbert Ingram. The Mexican Nation, a History. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1926.
    Primo, Nicholas. “No Music in Timbuktu: A Brief Analysis of the Conflict in Mali and Al Qaeda’s Rebirth.” Pepperdine Policy Review 6 (January 1, 2013): F1+.
    Prisk, Max G. Manwaring Court. El Salvador at War: An Oral History of Conflict from the 1979 Insurrection to the Present. Washington, DC: National Defense University Press, 1988.
    Pritchard, Earl H. “Political Ferment in China, 1911–1947.” Annals 277 (September 1951).
    Prizzia, Ross. Thailand in Transition: The Role of Oppositional Forces. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985.
    Project Ploughshares. “Armed Conflict Report.” 2000. www.ploughshares.ca/content.
    _______. “Armed Conflict Report.” 2004. www.plough-shares.ca/content.
    _______. “Armed Conflict Report.” 2005a. www.plough-shares.ca/libraries.
    _______. “Armed Conflict Report.” 2008. www.plough-shares.ca/libraries.
    _______. “Cambodia (1978–2000).” 2001. http://plough-shares.ca/pl_armedconflict/cambodia-1978–2000/.
    _______. “Central Africa Republic.” 2014a. www.plough-shares.ca/pl_armedconflict/central-african-republic-update.
    _______. “Iraq–Kurds (1961–2004).” 2005b. http://ploughshares.ca/pl_armedconflict/iraq-kurds-1961–2004/.
    _______. “Philippines-CPP/NPA (1969—First Combat Deaths).” 2014b. http://ploughshares.ca/pl_armedconflict/philippines-cppnpa-1969-first-combat-deaths/.
    _______. “Philippines-Mindanao (1971—First Combat Deaths).” 2014c. http://ploughshares.ca/pl_armedcon-flict/philippines-mindanao-1971-first-combat-deaths/.
    _______. “Yemen (2004—First Combat Deaths).” 2014d. http://ploughshares.ca/pl_armedconflict/yemen-2004-first-combat-deaths.
    Prunier, Gérard. Africa’s World War: Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009.
    _______. Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide. London: Hurst and Company, 2005.
    _______. “The Experience of European Armies in Operation Restore Hope.” In Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, edited by Walter M. Clarke and Jeffrey M. Herbst. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
    _______. “Rebel Movements and Proxy Warfare: Uganda, Sudan and the Congo (1986–99).” African Affairs 103, no. 412 (2004): 35983.
    _______. “Somalia: Civil War, Interventions and Withdrawal, 1990–1995.” WRITENET, July 1, 1995. http://www.refword.org/docid/3ae6a6c98.html.
    Purnell, Jennie. Popular Movements and State Formation in Revolutionary Mexico: The Agraristas and Cristeros of Michoacán. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
    Pushkarev, Sergei. The Emergence of Modern Russia, 1801–1917. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1963.
    Puzyrewsky, Alexander. Der Polnisch-Russische Krieg, 1831. 3 vols. Vienna, Austria: Kreisel and Groger, 1893.
    Pye, Lucian W. Warlord Politics: Conflict and Coalition in the Modernization of Republican China. New York: Praeger, 1971.
    Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
    Quatriglio, Giuseppe. Thousand Years in Sicily. Mineola, NY: Legas, 1997.
    Quincy, Keith. Harvesting Pa Chay’s Wheat: The Hmong and America’s Secret War in Laos. Spokane: Eastern Washington University Press, 2000.
    _______. Hmong: History of a People.
    2nd ed
    . Cheney: Eastern Washington University Press, 1995.
    Quintana, Alejandro. “The President That Never Was: Maximino Ávila Camacho and the Taming of Caudillismo in Early Post-revolutionary Mexico.” PhD diss., City University of New York, 2007.
    Rabinovich, Itamar. The War for Lebanon. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985.
    Rabinowitch, Alexander. The Bolsheviks Come to Power. New York: W. W. Norton, 1976.
    Race, Jeffrey. “Thailand: 1973: ‘We Certainly Have Been Ravaged by Something …’Asian Survey 14, no. 2 (February 1974).
