Contemporary American Foreign Policy: Influences, Challenges, and Opportunities
Publication Year: 2017
Subject: American Foreign Policy
Foreign policy is messy--and also incredibly interesting. Every day, decisionmakers must formulate and modify the US’s stance towards states like Russia, China, Germany, Iran, Syria, and Israel and tackle cross-cutting issues that touch on human rights, climate change, poverty, human insecurity, nuclear arms proliferation, and economic collapse. In Contemporary American Foreign Policy: Influences, Challenges, and Opportunities, authors Richard Mansbach (Iowa State University) and Kirsten Taylor (Berry College) examine modern foreign policy problems from a variety of angles, not just through the lens of a so-called “national interest.” In each chapter, they focus on today’s most pressing contemporary challenges, exploring their origins and backgrounds. They systematically shed light on the competing forces that influence them, outline the various policy options available to decisionmakers for addressing them, ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Policy Orientations
- Chapter 1: Sources of American Foreign Policy
- Chapter 2: Competing Currents in U.S. Foreign Policy
- Challenges in Key Issue Areas
- Chapter 3: American Military Strategy in an Era of Power Diffusion
- Chapter 4: America and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Chapter 5: An American Economic Conundrum: Neoliberalism or Neo-Mercantilism?
- Chapter 6: Democracy and Human Rights: Legitimate Objectives of American Policy?
- Chapter 7: America and the Global South: Aid, Intervention, and Neglect
- Chapter 8: Energy and the Environment: The Limits of U.S. Leadership
- Challenges in Key Regions and Countries
- Chapter 9: America and the Palestinian-Israeli Imbroglio
- Chapter 10: Arab Spring or Arab Winter?
- Chapter 11: America and Radical Islam
- Chapter 12: The United States and China: Engagement or Containment?
- Chapter 13: America, Europe, and NATO: A Changing Partnership
- Chapter 14: America and Russia: Values versus Power
- Chapter 15: Conclusion: America, a Wary Hegemon
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Copyright © 2017 by CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. CQ Press is a registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Names: Mansbach, Richard W., 1943- | Taylor, Kirsten L.
Title: Contemporary American foreign policy : influences, challenges, and opportunities / Richard Mansbach, Kirsten L. Taylor.
Description: First edition. | CQ Press, an imprint of SAGE Publications, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index.
Identifiers: LCCN 2015039391 | ISBN 9781452287232 (pbk. : alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: United States—Foreign relations—1989-
Classification: LCC E840 .M348 2017 | DDC 327.73009/04—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015039391
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Features and Illustrations[Page xvi]Features
- 1. Sources of American Foreign Policy
- Controversy: Realists and Liberals 14
- Did You Know? The Military Industrial Complex 20
- Controversy: The Israel Lobby 24
- Key Document: S.Res.399: Affirmation of the United States Record on the Armenian Genocide Resolution 25
- Key Document: Thomas Carlyle, “On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History” 29
- 2. Competing Currents in U.S. Foreign Policy
- Controversy: Partisanship and U.S. Foreign Policy 41
- Key Document: Excerpt from George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796) 44
- Did You Know? Guantánamo Bay, Cuba 47
- Controversy: The Social Costs of War 50
- 3. American Military Strategy in an Era of Power Diffusion
- Did You Know? Treaty Making in the U.S. System 73
- Key Document: Bush’s Speech at West Point, 2002 76
- Key Document: Remarks by President Barack Obama, Prague, April 5, 2009 79
- Did You Know? Piloting Drones 84
- 4. America and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
- Key Document: 2010 Nuclear Posture Review: Preventing Nuclear Proliferation and Nuclear Terrorism 103
- Did You Know? Fissile Materials 108
- Controversy: Syria and the Chemical Weapons Taboo 117
- Did You Know? The OPCW 118
- 5. An American Economic Conundrum: Neoliberalism or Neo-Mercantilism?
- Did You Know? The First U.S. Bailout 132
- Did You Know? Trade Disputes in the WTO 147
- Controversy: The Import-Export Bank 148
- Did You Know? The Trade Gap with China 154
- 6. Democracy and Human Rights: Legitimate Objectives of American Policy?
- Key Document: Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Four Freedoms Speech,” 1941 170[Page xvii]
- Controversy: Race and U.S. Human Rights Policy 171
- Did You Know? Sexual Orientation in U.S. Human Rights Policy 176
- Key Document: “Genocide in Darfur” 181
- 7. The U.S. and the Global South: Practicing Intervention, Aid, and Neglect
- Key Document: The 2015 National Security Strategy 213
- Did You Know? HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa 221
- 8. Energy and the Environment: The Limits of U.S. Leadership
- Did You Know? The Donora Smog 239
- Did You Know? Global Warming or Climate Change? 242
- Controversy: The IPCC 244
- Key Document: The 2010 U.S. National Security Strategy 248
- 9. America and the Palestinian-Israeli Imbroglio
- Key Document: The Balfour Declaration 271
- Key Document: UN Resolution 242 273
- Did You Know? The Geneva Accord 279
- Did You Know? The Beirut Marine Barracks Bombing 282
- Controversy: Benjamin Netanyahu and the Iran Deal 285
- 10. Arab Spring or Arab Winter?
- Key Document: President Barack Obama’s Speech in Cairo 302
- Did You Know? Turkey’s Atatürk 304
- 11. America and Radical Islam
- Key Document: Osama bin Laden, “Declaration of Jihad” (August 23, 1996) 334[Page xviii]
- Did You Know? The Battle of Mogadishu 344
- 12. The United States and China: Engagement or Containment?
- Did You Know? Nixon in China 366
- Key Document: The Shanghai Communiqué 367
- Key Document: The Taiwan Relations Act 376
- 13. America, Europe, and NATO: A Changing Partnership
- Did You Know? Winston Churchill 394
- Key Document: President Truman’s Address to Congress, March 14, 1947: The Truman Doctrine 399
- Did You Know? Iceland and NATO 414
- 14. America and Russia: Values versus Power
- Did You Know? Thirteen Days 425
- Key Document: Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” Speech 428
- Key Document: The Phases of the Proposed NATO Missile Defense 440
- Key Document: 1994 Budapest Memorandum 443
- Figure 1.1: Model of State-Centric World 8
- Figure 1.2: Model of Transnational World 9
- Figure 1.3: Communication Model Israeli Recognition Process, 1948 10
- Figure 2.1: How Much Does the United States Consider Your Country’s Interests? 61
- Figure 2.2: Majority Says United States Should “Mind Its Own Business” Internationally 62
- Figure 3.1: U.S. and Soviet/Russian Stockpiled Nuclear Warheads, 1945–2010 72
- Figure 3.2: U.S. Drone Strikes 85
- Figure 5.1: What Americans Think Foreign Trade Means for the Country 130
- Figure 5.2: Net Capital Flows to Emerging Markets, 1990–2013 140
- Figure 5.3: U.S. Trade in Goods with the World 155[Page xix]
- Figure 5.4: Emerging-Market Share of World GDP 157
- Figure 7.1: Foreign Aid Funding Trends, FY1977–FY2010 210
- Figure 7.2: A Snapshot of U.S. Global Health Funding 222
- Figure 7.3: The Shifting Origins of Refugees to the United States over Time 224
- Figure 8.1: Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions 246
- Figure 8.2: China’s Oil Production and Consumption, 1990–2013 255
- Figure 11.1: Public Opinion and the Iraq War 330
- Figure 11.2: Department of Homeland Security 351
- Figure 11.3: Office of the Director of National Intelligence 352
- Figure 13.1: Major EU Recipients of Russian Gas Transiting Ukraine 420
- Figure 14.1: The Nunn-Lugar Scorecard 434
- Table 5.1 The World’s Largest Economies 143
- Table 5.2 U.S. Trade Agreements 144
- Table 5.3 GATT/WTO Trade Rounds 146
- Table 5.4 Trans-Pacific Partnership Countries (2012) 152
- Table 5.5 IMF Vote Reform 158
- Table 6.1 U.S. Participation in Global and Regional Human Rights Instruments 172
- Table 7.1 Most Fragile States (2014) 212
- Table 7.2 U.S. Foreign Assistance by Category (2014) 217
- Table 7.3 Countries of Origin of Refugees to America (2014) 225
- Table 8.1 U.S. Participation in Major Environmental Treaties, 1970–2014 236
- Table 8.2 Leading Oil Producers and Consumers, 2014 254
- Table 11.1 World Muslim Populations by Region 332
- Map 1.1 Israel and Neighboring States 13
- Map 2.1 The Louisiana Purchase 45
- Map 4.1 Global Nuclear and Chemical Weapons 100
- Map 4.2 North Korean Nuclear Enrichment and Test Sites 109
- Map 4.3 Iranian Nuclear Facilities 112[Page xx]
- Map 4.4 Route of Syrian Chemical Weapons to MV Cape Ray 119
- Map 5.1 The G-20 141
- Map 6.1 Sudan and Surrounding Region 179
- Map 6.2 Reported Participants in the U.S. Extraordinary Rendition Program 187
- Map 6.3 Guantánamo Bay, Cuba 190
- Map 7.1 The Fund For Peace 2014 Fragile States Index 211
- Map 8.1 Coal Production by State, 2012 243
- Map 8.2 Share of Electricity Generated by Coal 250
- Map 8.3 Keystone XL Pipeline Map 257
- Map 9.1 Occupied Territories, Israeli Settlements, and Palestinian Refugee Camps 272
- Map 10.1 The Present-Day Middle East and North Africa 300
- Map 10.2 1916 Sykes-Picot Middle East Partition 303
- Map 11.1 The Umayyad Caliphate 331
- Map 11.2 Major Muslim Communities 333
- Map 11.3 Ethnic Groups in Afghanistan 338
- Map 11.4 Islamic Militant Groups and Their Areas of Influence in Africa 345
- Map 12.1 Coastal China and Taiwan 362
- Map 12.2 The South China Sea 379
- Map 12.3 China’s “String of Pearls” 380
- Map 12.4 Overlapping Chinese and Japanese Air Defense Identification Zones 384
- Map 13.1 Immigration to America 395
- Map 13.2 Divided Germany 398
- Map 13.3 NATO Expansion in Europe 412
- Map 14.1 Successor States of the USSR 430
- Map 14.2 Distribution of Ethnic Russians in Ukraine 442
- Map 14.3 Crimea 444
In our new book, Contemporary American Foreign Policy: Influences, Challenges, and Opportunities, we’ve set out to examine the outstanding issues confronting American foreign policy today, as well as the foreign policies of other key global actors in the foreseeable future. We systematically explore the forces that influence decisions among alternative policies and carefully outline the potential advantages and disadvantages of those alternatives. Since we know that few students have significant historical exposure, we begin each chapter with a section on historical background of the issue at hand and a description of the nature of the problem. However, the major emphasis of the text is the analysis of alternative policy options available to the United States with the potential positive and/or negative outcomes associated with each alternative, a critical aspect of the foreign policymaking process that is seldom covered in other texts on the subject. Our text assumes that most policies are not the result of perfect rationality of political leaders. Instead, it assumes that policy is usually made in a complex environment and takes form owing to myriad pressures from domestic interest groups in society, bureaucratic and political factors, and the idiosyncrasies of individual leaders. Each chapter concludes by addressing the alternative policies available to the United States and, in each case, the influences pushing Washington to select one or another option and possible consequences of each alternative.