    _______. “Thailand in 1974: A New Constitution.” Asian Survey 15, no. 2 (February 1975): 15765.
    Raleigh, Donald J. The Emperors and Empresses of Russia: Rediscovering the Romanovs. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1996.
    Ram, Mohan. “Shift in Naxalite Tactics.” Economic and Political Weekly 6, no. 34 (1971): 1798799.
    _______. Sri Lanka: The Fractured Island. New Delhi, India: Penguin Books, 1989.
    Ramakrishna, Kumar. Radical Pathways: Understanding Muslim Radicalization in Indonesia. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2009.
    Ramet, Sabrina P. Thinking about Yugoslavia, Scholarly Debates about the Yugoslav Breakup and the Wars in Bosnia and Kosovo. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005.
    Ramsey, Russell W. Revolución Campesina, 1950–1954.
    1st ed
    . en Española. Versión de María Restrepo Castro. Bogotá, Colombia: Ediciones Libros de Colombia, 1973.
    Ramsey, Russell Wilcox. “The Modern Violence in Colombia,1946–1965.” PhD diss., University of Florida, 1970.
    Ranatunga, Cyril. Adventurous Journey: From Peace to War, Insurgency to Terrorism. Colombo, Sri Lanka: Vijjitha Yapa Publications, 2009.
    Ranke, Leopold. The History of Serbia. London: Bohn, 1853.
    Ranstorp, Magnus. Hizb’allah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
    Rapport, Michael. 1848: Year of Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 2009.
    Rasanayagam, Angelo. Afghanistan: A Modern History. London: I. B. Tauris, 2003.
    Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil, and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000.
    Rastoder, Šerbo. “A Short Review of the History of Montenegro.” In Montenegro in Transition, edited by Florian Bieber, 10737. Baden-Baden, Germany: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 2003.
    Ratnatunga, Sinha. “Terror of JVP ‘Ended.’The Guardian (London), December 29, 1989.
    Rauch, George V. The Argentine Military and the Boundary Dispute With Chile, 1870–1902. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
    Raun, Toivo U. Estonia and the Estonians. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1987.
    Ray, James Lee, and J. David Singer. “Measuring the Concentration of Power in the International System.” Sociological Methods and Research 1 (1973): 40337; reprinted in J. David Singer and Associates Explaining War. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1979, and in J. David Singer and Paul Diehl, eds. Measuring the Correlates of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
    Read, Christopher. From Tsar to Soviets: the Russian People and their Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
    Reano, Mariella. The Origin of Peruvian Professional Militarism. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University, 2002.
    Rebel Chief Defects, Quiets Yemen War.” Miami News, January 16, 1969, 9A.
    ‘Rebel’ Wanted by Indonesia.” The Canberra Times, September 6, 1965, 1.
    Rebellion: Indonesia Calls Them Migrant Workers but They May Be Refugees, Fleeing from Trouble.” Globe and Mail (Canada), May 24, 1991.
    Rebels Defeat Federals.” Reading Eagle, December 12, 1923, 10.
    Rebels Fight Soldiers in West Irian.” The Canberra Times, July 11, 1969, 1.
    Rebels in Philippines Sign Truce.” The Sunday Times (Perth), June 24, 2001.
    Rebels Prepared to Battle PNG Forces.” Courier-Mail, October 11, 1990.
    Recent Disturbances in Morocco.” The American Journal of International Law 1, no. 4 (October 1907): 97578.
    Rector, John L. The History of Chile. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
    Reddaway, W. F., et al., eds. The Cambridge History of Poland. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1941.
    Reed, Nelson. A. The Caste War of Yucatan. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1964.
    _______. The Caste War of Yucatán.
    Rev. ed
    . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001.
    Reed, W. Cyrus. “Patronage, Reform, and Public Policy: The Role of Zaire in the Great Lakes Crisis.” Unpublished manuscript, March 8, 1999.