To help students of foreign policy and international studies master new terminology and ideas, we have employed a variety of learning aids including timelines, maps, figures, tables, illustrations, cartoons, discussion questions, and a glossary of bolded key terms to help them study and review. The text also includes boxed features that contain excerpts of original documents, present policy controversies, and highlight significant details and facts. Additional student and instructor resources are available online, including chapter summaries and learning objectives, PowerPoint slides, discussion questions and ideas, class activities, question banks, practice quizzes, and flashcards.Organization of the Book
In this book, we explain decisions that Washington has made in meeting critical contemporary challenges and describe those policies as well as alternative policies that might be adopted. To accomplish this, all of the chapters are divided into three parts—“past” (what policies were historically pursued), “present” (what policies are currently pursued), and “future” (alternative policies and their potential costs and benefits).[Page xxii]Part I. Policy Orientations
Part I consists of two chapters. The first examines the various influences on foreign-policy decisions, influences that preclude purely rational decision making and that push policymakers toward one or another alternative. The influences are both domestic and external and, in most cases, force leaders to compromise and to sacrifice clear and decisive decisions in favor of incremental change. The second chapter reviews some of the enduring and competing emphases in American foreign policy: isolationism versus internationalism, unilateralism versus multilateralism, and interventionism versus noninterventionism. The material in these two chapters will reappear in assessing U.S. foreign policy in subsequent chapters.Part II. Challenges in Key Issue Areas
Part II consists of several chapters concerning challenges confronting American policymakers in key issue areas: American military strategy, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, trade and investment policies, democracy and human rights promotion, relations with the less developed regions of the world like Africa and Latin America, and the global environment.Part III. Challenges in Key Regions and Countries
Part III consists of chapters that focus on American relations with and policies toward regions and countries of particular importance to U.S. security and well-being: Israel-Palestine, the Arab world, Islamic extremism and terrorism, “rising” China, Europe and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and resurgent Russia. The final chapter consists of several conclusions about American leadership in a changing world.Pedagogical Tools
To enhance students’ learning experience, the book identifies key terms with boldface, and these are defined in a glossary at the end of the book. The book also includes such features as excerpts from key documents, end-of-chapter discussion questions, and “DID YOU KNOW?” and “Controversy” boxes.Online Resources
SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on demand. Learning and teaching have never been easier!
[Page xxiii] edge.sagepub.com/Mansbach
SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment.
- Mobile-friendly eFlashcards and quizzes strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
- A customized online action plan allows students to individualize their learning experience.
- Chapter summaries with learning objectives reinforce the most important material.
- EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles to support and expand on concepts presented in each chapter.
SAGE edge for Instructors supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students.
- Test banks provide a diverse range of prewritten options as well as the opportunity to edit any question and/or insert personalized questions to effectively assess students’ progress and understanding.
- Sample course syllabi for semester and quarter courses provide suggested models for structuring one’s course.
- Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides offer complete flexibility for creating a multimedia presentation for the course.
- EXCLUSIVE! Access to full-text SAGE journal articles to support and expand on concepts presented in each chapter to encourage students to think critically.
We would like to acknowledge Sarah Calabi, Elise Frasier, and Raquel Christie at CQ Press for their generous assistance at all stages of writing and publishing this book and the following reviewers, who provided many thoughtful and helpful suggestions:
- Benn L. Bongang, Savannah State University
- Matthew Caverly, University of North Florida
- Mark Cichock, University of Texas–Arlington
- Martha Cottam, Washington State University
- Alan Eastham, Hendrix College
- Ivan Ivanov, University of Cincinnati
- Thomas Kolasa, Troy University
- Sanford A. Lakoff, University of California, San Diego
- Alynna Lyon, University of New Hampshire
- Klejda Mulaj, Exeter University
- Jim Seroka, Auburn University
- James R. Stocker, Trinity Washington University
- Brian Urlacher, University of North Dakota
Rhoda and Rachael Mansbach, no husband or father could ask for more
Ron Taylor, husband and friend
A close link to a group or organization.
A group of countries joined together to enhance their security.
The special character of the United States as a uniquely free nation based on democratic ideals and personal liberty.
Any international control or limitation of the development, testing, production, deployment, or use of weapons based on the premise that certain weapons are particularly destabilizing and dangerous.
Protection granted by another government to refugees offering them protection from persecution in their home country.
Warfare in which opposing groups or nations have unequal military resources, and the weaker opponent uses unconventional weapons and tactics as terrorism to exploit the vulnerabilities of the enemy.
Relatively enduring organization of beliefs, feelings, intentions, and expectations of individuals or groups.
Enforcing strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom.
Freedom from external control or influence.
A secret, unofficial, or informal channel of communication as used in politics or diplomacy.
balance of payments:
The record of all economic transactions between the residents of a country—individuals, firms, and government—and the rest of the world.
balance of power:
A foreign policy aimed at preventing any state(s) from gaining a preponderance of power in relation to its rivals.
balance of trade:
The difference between the values of exports and imports of a country, said to be favorable or unfavorable, as exports are greater or less than imports.
Policies by which a country attempts to remedy its economic problems by means such as currency devaluation and higher tariffs that exacerbate the economic problems of other countries.
A foreign policy of cooperation between two states.
The variety of life forms in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
An international system characterized by two dominant states or blocs of states.
An acronym standing for Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, a group of countries that have newly advanced economic development.
A large group of appointed officials who are involved in running a government.
A policy that America could launch preemptive attacks to defend itself from terrorists and countries that supported terrorists in order to prevent possible attacks before they occurred and that promoting democracy—by force if necessary—was central to U.S. security strategy.
An Islamic empire ruled by those (“caliphs”) who succeeded the prophet Muhammad.
cap and trade system:
A market-based approach to controlling pollution that allows corporations or governments to trade emissions allowances under an overall cap, or limit, on those emissions.
An actor’s assets that allow it to exert influence over others.
Levies on carbon emissions or on the fuel that produces them.
checks and balances:
A system in which the different branches of government have powers that affect and control the other parts so that no branch can become dominant.
A change in global or regional climate patterns, in particular a change apparent from the mid to late 20th century onward and attributed largely to the increased levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide produced by the use of fossil fuels.
A policy by which the United States would forcefully intervene to prevent human rights abuses, with or without the authority of the UN Security Council.
[Page 468]collective good:
Benefits such as military security or clean air from which individuals cannot be excluded and, as a result, for which beneficiaries have no incentive to pay.
Concert of Europe:
The Concert of Europe, also known as the Congress System, established after the era of Napoleon and the French Revolution by the old great powers of Europe, involved meeting from time to time in an international conference to find solutions to solve issues that threatened Europe’s peace and stability.
U.S. foreign policy to halt the spread of communism in the Cold War by applying economic, diplomatic, and ultimately military pressure on the USSR.
The idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, are (or can and should be) citizens in a single community.
The sudden and illegal seizure of a government.
The quality of being convincing or believable, especially of commitments and threats.
crimes against humanity:
Crimes, including genocide, directed against a large group because of religion, ethnicity, country of origin, or other reason unconnected with any individual’s responsibility for having committed a criminal act.
cult of personality:
Adulation of a living national leader or public figure.
Intentionally keeping the value of a particular currency artificially low or high.
Use of information systems to exploit, disrupt, or destroy an enemy’s military or civilian computer networks.
Hacking computer systems in order to spy on an adversary or steal political and commercial secrets from governments and corporations.
Technologies, processes, and practices designed to protect networks, computers, programs, and data from attack, damage, or unauthorized access.
The release of a country or territory from political control by another country.
Political system based on the right of all citizens to participate in government, often by electing representatives.
democratic peace theory:
Theory that democracies do not fight wars with one another.
The easing of hostility.
A strategy intended to dissuade an adversary from taking an action not yet started by threatening to retaliate with military force.
Reducing the value of a currency relative to other currencies to increase exports.
Form of government in which a ruler exercises absolute power.
The reduction or abolition of a country’s military forces and armaments based on the premise that armaments cause war.
A policy to cease interacting with another country or other countries.
A theory that if one country is taken over by an expansionist neighbor, others nearby will also fall like a row of dominos.
Technologies normally used for civilian purposes but which may have military applications.
Sustained actions of policymakers that promote a population’s standard of living.
An official ban on trade or other commercial activity with a particular country.
A post–World War II combination of multilateral free trade internationally and government intervention to provide welfare to citizens domestically.
Countries with economies that are progressing toward becoming advanced, as shown by some liquidity in local debt and equity markets and the existence of some form of market exchange and regulatory body.
A policy of interacting with other countries.
A euphemism for rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by murder or expulsion from a territory of people from a particular ethnic background.
A group, often based on common ancestry, whose members identify with one another owing to a shared culture, religion, or language.
Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group or culture.
The quality of being convenient and practical despite possibly being improper or immoral.
[Page 469]external factors:
Events or conditions outside a state that influence its policymakers.
States whose governments have virtually collapsed.
fast track authority:
A congressional resolution that gives the president authority to negotiate trade agreements and requires Congress to vote on such agreements within ninety days without amending them.
The capability to attack first and destroy an enemy’s ability to retaliate.
Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty:
A ban proposed by President Bill Clinton in 1993 to stop production of materials capable of sustaining an explosive fission chain reaction.
foreign direct investment:
Overseas investment in physical resources such as buildings and machinery.
Sum of an actor’s goals and purposive actions in global politics.
States with governments that lack authority over much of their territory and are unable to deliver the services associated with governing and that suffer a loss of legitimacy.
A system of economics that minimizes government intervention and maximizes the role of markets.
International trade left to its natural course without tariffs, quotas, or other government-imposed restrictions.
A conflict in which violence has ended, but there has been no progress toward a settlement.
Deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic, racial, or cultural group.
A combination of geopolitical and strategic factors characterizing a particular geographic region.
The Earth’s shared natural resources such as the oceans, the atmosphere, and outer space.
(See greenhouse effect).
A world with no nuclear weapons.
Processes that produce worldwide interconnectedness and interdependence and facilitate the movement of persons, things, and ideas across sovereign boundaries.
A monetary system in one country in which currency is maintained at a par with that of another country that is on the gold standard.
Monetary system in which the unit of currency is equal in value and exchangeable for a specified amount of gold.
Attributes of a government or regime that influence its foreign policy.
government or bureaucratic politics model:
A model of decision making in which foreign policy is the result of competition and negotiation among different bureaucracies and interest groups with different interests and perspectives.
Comprehensive, long-term plan of essential actions by which a country plans to achieve its major objectives.
The result of greenhouse gases trapping heat in the atmosphere described as “global warming” or the observed increase in the earth’s average temperature.
A gas such as carbon dioxide, methane, or nitrous oxide that is believed to produce global warming.
Group of 20 (G-20):
The G-7 along with middle-income emerging economies like China, India, and Brazil.
A legal action by means of which detainees can seek relief from unlawful imprisonment.
Power based on coercion and/or rewards.
The leading or commanding country in an international system.
highly enriched uranium (HEU):
Weapons-grade uranium enriched to 90 percent U-235.
A development process that prioritizes improving the living conditions of people.
Basic rights that individuals enjoy by virtue of their humanness that can be neither created nor abused by governments.
The process of protecting people from threats to their lives and well-being, including threats from terrorism, crime, poverty, environmental degradation, and economic and political exploitation.
Seeking to promote human welfare.
The use of military force against a state when the aim of that action is ending human-rights violations being perpetrated by the targeted state.
A set of rules which seek, for humanitarian reasons, to limit the effects of armed conflict.
Ideas or standards of perfection or excellence.
Characteristics that individuals believe define themselves and that, when shared, define a group and its interests.
Doctrinaire body of ideas that reflects the beliefs of a political group and fosters particular policies.
Fighters (including terrorists) who wear no uniform, fight for no recognized authority, and ignore the laws of war.
Changing gradually in small steps.
Freedom from the influence of others.
Attributes of particular individuals that influence their foreign-policy decisions or actions.
A belief that the needs of each person are more important than the needs of the whole society or group.
A general increase in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money.
The upgrading of a system through application of information technology.
An attack on a soldier by a fellow soldier or the soldier of an ally.
Helping or causing something to happen or be done.
integrated supply chain:
A close alignment and coordination within a supply chain (inputs required to produce a product), consisting of all parties involved in fulfilling a purchase, including raw materials, manufacturing, transporting completed items, and support services.
A work or invention that is the result of creativity, such as a book, film, or design, to which the author owns rights and may apply for a patent, copyright, or trademark.
intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM):
A ballistic missile with a range greater than 5,500 kilometers.
Relationship in which two or more actors are sensitive and vulnerable to one another’s behavior.
A group that tries to influence the policies of government in a way that advances their own interests.
internally displaced person:
Someone forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country’s borders.
A threatening situation that arises unexpectedly and requires a rapid decision before the situation deteriorates.
A foreign policy or practice of involvement in world affairs.
Unsolicited interference by one state in the affairs of another.
Transforming a secular state into one governed by Islamic law and practices.
A policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.
The belief that waging a holy war on behalf of Islam is a religious duty.
Accepted as right and proper.
Policymaker who seeks to spread freedom and democracy and believes outside intervention can do so aided by international law and organizations.
An analyst or a practitioner who takes an optimistic approach to foreign policy that assumes the importance of values, the perfectibility of humankind, and the utility of democracy, international organization, and economic interdependence in maintaining peace.
managed float system:
Monetary system in which the value of a currency against other currencies is determined by supply and demand that is partly a consequence of government and bank coordinated currency purchases and sales.
The belief that the world reflects the duality of “good” versus “evil.”
The belief that the United States not only could but was destined to stretch from coast to coast.
The attempt to settle a dispute through participation of a third party (mediator) who attempts to identify points of agreement and make those in conflict reach an agreement.
A combination of defense industries, members of Congress, and the Pentagon that cooperate to encourage higher U.S. defense expenditures.
The actions of a central bank that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates. As the money supply grows, interest rates decline, and as it decreases, interest rates rise.
[Page 471]most-favored nation rule:
Requirement for countries to treat one another equally in trade relations.
Those who engage in Jihad. Often used specifically to refer to Islamist guerrilla fighters who organized after the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
A foreign policy based on cooperating with other countries.
multiple, independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV):
A ballistic missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit a different target.
mutual assured destruction (MAD):
A situation in which rivals possess second-strike forces, thereby assuring if either launched a nuclear first strike the other would retaliate, assuring the destruction of both.
The idea that a state has a set of goals that will collectively benefit its citizens.
national liberation movement:
A revolutionary movement that seeks the national independence of a country that had been a colony.
A community based on common cultural characteristics that binds a population and often produces a desire for national independence or autonomy.
Belief in the superiority of one’s own country over others.
To bring under the ownership or control of a state, as industries and land.
Policymakers who advocate the assertive promotion of democracy and national interest in foreign policy including resort to force.
Economic doctrine based on minimum government interference and reliance on free markets.
A contemporary version of the theory of mercantilism emphasizing economic protectionism and commercial policies as means of increasing domestic income and employment.
A policy of being impartial or not allied with any party in an armed conflict.
A series of domestic welfare programs enacted in the United States in the 1930s in response to the Great Depression.
Those who wish the United States to resist incorporating international norms or joining multilateral agreements and international institutions because they believe such actions limit American sovereignty and lack constitutional legitimacy.
Air space off-limits to the air force of a particular country.
A group of mainly less developed countries that were not members of either the Soviet or American alliance system in the Cold War.
nongovernmental organization (NGO):
An organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business. NGOs are usually organized around specific issues and perform a variety of functions including advocacy, humanitarian assistance, and policy analysis and expertise.
A foreign policy based on noninterference or involvement in other states.
A international system with no centers of power.
A principle of right action for members of a group and serving to guide, control, or regulate behavior.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO):
An alliance established in 1949 to make a potential aggressor recognize that America, with its nuclear capability, was committed to defending Western Europe.
Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT):
A treaty signed by President Lyndon Johnson in 1968 that created two categories of states, nuclear-weapons states (NWS) and nonnuclear-weapons states (NNWS), with rules for each to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
The corporate practice of moving business operations overseas.
An individual whose opinions by virtue of specialized knowledge or profession are highly regarded by others and that influence their views.
organizational process model:
A model of decision making in which large “semi-feudal” bureaucracies use a repertoire of standard operating procedures when dealing with routine and recurring situations.
Subcontracting work to suppliers overseas.
A form of oxygen that in the upper atmosphere absorbs ultraviolet rays, thereby preventing them from reaching the surface of the earth.
[Page 472]ozone depletion:
Destruction of the upper atmospheric layer of ozone gas, caused by substances formed from the breakdown of chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluoromethane, or halon used in aerosol cans, plastic foams, refrigerants, and certain solvents.
The five permanent members of the UN Security Council—China, France, Russia, Britain, and America—plus Germany.
Desire to form a single nation-state of the Arabs in the Middle East.
Funds that a government originally planned to spend on its military that become available for other purposes after a war ends.
Policy of peace between nations of widely differing political systems and ideologies, especially between communist and noncommunist countries.
A condition where multiple people, groups, or entities share political power.
Attitudes, beliefs, and values that shape a society’s perspectives and behavior.
political Islam (Islamism):
A set of ideologies holding that Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life.
The ability to influence others to do what an actor wishes them to do.
Foreign policy based on the use of military or economic power to influence the actions and decisions of other countries.
An area that strong states do not control but that they fear others might control.
One who adopts a practical, matter-of-fact way of approaching or assessing situations or solving problems.
A norm calling for action to be taken before the certainty of a problem has been established.
War initiated to gain an advantage over an enemy that itself is about to attack.
An attack to destroy the potential threat of the targeted party.
When a principal hires an agent to perform specific duties that are in the best interest of the principal but may be costly or not in the best interests of the agent, resulting in conflicts of interest and moral hazard issues.
The spread of conventional weapons, weapons of mass destruction, or weapons-applicable materials and technologies to countries or actors that did not previously have such weapons, materials, or capabilities. It can also refer to a country or actor increasing its arsenal of conventional or WMD capabilities.
Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI):
A commitment outlined by President George H. W. Bush in 2003 to take action to interdict weapons shipments, disrupt proliferation networks, and shut down the front companies that support them.
Information, frequently of a misleading nature, used to promote a particular political cause or point of view.
The practice of shielding a country’s domestic industries from foreign competition by taxing imports.
The collective opinion of many people on some issue, or policy, especially as a guide to action.
purchasing power parity (PPP):
The number of units of a country’s currency required to buy the same amount of goods and services in the domestic market as a U.S. dollar would buy in the United States.
The policy of a central bank that infuses a predetermined quantity of money into the economy by buying financial assets from commercial banks and private entities.
Protectionist measures that limit the amount of imports to a country.
Propensity for public opinion to support the government in moments of crisis or the onset of war.
rational actor model:
A model of decision making in which foreign-policy decisions are believed to result from the choices of unitary actors based on cost-benefit assessment of alternative options.
Acting to achieve one’s interests by examining the relative costs and benefits of all alternatives.
Foreign-policy analysts and practitioners whose approach to foreign policy assumes that states seek power and security and that their interests and policies are determined by the distribution of power
A reduction in a country’s GDP for at least two consecutive quarters.
The process of a central bank officially changing the value of banknotes or coins and reissuing currency for circulation, usually after a period of high inflation.
Funds sent by those working overseas to their home country, usually to their families.
reserve or “hard” currency:
A foreign currency like the U.S. dollar, the value of which is believed to be stable and is held by central banks and other major financial institutions to pay off international debt obligations.
Responsibility to Protect (R2P):
A norm that states forfeit aspects of their sovereignty when they fail to protect their populations from atrocities and human rights violations.
A policymaker who seeks to limit America’s foreign commitments to vital interests.
Aspects of the function that officials assume in government that influence a country’s foreign policy.
rule of law:
The principle that people and institutions are subject to and accountable to law that is fairly applied and enforced.
Penalties applied unilaterally by one country (or multilaterally, by several countries) on another country (or group of countries) that may include trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions.
A capability of absorbing an enemy nuclear attack while retaining the capability to retaliate.
Violence among adherents of different religions, ethnicities, or ideologies.
The principle that religion should not determine public policy or serve as the basis of law.
The condition of being protected or safe from harm.
Treaties that can be enforced without prior legislation by Congress.
separation of powers:
A system in which the branches of government (executive, legislative, judicial) have separate and unique powers that the others cannot impinge upon.
A policymaker who seeks to increase America’s role in fostering international rules and agreements.
Unmanned drone attacks based not on who the targets are but on whether they are exhibiting suspicious patterns of behavior thought to be “signatures” of terrorists.
Websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking.
The process by which individuals acquire the knowledge, language, social skills, and values required for integration into a community.