    Refugees International. “Sri Lanka: Renewed Conflict Displacing Thousands.” Bulletin (July 10, 2006). http://www.refugeesinternational.org.
    Regan, P.Conditions of Successful Third-party Intervention in Intra-state Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 40, no. 2 (1996): 33659.
    Regan, Patrick M. Civil Wars and Foreign Powers: Outside Intervention in Intrastate Conflict. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000.
    Reid, Brian Holden. The American Civil War and the Wars of the Industrial Revolution. London: Cassell, 1999.
    Reid, James J. Crisis of the Ottoman Empire. Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag, 2000.
    Rempe, Dennis. Past as Prologue? A History of US CI Policy in Colombia, 1958–66. Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2002.
    Reno, William. “Liberia: The LURDs of the New Church.” In African Guerrillas; Raging against the Machine, edited by Morten BρÅs and Kevin C. Dunn. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2007.
    _______. “Sierra Leone: Warfare in a Post-State Society.” In State Failure and State Weakness in a Time of Terror, edited by Robert I. Rotberg, 71100. Cambridge, MA: World Peace Foundation, 2003.
    Research Directorate, Immigration and Refugee Board, Canada. “The Role of the Military.” January 1, 1991. http://www.refworld/org/docid/3ae6a80f28.html.
    Restrepo, Jorge, Michael Spagat, and Juan F. Vargas. “The Dynamics of the Colombian Civil Conflict: A New Data Set.” Paper presented at the conference Revolutions, Old and New, Villa Gualino, Italy, June 2003.
    _______. “The Severity of the Columbian Conflict: Cross-Country Datasets versus New Micro Data.” Unpublished manuscript, 2004.
    Reuters. Multiple articles, 2012–2013. http://www.reuters.com.
    Reuters Alertnet. “Pakistani Troops Attack Militants in Scenic Valley.” November 15, 2007.
    Revolt in Mexico Extending to Six States.” The Victoria Advocate, December 7, 1923, 1.
    Reyntjens, Filip. Small States in an Unstable Region—Rwanda and Burundi, 1999–2000. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordic African Institute, 2000.
    Rezun, Miron. Intrigue and War in Southwest Asia. New York: Praeger, 1992.
    Rhoads, Edward J. M. Manchus and Han: Ethnic Relations and Political Power in Late Qing and Early Republican China, 1861–1928. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2000.
    Riall, Lucy. Sicily and the Unification of Italy: Liberal Policy and Local Power. Oxford, UK: Clarendon House, 1998.
    Ribetti, Marcella Marisa. “Some Conflicts May Not End: The Stability of Protracted Violence.” PhD diss., University of Texas at Austin, 2002.
    Rice, Edward. Wars of the Third Kind. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.
    Rice, Michael David. “Nicaragua and the United States: Policy Confrontations and Cultural Interactions, 1893–1933.” PhD diss., University of Houston, Department of History, 1995.
    Richani, Nazih. “Caudillos and the Crisis of the Colombian State: Fragmented Sovereignty, the War System and the Privatisation of Counterinsurgency in Colombia.” Third World Quarterly 28 (2007): 40317.
    _______. Systems of Violence: The Political Economy of War and Peace in Colombia. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2002.
    _______. “Third Parties, War Systems’ Inertia, and Conflict Termination: The Doomed Peace Process in Colombia, 1918–2002.” The Journal of Conflict Studies 25, no. 2 (Winter 2005).
    Richard, Carlos Macías. “El Territorio de Quintana Roo. Tentativas de Colonización y Control Militar en la Selva Maya.” Historia Mexicana XLIX, no. 1 (1999): 554.
    Richardson, Hugh. Tibet and Its History. Boulder, CO: Shambala Publications, 1984.
    Richardson, Lewis F. Statistics of Deadly Quarrels. Pittsburgh, PA: Boxwood Press, 1960.
    Richmond, Douglas A. Carlos Pellegrini and the Crisis of the Argentine Elites, 1880–1916. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1989.
    Rieber, Alfred J. “Civil Wars in the Soviet Union.” Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History 4, no. 1 (2003): 12962.