Characteristics of a country’s community and the groups in that community that influence the country’s foreign policy.
Power based on culture and reputation that shapes the preferences of others.
Status of states as legal equals under international law, according to which they are supreme within their boundaries and subject to no higher external authority.
Trading in an asset or making a financial transaction that has a risk of losing most or all of the initial outlay, in expectation of a substantial gain.
sphere of influence:
An area over which one country enjoys dominant influence.
standard operating procedures:
Established routines that bureaucracies follow to carry out recurring tasks.
state sponsors of terrorism:
Countries determined by the secretary of state to have repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism that are subject to sanctions including a ban on defense exports and sales, controls over exports of dual use items, and miscellaneous financial restrictions.
Model of global politics in which sovereign states are the source of most important activities and the focus of most scholars and practitioners.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001):
A multilateral treaty to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants used as pesticides, solvents, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals.
Protectionist measures that provide government aid to firms to make them more competitive globally.
sustainable environmental policy:
An environmental policy that manages the rates of renewable resource harvest, pollution creation, and nonrenewable resource depletion to conserve environmental resources and support human society indefinitely.
tactical nuclear weapons:
Nuclear weapons that are designed to be used on battlefields and that are limited in range and/or size.
[Page 474]tar sands:
A combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen, a heavy black viscous oil.
Unmanned drone attacks aimed at specific terrorists or terrorist groups.
A tax imposed on imported goods and services.
The unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.
Grants of aid that require recipients to purchase goods and services from American farms and companies.
A political system in which rulers control all aspect of society.
Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP):
A proposed agreement between the European Union and the United States to remove or reduce barriers to trade and foreign investment.
Environmental activities in one country that can harm others.
Crossing national frontiers and involving social groups and nongovernmental actors.
Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP):
A proposed trade agreement between twelve Pacific Rim countries seeking to lower trade barriers such as tariffs, establish a common framework for intellectual property, enforce standards for labor law and environmental law, and establish an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism.
When negotiating agreements with other states, a country’s leaders must take account of the demands of actors at both the domestic and international levels.
UN Human Rights Council:
The main intergovernmental body within the United Nations system made up of forty-seven states and responsible for the promotion and protection of human rights worldwide.
UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission:
A body created through the UN Security Council tasked between 1999 and 2007 with disarming Iraq of its weapons of mass destruction and operating a system of ongoing monitoring and verification to check Iraq’s compliance with its obligations not to reacquire the same weapons banned by the Security Council.
A foreign policy or practice of conducting foreign affairs with minimal consultation or cooperation with other countries.
The period immediately after the Cold War when America was a uniquely dominant state in global politics.
International system dominated by a single center of power.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights:
A declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 that expresses the set of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled.
USA Patriot Act:
A law authorized by congress in 2001 to enhance surveillance efforts to improve national security.
Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable.
Crimes committed against an enemy, prisoners of war, or subjects in wartime that violate international agreements.
The neoliberal belief that countries suffering economic distress should follow policies based on austerity, free-market reforms, and minimal government intervention in the economy.
weapons of mass destruction (WMD):
Nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons that can kill large numbers of people indiscriminately.
An international movement originally for the establishment of a Jewish national or religious community in Palestine and later for the support of modern Israel.
1. Cited in Mark Landler, “Obama Signals a Shift from Military Might to Diplomacy,” New York Times, November 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/26/world/middleeast/longer-term-deal-with-iran.html.
2. Cited in David E. Sanger, “For Obama, an Evolving Doctrine on Foreign Policy,” New York Times, September 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/25/world/middleeast/obamas-evolving-doctrine.html.
3. Cited in Thomas L. Friedman, “Foreign Policy by Whisper and Nudge,” New York Times, August 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/25/opinion/sunday/friedman-foreign-policy-by-whisper-and-nudge.html?pagewanted=all.
4. Graham T. Allison and Phillip Zelikow, Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Longman, 1999), 4–5.
5. Ibid., 5–6.
6. Ibid., 6.Chapter 1
1. Hillary Rodham Clinton, “Leading through Civilian Power: Redefining American Diplomacy and Development,” Foreign Affairs 89:6 (November/December 2010): 15.
2. This typology is derived from James N. Rosenau, “Pre-Theories and Theories of Foreign Policy,” in R. Barry Farrell, ed., Approaches to Comparative and International Politics (Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1966), 27–92.
3. Gideon Rachman, “American Decline: This Time It’s Real,” Foreign Policy 184 (January/February 2011): 63, 59.
4. Joseph S. Nye, Jr., “The Future of American Power: Dominance and Decline in Perspective,” Foreign Affairs 89:6 (November/December 2010): 3, 12.
5. Office of the Press Secretary (8 May 2009). “Briefing by White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs.” http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Briefing-by-White-House-Press-Secretary-Robert-Gibbs-5-8-09.
6. Jared P. Cole, “The Political Question Doctrine: Justiciability and the Separation of Powers,” Congressional Reference Service, December 23, 2014, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R43834.pdf.
7. Kimi Lynn King and James Meernik, “The Supreme Court and the Powers of the Executive: The Adjudication of Foreign Policy,” Political Research Quarterly 52:4 (December 1999): 818.
8. Roger Hilsman, To Move a Nation (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967): 5.
9. Graham Allison and Philip Zelikow, Essence of Decision, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Longman, 1999), 143.
10. Cited in Peter Baker, “How Obama Came to Plan for ‘Surge’ in Afghanistan,” New York Times, December 5, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/world/asia/06reconstruct.html?pagewanted=all.
11. Cited in Richard E. Neustadt, Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents (New York, NY: Free Press, 1990), 10. Emphasis in original.
12. Ibid., 37.
13. Warner R. Schilling, “The Politics of National Defense: Fiscal 1950,” in Schilling, Paul Hammond, and Glenn Snyder, eds., Strategy, Politics, and Defense Budgets (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1962), 230.
14. Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation, January 17, 1961, http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm.
15. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, ed. J. P. Mayer, trans. George Lawrence (New York, NY: Anchor Books, 1969), 228–229.
16. Alexander Hamilton, “Speech on the Constitutional Convention on a Plan of Government,” in Morton J. Frisch, ed., Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton (Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1985), 108.[Page 476]
17. Gabriel Almond, The American People and Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Praeger, 1960), 53.
18. George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy: Expanded Edition (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1984), 66.
19. “A World of Troubles” and “Arms and the Men,” The Economist, October 6, 2012, 15, 18.
20. Chris Cillizza, “Winner and Losers from Election 2012,” Washington Post, November 7, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2012/11/07/winners-and-losers-from-election-2012.
21. Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, trans. Luigi Ricci (New York, NY: Mentor Books, 1952), 93.
22. William R. Caspary, “The ‘Mood Theory’: A Study of Public Opinion and Foreign Policy,” American Political Science Review 64:2 (June 1970): 546. Emphasis in original.
23. Almond, The American People and Foreign Policy, 5.
24. John J. Mearsheimer and Stephen M. Walt, The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux 2007), 5, 6.
25. Aaron Friedberg, “An Uncivilized Argument,” Foreign Policy 155 (July/August 2006): 59.
26. Dennis Ross, “The Mind-Set Matters,” in ibid., 61.
27. Shlomo Ben-Ami, “The Complex Truth,” in ibid., 62, 63.
28. Cited in Tony Judt, “A Lobby, Not a Conspiracy,” New York Times, April 19, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/19/opinion/19judt.html?pagewanted=1&_r=1&ei=5087&en=2706f771ea2e35aa&ex=1145592000.
29. George F. Kennan, Memoirs 1925–1950 (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 1967), 53.
30. Robert D. Putnam, “Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games,” International Organization 42:3 (Summer 1988): 434.
31. Jane Mayer, “Covert Operations,” The New Yorker, August 30, 2010, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/08/30/covert-operations?currentPage=all.
32. Robert J. Art, The TFX Decision, McNamara and the Military (Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1968), 166.
33. George W. Bush, “Graduation Speech at West Point,” June 1, 2002, Voices of Democracy, http://vod.academicwebpages.com/bush-graduation-speech-speech-text.
34. Steve Smith, “Policy Preferences and Bureaucratic Position: The Case of the American Hostage Rescue Mission,” International Affairs 61:1 (Winter 1984): 24.
35. Harold D. Lasswell, Psychopathology and Politics (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1930), 75.
36. Harold D. Lasswell, Power and Personality (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 1948), 120.
37. Garry Wills, Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, 2002), 412.
38. Alexander L. George and Juliette L. George, Woodrow Wilson and Colonel House: A Personality Study (New York, NY: Dover, 1964), 11. Emphasis in original.
39. John G. Stoessinger, Crusaders and Pragamatists (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 1985), 27, 289, 290.
40. Cited in Ron Suskind, “Faith, Certainty and the Presidency of George W. Bush,” New York Times Magazine, October 17, 2004, http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/17/magazine/17BUSH.html.
41. Ole R. Holsti, “The ‘Operational Code’ Approach to the Study of Political Leaders: John Foster Dulles’ Philosophical and Instrumental Beliefs,” Canadian Journal of Political Science 3:1 (March 1970): 130.
42. David Rothkopf, “National Insecurity,” Foreign Policy 204 (September/October 2014): 49.
43. Cited in Michael D. Shear, “With Foreign Leaders, Obama Keeps It Mostly Business,” New York Times, March 10, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/us/politics/with-foreign-leaders-obama-keeps-it-mostly-business.html.
44. Cited in Peter Baker, “In Book, Panetta Recounts Frustration with Obama,” New York Times, October 6, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/07/world/middleeast/ex-defense-secretary-panetta-tells-of-frustrations-with-obama.html.
45. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Coming of the New Deal (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1958), 502, 527–528.
46. Cited in Scott Shane, “Petraeus’s Quieter Style at C.I.A. Leaves Void on Libya Furor,” New York Times, November 2, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/03/world/africa/petraeuss-lower-profile-at-cia-leaves-void-in-benghazi-furor.html.[Page 477]
47. Arnold Rogow, James Forrestal: A Study of Personality, Politics, and Policy (New York, NY: Macmillan, 1963), 351.Chapter 2
1. Barack H. Obama, “Nobel Lecture: A Just and Lasting Peace,” December 10, 2009, http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2009/obama-lecture_en.html.
2. Chris Good, “Obama Stresses Multilateralism in Announcing Libya Strikes,” The Atlantic, March 19, 2011, http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2011/03/obama-stresses-multilateralism-in-announcing-libya-strikes/72738.
3. B. Liddell Hart, Strategy (New York, NY: Praeger, 1967), 333–372.
4. Paul Kennedy, “Grand Strategies in War and Peace: Towards a Broader Definition,” in Grand Strategies in War and Peace, ed. Paul Kennedy (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992), 5.
5. Hal Brands, “The Promise and Pitfalls of Grand Strategy,” Strategic Studies Institute External Research Associates Program Monograph, August 2012, 4, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubid=1121.
6. William C. Martel, “America’s Dangerous Drift,” The Diplomat, February 25, 2013, http://thediplomat.com/2013/02/25/americas-dangerous-drift.
7. Manfred Jonas, “Isolationism,” in Alexander DeConde, ed., Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1978), 496.
8. Robert J. Art, A Grand Strategy for America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2003), 173.
9. Andrew Johnstone, “Isolationism and Internationalism in American Foreign Relations,” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 9:1 (2011): 11.
10. George C. Herring, From Colony to Superpower: US Foreign Relations since 1776, vol. 12 (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2008), 1.
11. John Lewis Gaddis, Surprise, Security and the American Experience (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 24.
12. Jonas, “Isolationism,” 498.
13. Johnstone, “Isolationism and Internationalism in American Foreign Relations,” 13.
14. Glenn Hastedt, Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy (New York, NY: Facts on File, 2004), 325–326.
15. David C. Hendrickson, Union, Nation, or Empire: The American Debate over International Relations 1789–1941 (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2009), 6.
16. J. Simon Rofe and John Thompson, “‘Internationalists in Isolationist Times’—Theodore and Franklin Roosevelt and a Rooseveltian Maxim,” Journal of Transatlantic Studies 9:1 (2011), 47.
17. David M. Malone and Yuen Foong Khong, “Unilateralism and US Foreign Policy,” in Malone and Khong, eds., U.S. Foreign Policy: International Perspectives (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003), 3.
18. Robert O. Keohane, “Multilateralism: An Agenda for Research,” International Journal, 45:4 (Autumn 1990): 731.
19. John Ruggie, “Multilateralism: The Anatomy of an Institution,” International Organization, 46:3 (Summer 1992): 571, 572.
20. Malone and Khong, “Unilateralism and US Foreign Policy,” 3.
21. Will Inboden, “Two Parties, Two Approaches to Multilateralism,” Foreign Policy, May 31, 2012, http://shadow.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/05/31/two_parties_two_approaches_to_multilateralism.
24. Joshua W. Busby, Jonathan Monten, Jordan Tama, and William Inboden, “Congress Is Already Post-Partisan,” Foreign Affairs, January 28, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138791/joshua-w-busby-jonathan-monten-jordan-tama-and-william-inboden/congress-is-already-post-partisan.
25. Doris A. Graber, “Intervention and Nonintervention,” in DeConde, ed., Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 482.
26. Ibid., 483.
27. Ronald E. Powaski, Toward an Entangling Alliance: American Isolationism, Internationalism, and Europe, 1901–1950 (New York, NY: Greenwood Press, 1991), xi.
28. A. Kalaitzidis and G.W. Streich, U.S. Foreign Policy: A Documentary Resource Guide. (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011), xix.[Page 478]
29. “Monroe Doctrine; December 2, 1823,” The Avalon Project, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/monroe.asp.
30. Walter A. McDougall, Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World since 1776 (New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), 57.
31. See also, Hendrickson, Union, Nation or Empire, 278.
32. Jerald A. Combs, The History of American Foreign Policy, 3rd. ed. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2008), 57–58.
33. Herring, From Colony to Superpower, 180.
34. Ibid., 182.
35. Cited in ibid., 207.
36. Rofe and Thompson, “’Internationalists in Isolationist Times,’” 48.
37. “Transcript of Theodore Roosevelt’s Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine,” http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?doc=56&page=transcript.
38. Cited in Carlos F. Diaz-Alejandro, “Direct Investment in Latin America,” in Charles P. Kindleberger, ed., The International Corporation (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1970), 320.
39. Rofe and Thompson, “’Internationalists in Isolationist Times,’” 48.
40. Herring, From Colony to Superpower, 406.
41. Justus D. Doenecke, “American Internationalism, 1939–1941,” The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 1:3–4 (Summer/Fall 1982): 201, http://mises.org/journals/jls/6_3/6_3_1.pdf.
42. Gerald P. Nye, “Is Neutrality Possible for America?” in John N. Andrews and Carl A. Marsden, eds., Tomorrow in the Making (New York, NY: Whittlesey House, 1939), https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/interwar/nye.htm.
43. “Most Back Cuts Overall—but Not to the Military,” ABC News, March 6, 2013, http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/politics/2013/03/most-back-cuts-overall-but-not-to-the-military/.
44. “Franklin D. Roosevelt: Proposal for Lend-Lease,” http://www.britannica.com/presidents/article-9116959.
45. Henry R. Luce, “The American Century,” Life Magazine, February 1941, http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article6139.htm.
46. James M. Lindsay, “George W. Bush, Barack Obama and the Future of US Global Leadership,” International Affairs 87:4 (2011).
47. Cited in John Dumbrell, “Unilateralism and ‘America First’? President George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy,” Political Quarterly 73:3 (July 2002): 284.
48. Michael Hirsh, “Bush and the World,” Foreign Affairs, September/October 2002, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58244/michael-hirsh/bush-and-the-world.
49. George H. W. Bush, Address to the Nation on the Invasion of Iraq, January 16, 1991, http://millercenter.org/scripps/archive/speeches/detail/3428.
50. William J. Clinton, National Security Strategy of the United States, 1994–1995: Engagement and Enlargement (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, 1994), 5.
51. Michael T. Klare, “The Clinton Doctrine”, The Nation, April 1, 1999, http://www.thenation.com/article/clinton-doctrine#.
52. Francine Kiefer, “Clinton ‘Doctrine’: Is It Substance or Spin?” Christian Science Monitor, June 28, 1999, http://www.csmonitor.com/1999/0628/p2s1.html.
53. “To Paris, U.S. Looks Like a ‘Hyperpower,’” New York Times, February 5, 1999, http://www.nytimes.com/1999/02/05/news/05iht-france.t_0.html.
54. Lindsay, “George W. Bush, Barack Obama and the Future of US Global Leadership,” 769.
55. Cited in ibid.
56. Inaugural Address by George W. Bush, published January 20, 2005, New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/20/politics/20BUSH-TEXT.html.
57. Melvyn P. Leffler, “Bush’s Foreign Policy,” Foreign Policy 144 (September/October 2004): 22.
58. James M. Lindsay, “Rally ‘Round the Flag,” Brookings Daily War Report, The Brookings Institution, March 25, 2003, http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2003/03/25iraq-lindsay.
59. James Kitfield, “Can Mitt Romney Recover the Soul of Republican Foreign Policy?” The Atlantic, August 27, 2012, http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/08/can-mitt-romney-recover-the-soul-of-republican-foreign-policy/261602.
60. Barack Obama, “Renewing American Leadership,” Foreign Affairs 86:4 (July/August 2007): 2–4.[Page 479]
61. Lindsay, “George W. Bush, Barack Obama and the Future of U.S. Global Leadership,” 773.
62. Ryan Lizza, “The Consequentialist: How the Arab Spring Remade Obama’s Foreign Policy,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/02/110502fa_fact_lizza.
63. “The Nobel Peace Prize 2009 Press Release,” Nobelprize.org (October 9, 2009), http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/2009/press.html.
64. Cited in Guy Chazan and Alistair MacDonald, “Nobel Committee’s Decision Courts Controversy,” The Wall Street Journal, October 11 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125509603349176083.html.
65. Cited in Scott Wilson, “President Obama Wins Nobel Peace Prize,” Washington Post, October 10, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/10/09/AR2009100900914.html.
66. Martin S. Indyk, Kenneth G. Lieberthal, and Michael E. O’Hanlon, “Scoring Obama’s Foreign Policy,” Foreign Affairs 91:3 (May/June 2012): 30.
67. “Obama’s Speech to the United Nations General Assembly,” New York Times, September 23, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/24/us/politics/24prexy.text.html.
68. “Obama’s Second Inaugural Speech,” New York Times, January 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/21/us/politics/obamas-second-inaugural-speech.html.
69. Daniel W. Drezner, “Does Obama Have a Grand Strategy?” Foreign Affairs, July/August 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67919/daniel-w-drezner/does-obama-have-a-grand-strategy.
70. Cited in John Mueller, “The Iraq Syndrome Revisited,” Foreign Affairs, March 28, 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67681/john-mueller/the-iraq-syndrome-revisited.
71. “The Price of Detachment,” The Economist, March 23, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21573970-shunning-foreign-entanglements-does-barack-obama-risk-losing-his-global-bully.
72. Jeffrey M. Jones and Nathan Wendt, “Americans Say UN Is Needed, but Doubt Its Effectiveness,” Gallup Politics, March 28, 2013, http://www.gallup.com/poll/161549/americans-say-needed-doubt-effectiveness.aspx.
73. Gordon N. Bardos, “The High Cost of U.S. Foreign Policy,” The National Interest, July 9, 2013, http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/the-high-cost-us-foreign-policy-8704.
74. Stephen G. Brooks, G. John Ikenberry, and William C. Wohlforth, “Lean Forward,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138468/stephen-g-brooks-g-john-ikenberry-and-william-c-wohlforth/lean-forward.
75. On shapers and restrainers/retrenchers, see James M. Parent and Paul K. MacDonald, “The Wisdom of Retrenchment,” Foreign Affairs 90:6 (November/December 2011): 32–34; and Charles Kupchan, “Grand Strategy: The Four Pillars of the Future,” Democracy Journal 27 (Winter 2012): 9–18.
76. Peter J. Spiro, “The New Sovereigntists: American Exceptionalism and Its False Prophets,” Foreign Affairs 79:6 (November/December 2000), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/56621/peter-j-spiro/the-new-sovereigntists-american-exceptionalism-and-its-false-pro.
77. Barry Posen, “Pull Back,” Foreign Affairs 92:1 (January/February 2013), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138466/barry-r-posen/pull-back.Chapter 3
1. Richard N. Haass, “The Age of Nonpolarity: What Will Follow U.S. Dominance,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2008, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63397/richard-n-haass/the-age-of-nonpolarity.
2. Laicie Heeley, “U.S. Defense Spending vs. Global Defense Spending,” The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, April 24, 2013, http://armscontrolcenter.org/issues/securityspending/articles/2012_topline_global_defense_spending.
3. Cited in “U.S. Prepares First-Strike Cyber-Forces,” BBC, October 12, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-19922421.
4. “S.1939—War Powers Consultation Act of 2014,” 113th Congress (2013–2014), https://www.congress.gov/bill/113th-congress/senate-bill/1939/text.
5. Cited in Jonathan Masters, “Debt, Deficits, and the Defense Budget,” February 22, 2013, Council on Foreign Relations, http://www.cfr.org/defense-budget/debt-deficits-defense-budget/p27318.[Page 480]
6. Cited in Elise Labott, “Kerry’s Mission: Mideast Buy-In for Anti-ISIS Effort,” CNN.com, September 9, 2010, http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/09/politics/kerry-middle-east-trip-isis.