    Ripley, George, and Charles Dana. The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1861.
    Rippy, J. Fred. The Caribbean Danger Zone. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1940.
    Ritter, William S. “The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek and the Basmachi, 1924–1931.” Soviet Studies 37, no. 4 (October 1985): 48493.
    _______. “Revolt in the Mountains: Fazail Maksum and the Occupation of Garm, Spring 1929.” Journal of Contemporary History 25 (1990): 54780.
    Roberts, David W. Political Transition in Cambodia 1991–99: Power, Elitism and Democracy. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Curzon, 2001.
    Roberts, Elizabeth. Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007.
    Roberts, Greg. “PNG’s Agony: 10,000 Dead.” Sydney Morning Herald, July 13, 1996, 1
    Robertson, Priscilla. Revolutions of 1848: A Social History. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1952.
    Robins, Nicholas. Native Insurgencies and the Genocidal Impulse in the Americas. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2005.
    Robinson, Fay. Mexico and the Military Chieftains from the Revolution of Hidalgo to the Present Time. Glorieta, NM: The Rio Grande Press, Inc., 1847.
    Robinson, Simon, and Vivienne Walt. “The Deadliest War in the World.” Time, June 5, 2006, 3853.
    Rochlin, James F. Vanguard Revolutionaries in Latin America: Peru, Colombia, Mexico. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
    Rock, David. Argentina, 1516–1982. Berkley: University of California Press, 1985.
    _______. “The Collapse of the Federalists: Rural Revolt in Argentina 1863–1876.” Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe 9, no. 2 (July–December 1998). http://www.tau.ac.il/eial/IX_2/rock.html.
    _______. State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860–1916. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002.
    Rodman, Selden. Haiti: The Black Republic, The Complete Story and Guide. New York: Devin-Adair, 1954.
    Rodriguez Herrero, Enrique. Campana Militar de 1904. Montevideo, Uruguay: n.p., 1934.
    Rogan, Eugene L. The Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
    Roggio, Bill. “The Fall of Northwestern Pakistan: An Online History.” The Long War Journal (September 13, 2006). http://www.longwarjournal.org.
    Rolandson, Øystein H. Guerilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s. Sweden: Almquist and Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005.
    Rollman, Wilfrid J. “The ‘New Order’ in a Precolonial Muslim Society: Military Reform in Morocco, 1844–1904.” PhD diss., University of Michigan, Department of History, 1983.
    Romero, Alexis. “AFP-NPA Ceasefire Ends at Midnight.” Philippine Star, January 19, 2015. http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2015/01/19/1414591/afp-npa-ceasefire-ends-midnight.
    Rondon Marquez, R. A. Guzman Blanco. Caracas, Venezuela: Garrido, 1944.
    Rood, Judith Mendelsohn. “Mehmed Ali as Mutinous Khedive: The Roots of Rebellion.” International Journal of Turkish Studies 8, nos. 1, 2 (Spring 2002): 11528.
    Rosales, Manuel Landaeta. Guerra de Venezuela en 1898. Caracas, Venezuela: Imprenta Federación, 1898.
    Rose, Gregory F. “The Post-Revolutionary Purge of Iran’s Armed Forces: A Revisionist Assessment.” Iranian Studies 17, no. 2/3 (1984): 15394.
    Rosello, Victor M. “Lessons From El Salvador.” Parameters XXIII (Winter 1993): 1018.
    Rosenau, James N., ed. International Politics and Foreign Policy. New York: Free Press, 1969.
    Ross, Daniel James Jonathan. The Honduran Revolution of 1924 and American Intervention. Master’s thesis, University of Florida, 1969.
    Ross, Edward Alsworth. The Russian Soviet Republic. New York: The Century Co., 1923.
    Rotberg, Robert I. Haiti, The Politics of Squalor. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1971.
    Rourke, Thomas. Gómez: Tyrant of the Andes. New York: Greenwood Press, 1969. Originally published 1936.
    Rousseau, Jean-Jacques. The Noble Savage. Translated by Maurice Cranston. New York: Penguin Books, 1968. Originally published 1762.