7. Cited in Ibid.
8. “Public Sees U.S. Power Declining as Support for Global Engagement Slips: America’s Place in the World 2013,” Pew Research Center for People and the Press, December 2, 2013, http://www.people-press.org/2013/12/03/public-sees-u-s-power-declining-as-support-for-global-engagement-slips.
9. Hal Brands, The Promise and Pitfalls of Grand Strategy (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, August 2012), 15, http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB1121.pdf
10. George F. Kennan, Memoirs 1925–1950 (Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1967), 557.
11. Cited in Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 366.
12. “Vietnam Statistics—War Costs: Complete Picture Impossible,” CQ Almanac 1975, 31st ed. (Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, 1976): 301–305, http://library.cqpress.com/cqalmanac/cqal75-1213988.
13. Cited in David M. Aatry, Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War (Baton Rouge, LA: LSU Press, 2014), 103.
14. Michael Krepon, Better Safe Than Sorry: The Ironies of Living with the Bomb (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009), 33.
15. Thomas C. Schelling and Morton H. Halperin, Strategy and Arms Control (New York, NY: Twentieth Century Fund, 1961).
16. U.S. State Department Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance, “Treaty Between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Offensive Arms (SALT II),” http://www.state.gov/t/isn/5195.htm.
17. Nuclear Threat Initiative, “Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II),” http://www.nti.org/treaties-and-regimes/strategic-arms-limitation-talks-salt-ii/.
18. Krepon, Better Safe Than Sorry, 69–70.
19. Arms Control Association, “START I at a Glance,” http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/start1.
20. James R. Locher III, “Has It Worked? The Goldwater-Nichols Reorganization Act,” Naval War College Review 54:4 (2001): 95–115.
21. The White House, The National Security Strategy of the United States, January 1988, 3, http://nssarchive.us/NSSR/1988.pdf.
22. UN Security Council Resolution 677, 28 November 1990, http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/678 (1990).
23. George H. W. Bush and Brent Scowcroft, A World Transformed (New York: Knopf, 1998), 487.
24. U.S. Department of Defense, “Defense Casualty Analysis System,” as of February 3, 2014, https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/dcas/pages/report_gulf_storm.xhtml.
25. Leslie Gelb, “Quelling the Teacup Wars: The New World’s Constant Challenge,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1994, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/50541/leslie-h-gelb/quelling-the-teacup-wars-the-new-worlds-constant-challenge.
26. “Authorization for Use of Military Force,” (PL 107-40, September 18, 2001), https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/senate-joint-resolution/23/text.
27. “The National Security Strategy of the United States,” September 2002, National Security Strategy Archive, http://nssarchive.us.
28. Donald Rumsfeld, “Transforming the Military,” Foreign Affairs, May/June 2002, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58020/donald-h-rumsfeld/transforming-the-military.
29. U.S. Government Counterinsurgency Guide, January 2009, http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/119629.pdf.
30. Cited in Robert M. Cassidy, War, Will and Warlords (Quantico, VA: Marine Corps University Press, 2012), 40.
31. Jonathan Medalia, “Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments,” June 10, 2013, RL33548, CRS Reports, 5, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/nuke/RL33548.pdf.
32. Cited in Thom Shanker, “Former Commander of U.S. Nuclear Forces Calls for Large Cuts in Warheads,” New York Times, May 15, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/16/world/cartwright-key-retired-general-backs-large-us-nuclear-reduction.html.
33. Quadrennial Defense Review 2014, http://www.defense.gov/pubs/2014_Quadrennial_Defense_Review.pdf.[Page 481]
34. Congressional Budget Office, “Projected Costs of U.S. Nuclear Forces, 2015–2024,” January 22, 2015, http://www.cbo.gov/publication/49870.
35. Arms Control Association, “U.S. Nuclear Modernization Programs,” January 2014, http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/USNuclearModernization.
36. Christopher Harress, “U.S. Joins Russia in Latest Race to Modernize Nuclear Arsenal,” International Business Times, November 14, 2014, http://www.ibtimes.com/us-joins-russia-latest-race-modernize-nuclear-arsenal-1724102.
37. Cited in William J. Broad and David E. Sanger, “U.S. Ramping Up Major Renewal of Nuclear Arms,” New York Times, September 21, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/22/us/us-ramping-up-major-renewal-in-nuclear-arms.html.
38. Cited in Jim Garamone, “Obama Delineates Counterterrorism Policy,” U.S. Department of Defense News, May 23, 2013, http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=120129.
39. Linda Robinson, “The Future of Special Operations,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2012, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138232/linda-robinson/the-future-of-special-operations.
40. Cited in ibid.
43. Cited in “McCain Rips White House over Sony Hack,” The Hill, December 18, 2014, http://thehill.com/policy/defense/227542-mccain-rips-administration-over-sony-hack.
44. Cited in Timothy Farnsworth, “Is There a Place for Nuclear Deterrence in Cyberspace?” Arms Control Now, May 30, 2013, http://armscontrolnow.org/?p=3487.
45. Cited in Ibid.
46. Cited in Maggie Ybarra, “Cyber Command Investment Ensures Hackers Targeting U.S. Face Retribution,” Washington Times, December 22, 2014, http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/22/us-cyber-command-investment-ensures-hackers-target.
47. William J. Lynn III, “Defending a New Domain,” Foreign Affairs, September/October 2010, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/66552/william-j-lynn-iii/defending-a-new-domain.
48. Department of Defense Science Board, “Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber Threat,” January 2013, 30–31, http://www.acq.osd.mil/dsb/reports/ResilientMilitarySystems.CyberThreat.pdf.
49. Ibid., 33.
50. Cited in David E. Sanger, “U.S. Blames China’s Military Directly for Cyberattacks,” New York Times, May 6, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/07/world/asia/us-accuses-chinas-military-in-cyberattacks.html?pagewanted=all.
51. Richard Bejtlich, “Don’t Underestimate Cyber Spies,” Foreign Affairs, May 2, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136559/richard-bejtlich/dont-underestimate-cyber-spies.
52. David E. Sanger, “As Chinese Leader’s Visit Nears, U.S. Is Urged to Allow Counterattacks on Hackers,” New York Times, May 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/22/world/asia/as-chinese-leaders-visit-nears-us-urged-to-allow-retaliation-for-cyberattacks.html?pagewanted=all.
53. William C. Hannas, James Mulvenon, and Anna B. Puglisi, Chinese Industrial Espionage (New York, NY: Routledge, 2013), 2.
54. Cited in Didi Kirsten Tatlow, “U.S. Is a ‘Hacker Empire,’ Says Chinese Military Analyst,” IHT Rendezvous, June 26, 2013, http://rendezvous.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/06/26/u-s-is-a-hacker-empire-says-chinese-military-analyst/.
55. Cited in David E. Sanger, “Differences on Cybertheft Complicate China Talks,” New York Times, July 10, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/11/world/asia/differences-on-cybertheft-complicate-china-talks.html.
56. Cited Thomas Catan and Josh Chin, “Leaks Muddy U.S. Position in Chinese Talks,” The Wall Street Journal, July 9, 2013, A14.
57. Sarah Kreps, “Ground the Drones?” Foreign Affairs, December 4, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140318/sarah-kreps/ground-the-drones.
58. Kate Brannen, “Air Force’s Lack of Drone Pilots Reaching ‘Crisis’ Levels,” Foreign Policy, January 15, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/01/15/air-forces-lack-of-drone-pilots-reaching-crisis-levels.
59. Micah Zenko cited in John Kaag and Sarah Kreps, Drone Warfare (New York, NY: Wiley, 2014), 32.
60. “Drone Wars Yemen: Analysis,” International Security Data Site, http://securitydata.newamerica.net/drones/yemen/analysis.[Page 482]
61. “Afghanistan Drone Strike Data No Longer Reported by U.S. Air Force,” The World Post, March 10, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/10/afghanistan-drone-strike-data-no-longer-reported-us-air-force_n_2847296.html.
62. Cited in Thom Shanker, “Simple, Low-Cost Surveillance Drones Provide Advantage for U.S. Military,” New York Times, January 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/25/us/simple-scaneagle-drones-a-boost-for-us-military.html.
63. Joshua Foust, “A Liberal Case for Drones,” Foreign Policy, May 14, 2013, http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/05/15/a-liberal-case-for-drones.
64. Kaag and Kreps, Drone Warfare, 2.
65. Bill Briggs, “Study: U.S. Drone Strikes More Likely to Kill Civilians Than U.S. Jet Fire,” NBC News, July 2, 2013, http://www.nbcnews.com/news/investigations/study-us-drone-strikes-more-likely-kill-civilians-us-jet-v19254842.
66. “Obama’s Speech on Drone Policy,” New York Times, May 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/24/us/politics/transcript-of-obamas-speech-on-drone-policy.html.
67. Aaron Stein, “Drone Decrees,” Foreign Affairs, December 19, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140584/aaron-stein/drone-decrees.
68. Audrey Kurth Cronin, “Drones over Damascus,” Foreign Affairs, September 2, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139889/audrey-kurth-cronin/drones-over-damascus.
69. Scott Peterson, “Iran Hijacked U.S. Drone, Says Iranian Engineer,” Christian Science Monitor, December 15, 2011, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Middle-East/2011/1215/Exclusive-Iran-hijacked-US-drone-says-Iranian-engineer-Video.
70. Cited in Sam Jones, “Drone Strikes on ISIS Loom Large in Allies’ Strategy,” Financial Times, October 12, 2014, http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/e5f4397a-48cf-11e4-9d04-00144feab7de.html#axzz3RkxHdTXB.
71. Steven Metz, “The Strategy behind U.S. Drone Strikes,” World Politics Review, February 27, 2013, http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/12747/strategic-horizons-the-strategy-behind-u-s-drone-strikes.
72. Cited in Joe Cirincione, “How Big a Nuclear Arsenal Do We Really Need?” Los Angeles Times, October 21, 2014, http://www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-cirincione-nuclear-weapons-20141022-story.html.
73. Hans M. Kristensen, “Nuclear Weapons Modernization: A Threat to NPT?” Arms Control Today, May 1, 2014, http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2014_05/Nuclear-Weapons-Modernization-A-Threat-to-the-NPT.
74. Cited in Helene Cooper, “Obama Cites Limits of U.S. Role in Libya,” New York Times, Marcy 28, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/29/world/africa/29prexy.html.
75. Sarah Dutton, Jennifer De Pinto, Anthony Salvanto, and Fred Backus, “Do Americans Want to Send Ground Troops to Fight ISIS?” CBS News, February 19, 2015, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/do-americans-want-to-send-ground-troops-to-fight-isis.
76. Minxin Pei and Sara Kasper, “Lessons from the Past: The American Record on Nation Building,” Policy Brief 24, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, May 2003, http://carnegieendowment.org/files/Policybrief24.pdf.
77. Henry Farrell, “The Political Science of Cybersecurity III—How International Relations Theory Shapes U.S. Cybersecurity Doctrine,” Washington Post, February 20, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/02/20/the-political-science-of-cybersecurity-iii-how-international-relations-theory-shapes-u-s-cybersecurity-doctrine.
78. Thomas Rid, “Cyberwar and Peace,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140160/thomas-rid/cyberwar-and-peace.
79. Jason Healey, “Commentary: Cyber Deterrence Is Working,” DefenseNews, July 30, 2014, http://archive.defensenews.com/article/20140730/DEFFEAT05/307300017/Commentary-Cyber-Deterrence-Working.
80. Peter W. Singer and Allan Friedman, “What About Deterrence in an Era of Cyberwar?” Armed Forces Journal, January 9, 2014, http://www.armedforcesjournal.com/what-about-deterrence-in-an-era-of-cyberwar.
81. Lynn, “Defending a New Domain.”
82. Cited in Cory Bennett, “Senators Hopeful on Cyber Info Sharing Bill,” The Hill, January 28, 2015, http://thehill.com/policy/cybersecurity/231048-senators-hopeful-on-cyber-info-sharing-bill.
83. Cited in Cory Bennett, “President Makes Unprecedented Cybersecurity Speech,” The Hill, January 20, 2015, http://thehill.com/policy/cybersecurity/230157-obama-makes-unprecedented-cyber-pitch.[Page 483]
84. “Obama’s Speech on Drone Policy,” New York Times, May 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/24/us/politics/transcript-of-obamas-speech-on-drone-policy.html.
85. Daniel Markey, “A New Drone Deal for Pakistan,” Foreign Affairs, August 8, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139584/daniel-markey/a-new-drone-deal-for-pakistan.
86. Daniel Byman, “Why Drones Work,” Foreign Affairs, July/August 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139453/daniel-byman/why-drones-work.
87. Dwight R. Lee and Richard K. Vedder, “The Political Economy of the Peace Dividend,” Public Choice 88 (1996): 36–37.
88. Joe Gould, “Odierno: With Commitments Up, U.S. Must Rethink Cuts to Army End Strength,” Army Times, November 21, 2014, http://www.armytimes.com/story/military/pentagon/2014/11/19/odierno-army-end-strength/19275911.Chapter 4
1. George Perkovich, “Bush’s Nuclear Revolution: A Regime Change in Nonproliferation,” Foreign Affairs 81:2 (March/April 2003), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/58804/george-perkovich/bushs-nuclear-revolution-a-regime-change-in-nonproliferation.
2. Dean Rusk, “Address to the Virginia State Bar Association,” Survival 5:6 (July 15, 1963): 251.
3. Hal Brands, “Rethinking Nonproliferation: LBJ, the Gilpatric Committee, and U.S. National Security Policy,” Journal of Cold War Studies 8:2 (Spring 2006): 88–89.
4. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, “JFK Address at U.N. General Assembly, 25 September 1961,” http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/DOPIN64xJUGRKgdHJ9NfgQ.aspx.
5. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, “John F. Kennedy Speeches, ‘Face-to-Face, Nixon-Kennedy’ Vice President Richard M. Nixon and Senator John F. Kennedy Third Joint Television-Radio Broadcast, October 13, 1960,” http://www.jfklibrary.org/Research/Research-Aids/JFK-Speeches/3rd-Nixon-Kennedy-Debate_19601013.aspx.
6. Eric A. Croddy and James J. Wirtz, eds, Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2015) vol 1, 181–182.
7. Paul Bracken, “The Structure of the Second Nuclear Age,” Orbis 47:3 (Summer 2003): 402.
8. Ibid., 405.
9. “Text of President Bush’s 2003 State of the Union Address,” Washington Post, January 28, 2003, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/bushtext_012803.html.
10. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by President Obama,” Prague, Czech Republic, April 5, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/Remarks-By-President-Barack-Obama-In-Prague-As-Delivered.
11. Council of Foreign Relations, “The Global Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime,” Updated June 25, 2013, http://www.cfr.org/arms-control-disarmament-and-nonproliferation/global-nuclear-nonproliferation-regime/p18984.
12. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, 28 April 2004, S/RES/1540 (2004), http://www.un.org/en/sc/documents/resolutions/2004.shtml.
13. Gerald Felix Warburg, “Nonproliferation Policy Crossroads,” The Nonproliferation Review 19:3 (2012): 453.
14. Ibid., 452.
15. Daniel Painter, “The Nuclear Suppliers Group at the Crossroads,” The Diplomat, June 10, 2013, http://thediplomat.com/2013/06/10/the-nuclear-suppliers-group-at-the-crossroads.
17. “Proliferation Security Initiative: Ten Years On,” Arms Control Now, http://armscontrolnow.org/?p=3480.
18. Council on Foreign Relations, “The Global Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime,” July 25, 2013, http://www.cfr.org/arms-control-disarmament-and-nonproliferation/global-nuclear-nonproliferation-regime/p18984.
19. Cited in Aaron Dunne, “The Proliferation Security Initiative: Legal Considerations and Operational Realities,” SIPRI Policy Paper 36, May 2013, 5, http://books.sipri.org/product_info?c_product_id=459.
20. Wade Boese, “Bush Shifts Fissile Material Ban Policy,” Arms Control Today, September 2004, http://www.armscontrol.org/act/2004_09/FMCT.
21. UN Special Commission (UNSCOM), “Chronology of Main Events,” December 1999, http://www.un.org/Depts/unscom/Chronology/chronologyframe.htm.[Page 484]
22. UN Security Council, Resolution 1441, November 8, 2002, http://www.un.org/depts/unmovic/documents/1441.pdf.
23. Cited in “Iraq War Illegal, Says Annan,” BBC News, September 16, 2004, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3661134.stm.
24. “National Security Strategy,” March 2006, The National Security Strategy Archive, http://nssarchive.U.S.
25. “National Security Strategy,” May 2010, The National Security Strategy Archive, http://nssarchive.U.S.
26. “Text of President Bush’s 2002 State of the Union Address,” Washington Post, January 20, 2002, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/sou012902.html.
27. “Interview: North Korea’s Nuclear Needs,” Council on Foreign Relations, February 2, 2013, http://www.cfr.org/north-korea/north-koreas-nuclear-needs/p29907.
28. William Burr, “A Brief History of U.S.-Iranian Nuclear Negotiations,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 65:21 (January 2009): 24–25.
29. Greg Bruno, “Iran’s Nuclear Program,” Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, March 10, 2010, http://www.cfr.org/iran/irans-nuclear-program/p16811.
30. “UN Nuclear Agency IAEA: Iran ‘Studying Nuclear Weapons,’” BBC News, November 8, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-15643460.
31. Cited in Rick Gladstone, “Iran’s New President Preaches Tolerance in First UN Appearance,” New York Times, September 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/25/world/middleeast/irans-new-president-in-first-un-appearance-preaches-tolerance-says-his-country-is-no-threat.html.
32. Cited in ibid.
33. Cited in Rick Gladstone and Thomas Erdbrink, “Temporary Deal with Iran Takes Effect,” New York Times, January 20, 2014, http://nyti.ms/1cLkyPE.
34. Cited in Tom Cohen, “5 Reasons Diverse Critics Oppose Iran Nuclear Deal,” CNN, November 25, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/25/politics/iran-deal-opponents-5-things.
35. Cited in Holly Yan and Josh Levs, “Iran Nuclear Deal: One Agreement, Wildly Different Reactions,” CNN, November 24, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/24/world/iran-deal-reaction.
37. Cited in Michael R. Gordon and David E. Sanger, “Iran Agrees to Detailed Nuclear Outline, First Step toward a Wider Deal,” New York Times, April 2, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/03/world/middleeast/iran-nuclear-talks.html.
38. Cited in Peter Baker, “A Foreign Policy Gamble by Obama at a Moment of Truth,” New York Times, April 2, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/04/03/world/middleeast/a-foreign-policy-gamble-by-obama-at-a-moment-of-truth.html.
39. Cited in ibid.
40. “P5+1 Nations and Iran Reach Historic Nuclear Deal,” Arms Control Association, July 14, 2015, http://us10.campaign-archive2.com/?u=94d82a9d1fc1a60f0138613f1&id=ba4273f1a0&e=6fc14e143a.
41. Cited in Carlo Muñoz, “Sens. Levin, McCain Push Obama to Take Military Action in Syria,” The Hill, March 21, 2013, http://thehill.com/blogs/defcon-hill/policy-and-strategy/289659-senators-push-obama-to-establish-safe-zone-in-syria-with-airstrikes.
42. “Government Assessment of the Syrian Government’s Use of Chemical Weapons on August 21, 2013,” The White House Office of the Press Secretary, August 30, 2013, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/08/30/government-assessment-syrian-government-s-use-chemical-weapons-august-21.
43. John Mueller, “Erase the Red Line,” Foreign Policy, April 20, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139351/john-mueller/erase-the-red-line.
45. Betcy Jose, “Civilians vs. Chemicals,” Foreign Affairs, September 26, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139959/betcy-jose/civilians-vs-chemicals.
46. “Text of President Obama’s Remarks on Syria,” New York Times, August 31, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/01/world/middleeast/text-of-president-obamas-remarks-on-syria.html.[Page 485]
47. Vladimir V. Putin, “A Plea for Caution from Russia,” New York Times, September 11, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/12/opinion/putin-plea-for-caution-from-russia-on-syria.html.
48. Andrew Dugan, “U.S. Support for Action in Syria Is Low vs. Past Conflicts,” Gallup Politics, September 6, 2013, http://www.gallup.com/poll/164282/support-syria-action-lower-past-conflicts.aspx.
49. “About the OPCW,” Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons,” http://www.opcw.org/about-opcw.
50. U.S. Department of State, “Framework for Elimination of Chemical Weapons,” September 14, 2013, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2013/09/214247.htm.
51. Cited in Alan Rappeport, “Syria’s Chemical Arsenal Fully Destroyed, U.S. Says,” New York Times, August 18, 2014.
52. Kenneth Waltz, “Why Iran Should Get the Bomb,” Foreign Affairs 91:4 (July/August 2012), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137731/kenneth-n-waltz/why-iran-should-get-the-bomb.
53. Matthew Kroenig, “Still Time to Attack Iran,” Foreign Affairs, January 7, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140632/matthew-kroenig/still-time-to-attack-iran.
54. Colin H. Kahl, “Not Time to Attack Iran,” Foreign Affairs, March/April, 2012, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/137031/colin-h-kahl/not-time-to-attack-iran.