    Roxborough, Ian, Philip O’Brien, and Jackie Roddick. Chile: The State and Revolution. New York: Holmes and Meier Publishers Inc., 1977.
    Roy, Denny. Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003.
    Royle, Charles. The Egyptian Campaigns 1882 to 1885.
    Rev. ed
    . London: Hurst and Blackett Ltd., 1900.
    Ruay, Deng. The Politics of Two Sudans: The South and the North, 1821–1969. Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 1994.
    Rubin, Avshalom H. “Abd al-Karim Qasim and the Kurds of Iraq: Centralization, Resistance and Revolt, 1958–63.” Middle Eastern Studies 43 (2007): 35382.
    Rubin, Barnett R. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System.
    2nd ed
    . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2002.
    Rudolph, Donna Keyse, and G. A. Rudolph. Historical Dictionary of Venezuela. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1971.
    Rudolph, James D. Peru: The Evolution of a Crisis. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1992.
    Rudolph, Joseph R., ed. Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
    Rugeley, Terry. Rebellion Now and Forever: Mayas, Hispanics, and Caste War Violence in Yucatán, 1800–1880. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.
    _______. Yucatán’s Maya Peasantry and the Origins of the Caste War. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1996.
    Ruiz, Bert. The Colombian Civil War. Jefferson, NC: McFarland and Co., 2001.
    Rummel, Rudolph J. Death by Government. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction, 1994.
    _______. The Dimensionality of Nations. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1972.
    _______. Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900. Münster, Germany: Lit Verlag, 1998.
    Rupiya, Martin R. “A Political and Military Review of Zimbabwe’s Involvement in the Second Congo War.” In The African Stakes of the Congo War, edited by John F. Clark. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002.
    Russell, Tom. “A Lebanon Primer.” MERIP Reports 133 (1985): 179.
    Russett, Bruce. Grasping the Democratic Peace. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
    Russett, Bruce, J. David Singer, and Melvin Small. “National Political Units in the Twentieth Century: A Standardized List.” American Political Science Review LXII, no. 3 (September 1968): 93251.
    Rustum, Asad J. The Royal Archives of Egypt and the Disturbances in Palestine, 1834. Beirut, Lebanon: American Press, 1938.
    Rwantabagu, Hermeneglide. “Explaining Intra-state Conflicts in Africa: The Case of Burundi.” International Journal on World Peace 18, no. 2 (2001): 4146.
    Rywkin, Michael. Moscow’s Muslim Challenge: Soviet Central Asia.
    Rev. ed
    . Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe Inc., 1990.
    Saalax, Warsan Cismaan, and Abdulaziz Ibrahim Xildhiban. “Somali Peace Agreements: Fuelling Factionalism.” [Whose Peace Is It Anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking]. Accord 21 (2010): 323.
    Sabahi, Houshang. British Policy in Persia, 1918–1925. Portland, OR: Frank Cass, 1990.
    Sabry, M. L’Empire Egyptien Sous Mohamed-Ali et la Question d’Orient. Paris, France: Librairie Orientaliste, 1930.
    Sadri, Roostam. “The Islamic Republic of Eastern Turkestan: A Commemorative Review.” Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 5 (1984): 294320.
    Safer Access. “A Summary of Armed Groups and Political Parties in Côte d’Ivoire.” January 17, 2007. http://www.geneva-academy.ch/rulac/pdf_state/Summary-of-Armed-Groups-and-Political-Parties-in-Côte-d’ivoire.pdf.
    Safford, Frank, and Marco Palacios. Colombia: Fragmented Land, Divided Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
    Saleem, Adnan. “United Nations Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM, UNITAF, UNOSOM II).” Pakistan Urdu IT, 2011. http://pakistanurduit.blogspot.com.
    Salibi, Kamal S. Crossroads to Civil War. Delmar, NY: Caravan, 1976.
    _______. The Modern History of Jordan. New York: St. Martin’s, 1993.
    Salih, Shakeeb. “The British-Druze Connection and the Druze Rising of 1896 in the Hawran.” Middle Eastern Studies 13, no. 2 (1977): 25157.
    Salmoni, Barak A., Bryce Loidolt, and Madeleine Wells. Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Houthi Phenomenon. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2010.
    Samarasinghe, S. W. R. de A. and Vidyamali Samarasinghe. Historical Dictionary of Sri Lanka. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
    San Miguel, Pedro L. The Imagined Island: History, Identity, and Utopia in Hispaniola. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2005.
    Sanaa Falls to Rebels.” Al-Ahram Weekly, September 25, 2014.
    Sanborn, Joshua A. Drafting the Russian Nation: Military Conscription, Total War, and Mass Politics, 1905–1925. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2003.
    Sánchez, Gonzalo, and Donny Meertens. Bandits, Peasants, and Politics: The Case of “La Violencia” in Colombia. Translated by Alan Hynds. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001.
    Sanchez, Justo. Efemérides Militares de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires, Argentina: Talleres Gráficos–Arsenal Principal de Guerra, 1906.
    Sandberg, Peter. “Oromo–the Forgotten People?New African (July–August 2001): 17.
    Sanders, James E. Contentious Republicans: Popular Politics, Race, and Class in Nineteenth-century Colombia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004.
    Sandford, Christine. Ethiopia under Hailé Selassié. London: J. M. Dent and Sons Ltd., 1946.
    Sandole, Dennis J. D. Capturing the Complexity of Conflict. New York: Pinter, 1999.
    Sante, Angela Delli. Nightmare or Reality: Guatemala in the 1980s. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Thela Publishers, 1996.
    Santos, Richard G. Santa Anna’s Campaign against Texas 1835–1836.
    2nd ed
    ., rev. Salisbury, NC: Texian Press/Documentary Publications, 1982.
    Santovenia, Emeterio S. Eloy Alfaro (Translation of “Eloy Alfaro y Cuba”). Academy of History, Cuba, 1935.
    Sapkota, Dipak. Ten Years of Upheaval: Reportage of the Decade Long Maoist People’s War in Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal: Revolutionary Journalist Association–Central Committee, 2010.
    Saray, Mehmet. The Russian, British, Chinese, and Ottoman Rivalry in Turkestan. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society Printing House, 2003.
    Sarkees, Meredith Reid. “Assessing Trends in War.” Presented on the panel Grand Strategy in the 21st Century at the joint meeting of International Security Studies Section and International Security and Arms Control, US Army War College, Carlisle, PA. October 30–November 1, 2003.
    _______. “The Correlates of War Data on War: An Update to 1997.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 18, no. 1 (Fall 2000): 12344.
    _______. “The COW Typology of War: Defining and Categorizing Wars (Version 4 of the Data).” 2011. http://www.correlatesofwar.org.
    _______. “Data Bases of War Available to Researchers: The Correlates of War Project.” Peace Psychology Newsletter 4, no. 3 (Fall 1995): 4, 8.
    _______. “Defining and Categorizing Wars.” In Resort to War: A Data Guide to Inter-state, Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non-state Wars, 1816–2007, by Meredith Reid Sarkees and Frank Whelon Wayman, 3973. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010a.
    _______. “Inter-state, Intra-state and Extra-state Wars: A Comprehensive Look at Their Distribution over Time, 1816–1997.” In War, edited by Paul Diehl, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2004.
    _______. “The Intra-state Wars.” In Resort to War: A Data Guide to Inter-state, Extra-State, Intra-state, and Non-State Wars, 1816–2007, by Meredith Reid Sarkees and Frank Whelon Wayman, 337484. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010b.
    _______. “Intra-state Wars (Version 4.0): Definitions and Variables.” 2009, http://www.correlatesofwar.org.
    _______. “J. David Singer and the Democratic Peace.” In “Reflections and Reassessments on the Early Work and Ideas of J. David Singer” by Daniel S. Geller and Paul F. Diehl, International Studies Review 15, no. 2 (June 2013): 25984.
    _______. “Old Wars, New Wars, and an Expanded War Typology.” Paper presented at the joint meeting of the International Studies Association and the Japan Association of International Relations, Tokyo, September 20–23, 1996.
    _______. “Patterns of Civil Wars in the Twenty-first Century: The Decline of Civil War?” In The Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars, edited by Edward Newman and Karl DeRouen, Jr., 23656. London: Routledge, 2014.
    _______. “Response to the ‘Forest Brothers’ and the Consequences of the Metropole-Periphery Distinction Elimination in the ‘Correlates of War’ Typology.” Journal of Baltic Studies 43, no. 4 (2012): 52838.
    _______. “Trends in Intra-state (Not Ethnic) Wars.” Presented at the international joint meetings of International Studies Associations, Hong Kong, July 26–28, 2001.
    _______. “What Do We Know about War.” In Resort to War: A Data Guide to Inter-state, Extra-state, Intra-state, and Non-state Wars, 1816–2007, by Meredith Reid Sarkees and Frank Whelon Wayman, 54177. Washington, DC: C Q Press, 2010c.
    Sarkees, Meredith Reid, and J. David Singer. “Armed Conflict Past and Future: A Master Typology? Paper presented at the European Union Conference on Armed Conflict Data Collection, Uppsala, Sweden, June 2001.
    Sarkees, Meredith, Frank Wayman, and J. David Singer. “Interstate, Intra-state, and Extra-state Wars: A Comprehensive Look at their Distribution over Time, 1816–1997.” International Studies Quarterly 77 (2003): 4970.
    Sarkees, Meredith Reid, and Frank Whelon Wayman. Resort to War 1816–2007. Washington, DC: CQ Press, 2010.
    Saudi Arabia: Secret Intelligence Records, 1926–1939. Vol. I: 1926–1931,
    archive ed
    . 2003.
    Saunders, M. G. The Soviet Navy. New York: Praeger, 1958.
    Savage War Raging Among Paraguayans.” New York Times, December 26, 1911.
    Say, Shaul. The Red Sea Terror Triangle: Sudan, Somalia, Yemen, and Islamic Terror. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2005.
    Scalapino, Robert A., and George T. Yu. Modern China and Its Revolutionary Process. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985.
    Schaefer, Robert W. The Insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus From Gazavat to Jihad. Denver, CO: Praeger, 2011.
    Schafer, Phil. “States, Nations, and Entities from 1492 to 1992.” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Terminal System, for the Correlates of War Project, 1995.
    Scheidel, Walter. Death on the Nile: Disease and the Demography of Roman Egypt. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2001.
    Scheina, Robert L. The Age of the Caudillo, 1791–1899. Vol 1 of Latin America’s Wars. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 2003a.
    _______. The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900–2001. Vol 2 of Latin America’s Wars. Washington, DC: Brassey’s, 2003b.
    _______. Santa Anna, A Curse upon Mexico. Washington, DC: Brassey’s Inc., 2002.
    Scherrer, Christian P. Genocide and Crisis in Central Africa. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
    Schevill, Ferdinand. History of the Balkan Peninsula. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1966.
    Schiemann, Theodor. Geschichte Russlands Unter Kaiser Nikolaus I. Vol. 3. Berlin, Germany: George Reimer, 1913.
    Schilcher, Linda Schatkowski. “Violence in Rural Syria in the 1880s and 1890s: State Centralization, Rural Integration, and the World Market.” In Peasants and Politics in the Modern Middle East, edited by Farham Kazemi and John Waterbury, 5084. Miami: Florida International University Press, 1991.
    Schirmer, Jennifer. The Guatemalan Military Project: A Violence Called Democracy. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998.
    Schlarman, Joseph. Mexico: A Land of Volcanoes. Milwaukee: Bruce, 1951. Originally published 1950.
    Schlesinger, Stephen, and Stephen Kinzer. Bitter Fruit, the Untold Story of the American Coup in Guatemala. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.
    Schmid, Alex P. Soviet Military Interventions since 1945. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books, 1985.
    Schmidt, Dana Adams. Yemen: The Unknown War. London: The Bodley Head, 1968.
    Schmidt, John R. The Unraveling: Pakistan in the Age of Jihad. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011.
    Schneider, Ronald M. Latin American Political History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2007.
    _______. “Order and Progress” A Political History of Brazil. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991.
    Schodt, David W. Ecuador: An Andean Enigma. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987.
    Schofield, Victoria. Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan, and the Unending War. New York: I. B. Tauris, 2003.
    Schulz, Donald E. “Ten Theories in Search of Central American Reality.” In Revolution and Counter Counterrevolution in Central America and the Caribbean, edited by Donald E. Schulz and Douglas H. Graham, 364. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1984.
    Schulze, Kristen. “Insurgency and Counter-insurgency: Strategy and the Aceh Conflict, October 1976–May 2004.” In Veranda of Violence: The Background to the Aceh Problem, edited by Anthony Reid, 22571. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 2006.
    _______. “Laskar Jihad and the Conflict in Ambon.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 9, no. 1 (2002): 5769.
    Schurmann, Franz, and Orville Schell. Republican China. Vol. 2 of The China Reader. New York: Vintage Books, 1967.
    Scobell, Andrew. China’s Use of Military Force: Beyond the Great Wall and Long March. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
    Scobie, James R. “The Aftermath of Pavon.” Hispanic American Historical Review 35, no. 2 (May 1955): 15374.
    Scott, Richard C., Jr. Case Studies in the Termination of Internal Revolutionary Conflict. Vol. VIII. Cambridge, MA: ABT Associates Inc., 1966.
    Selassie, Bereket Habte. Emperor Haile Selassie. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2014.
    Selbin, Eric. Modern Latin American Revolutions. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1993.
    Seligson, Mitchell A., and Vincent McElhinny. “Low-intensity Warfare, High Intensity Death: The Demographic Impact of the Wars in El Salvador and Nicaragua.” Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies 21, no. 42 (1996): 21141.
    Senaratne, Jagath P. Political Violence in Sri Lanka, 1977–1990: Riots, Insurrections, Counterinsurgencies, Foreign Intervention. Amsterdam, Netherlands: VU University Press, 1997.
    Senese, Paul D., and John A. Vasquez. The Steps to War, and Empirical Study. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.
    ‘Serious’ Fighting in West Java.” The West Australian (Perth), February 22, 1950, 1.
    Serrano, Andres Smith. “CIS Peacekeeping in Tajikistan.” In Regional Peacekeepers: The Paradox of Russian Peacekeeping, edited by John MacKinlay and Peter Cross, 15682. United Nations University Press, 2003.
    Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Decline of Imperial Russia, 1855–1914. London: Methuen, 1952.
    _______. The Russian Empire 1801–1917. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1967.
    Severe Fighting in Paraguay.” Evening Post (New Zealand) LXXXI, no. 67 (March 21, 1911): 7.
    Shakya, Tsering. The Dragon in the Land of Snows: A History of Modern Tibet since 1947. London: Pimlico, 1999.
    Shantz, Jeffrey A. “Zimbabwe: Anti-Mugabe Struggle.” In Encyclopedia of Conflicts since World War II, vol. 1, edited by James Ciment, 333. Armonk, NY: Sharpe Reference, 2007.
    Sharma, Sudheer. “The Maoist Movement: An Evolutionary Perspective.” Translated by Jyoti Thapa. In Himalayan People’s War: Nepal’s Maoist Rebellion, edited by Michael Hutt, 3857. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Shastri, Amita. “Sri Lanka in 2002: Turning the Corner?Asian Survey 43, no. 1 (2003): 21521.
    Shek, Richard. “The Revolt of the Zaili, Jindan Sects in Rehe (Jehol), 1891.” Modern China 6, no. 2 (1980): 16196.
    Sheldon, Charles. “Review: The Boshin War by Haraguchi Kiyoshi; a History of the Boshin War by Hirao Michio.” The Journal of Asian Studies 33, no. 2 (1974):