55. Cited in Rebecca Shabad, “Top Dems Divided on More Iran Sanctions,” The Hill, December 19, 2013, http://thehill.com/blogs/global-affairs/middle-east-north-africa/193669-dems-divided-on-tougher-iran-sanctions-as-bill.
56. Edward Levine, “Analysis of Faults in the Menendez-Kirk Iran Sanctions Bill (S. 1881),” The Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, http://armscontrolcenter.org/issues/iran/articles/analysis_of_faults_in_the_menendez-kirk_iran_sanctions_bill_s_1881.
57. Cited in Shabad, “Top Dems Divided on More Iran Sanctions.”
58. “Full Transcript: Obama’s 2014 State of the Union Address,” Washington Post, January 28, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/full-text-of-obamas-2014-state-of-the-union-address/2014/01/28/e0c93358-887f-11e3-a5bd-844629433ba3_story.html.
59. Kate Brannen, “Syria’s Most Lethal Chemical Weapons Destroyed with Little Fanfare,” Foreign Policy, August 18, 2014, http://complex.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2014/08/18/syria_s_most_lethal_chemical_weapons_destroyed_with_little_fanfare.Chapter 5
1. “Bernanke Warns about Economic Isolationism,” NBCNews.com, May 1, 2007, http://www.nbcnews.com/id/18417161/ns/business-stocks_and_economy/t/bernanke-warns-about-economic-isolationism/#.VBx3f0tIl5M.
2. Lydia Saad, “Americans Remain Positive about Foreign Trade,” Gallup, February 21, 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/167516/americans-remain-positive-foreign-trade.aspx.
3. Charles P. Kindleberger, “Two Hundred Years of American Foreign Policy: US Foreign Economic Policy, 1776–1976,” Foreign Affairs, January 1977, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/27041/charles-p-kindleberger/two-hundred-years-of-american-foreign-policy-us-foreign-economic.
4. David A. Lake, Power, Protection, and Free Trade (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988), 4.
5. “The First Bank of the United States,” The Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, June 2009, http://www.philadelphiafed.org.
6. Bureau of the Public Debt, “Our History,” http://www.publicdebt.treas.gov/history/1800.htm.
7. “The Slumps That Shaped Modern Finance,” The Economist, April 12, 2014, 50; Hugh Rockoff, “Banking and Finance, 1789–1912,” in Stanley L. Engermand and Robert E. Gallman, eds., The Cambridge Economic History of the United States (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 647.
8. Kindleberger, “Two Hundred Years of American Foreign Policy: US Foreign Economic Policy, 1776–1976.”
9. Philip Scranton, “The World War I Debts That Wouldn’t Go Away,” BloombergView, February 4, 2013, http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2013-02-04/the-world-war-i-debts-that-wouldn-t-go-away-.
10. Cited in Michael Lind, Land of Promise (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2012), 265.[Page 486]
11. “The Battle of Smoot-Hawley,” The Economist, December 18, 2008, http://www.economist.com/node/12798595.
12. Cited in ibid.
14. Cited in Carolyn Rhodes, Reciprocity, U.S. Trade Policy, and the GATT Regime (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993), 55.
15. Robert L. Tontz, “U.S. Trade Policy: Background and Historical Trends,” in U.S. Trade Policy and Agricultural Exports (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1973): 20, 22.
16. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers (New York, NY: Random House, 1987), 358.
17. Michael Mandelbaum, The Case for Goliath (New York, NY: Public Affairs Press, 2005), 118.
18. Joanne Gowa, Closing the Gold Window: Domestic Politics and the End of Bretton Woods (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983), 22–23.
19. Robert Gilpin, Global Political Economy: Understanding the International Economic Order (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 179.
20. Dylan Matthews, “QE3 Is On! Fed to Buy $85b through December, and Then Keep Going,” Washington Post, September 12, 2012, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/09/13/qe3-is-on.
21. Cited in Andrew Huszar, “Andrew Huszar: Confessions of a Quantitative Easer,” The Wall Street Journal, November 11, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303763804579183680751473884.
22. Jon Hilsenrath, “Hilsenrath Analysis: Fed Likely to Continue Taper, Consider Changing Forward Guidance,” The Wall Street Journal, March 7, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2014/03/07/hilsenrath-analysis-fed-likely-to-continue-taper-consider-changing-to-forward-guidance.
23. Thomas Wright, “How G20 Keeps World Away from Economic Brink,” CNN, September 6, 2013, http://www.cnn.com/2013/09/05/opinion/wright-g20-summit.
24. Communique, Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting, Berlin, Germany, December 15–16, 1999, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.g20.utoronto.ca/1999/1999communique.htm.
25. G20, “G20 Members,” https://g20.org/about-g20/g20-members.
26. “Realtime Economics: Geithner Statement on Delay of Report on China Currency Policies,” The Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2010, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2010/04/03/geithner-statement-on-delay-of-report-on-china-currency-policies.
27. WTO, International Trade Statistics 2013, “World Trade Developments,” http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2013_e/its13_highlights1_e.pdf.
28. WTO, International Trade Statistics, 2014, “World Trade Developments,” http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/its2014_e/its14_highlights1_e.pdf.
29. Christopher Alessi and Robert McMahon, “U.S. Trade Policy,” Council on Foreign Relations, March 14, 2012, http://www.cfr.org/trade/us-trade-policy/p17859.
30. “Trade Policy: Taking Aim at Imports,” The Economist, February 22, 2014, http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21596939-protectionists-congress-could-scupper-crucial-free-trade-deals-taking-aim-imports.
31. Aaditya Mattoo and Arvind Subramanian, “From Doha to the Next Bretton Woods,” Foreign Affairs 88:1 (January/February 2009): 16.
32. Rhodes, Reciprocity, U.S. Trade Policy, and the GATT Regime, 75.
33. Robert Gilpin, Global Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 219.
34. John Gerard Ruggie, “International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in the Postwar Economic Order,” International Organization 36:2 (Spring 1982): 379-415.
35. WTO, “Disputes by Country/Territory,” accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_by_country_e.htm.
36. “Doha Delivers,” The Economist, December 9, 2013, http://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2013/12/world-trade-organisation; “Global Trade Suffers Another Setback,” New York Times, August 3, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/04/opinion/global-trade-talks-suffer-another-setback.html.[Page 487]
37. J.P. Singh, “India’s Multi-Faceted WTO Refusal,” Washington Post, August 5, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2014/08/05/indias-multi-faceted-wto-refusal.
38. Cited in “U.S. Nuclear Firms Urge Ex-Im Bank Renewal,” World Nuclear News, July 30, 2014, http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP-US-nuclear-firms-urge-ex-im-bank-renewal-30071401.html.
39. Nicola Clark, “Boeing Optimistic That Export-Import Bank Will Get Funding,” New York Times, July 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/14/business/international/boeing-optimistic-that-export-import-bank-will-get-funding.html.
40. Gary Clyde Haufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott, NAFTA Revisited: Achievements and Challenges (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2005), 3.
41. Carla A. Hills, “NAFTA’s Economic Upsides: The View from the United States,” Foreign Affairs, January/February 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140348/carla-a-hills/naftas-economic-upsides.
42. Gary Hufbauer, “Ross Perot Was Wrong about NAFTA,” New York Times, November 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2013/11/24/what-weve-learned-from-nafta/ross-perot-was-wrong-about-nafta.
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44. Cited in Larry Rohter and Elisabeth Bumiller, “Hemisphere Meeting Ends without Trade Consensus,” New York Times, November 6, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/11/06/international/americas/06prexy.html.
45. Cited in ibid.
46. Ian F. Fergusson, William H. Cooper, Remy Jurenas, and Brock R. Williams, “The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Negotiations and Issues for Congress,” CRS Report R42694, December 13, 2013, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R42694.pdf, 3.
47. Lydia DePillis, “Everything You Need to Know about the Trans Pacific Partnership,” Washington Post, December 11, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/12/11/everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-trans-pacific-partnership/; “Trans-Pacific Partnership: Summary of US Objectives,” Office of the United States Trade Representative, http://www.ustr.gov/tpp/Summary-of-US-objectives.
48. Cited in ibid.
49. Cited in Mitsuru Obe, “Will the TPP Go the Way of the WTO’s Doha Round?” The Wall Street Journal, May 23, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2014/05/23/will-the-tpp-go-the-way-of-the-wtos-doha-round.
50. Ian Bremmer and David Gordon, “Two Key Foreign Policy Openings for Obama,” New York Times, February 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/26/opinion/global/two-key-foreign-policy-openings-for-obama.html.
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52. United States-European Union High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth (HLWG), “Final Report High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth,” February 1, 2013, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2013/february/tradoc_150519.pdf.
53. Cited in James Kanter, “E.U. Tries to Assuage Fears over U.S. Trade Deal,” New York Times, March 27, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/28/business/international/eu-tries-to-assuage-fears-over-us-trade-deal.html.
54. Charlemagne, “Transatlantic Trading,” The Economist, February 2, 2013: 44.
55. Cited in David Jolly, “More Hope Than Headway So Far in U.S.-Europe Trade Talks,” New York Times, March 14, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/15/business/international/more-hope-than-headway-so-far-in-us-europe-trade-talks.html.
56. “U.S. Trade in Goods by Country,” U.S. Census Bureau, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/balance.
57. “Top Ten Countries with Which the U.S. Has a Trade Deficit for the Month of April 2013,” U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/top/dst/current/deficit.html.[Page 488]
58. Ian Talley, “U.S. Trade Gap with China, 80% of Trade Deficit, Hits Historic High,” The Wall Street Journal, November 4, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2014/11/04/u-s-trade-gap-with-china-80-of-trade-deficit-hits-historic-high; “Slicing an Apple: How Much of an iPhone Is Made by Samsung,” The Economist, August 10, 2011, http://www.economist.com/blogs/dailychart/2011/08/apple-and-samsungs-symbiotic-relationship.
59. Bruce Stokes, “U.S.-China Economic Relations in the Wake of the U.S. Election,” Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, December 10, 2012, http://www.pewglobal.org/2012/12/10/u-s-china-economic-relations-in-the-wake-of-the-u-s-election.
61. Cited in David E. Sanger, “A New Cold War, in Cyberspace, Tests U.S. Ties to China,” New York Times, February 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/21/business/global/china-says-army-not-behind-attacks-in-report.html.
62. Cited in Zachary A. Goldfarb, “China Less of a U.S. Creditor as It Becomes More of an Election Issue,” Washington Post, October 16, 2012, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2012-10-16/business/35501537_1_china-and-japan-government-debt-eswar-prasad.
63. James W. Paulsen, “Will the U.S. Run a Trade Surplus Again?” Barron’s, August 6, 2014, http://online.barrons.com/articles/SB50001424053111904329504580075513173336640.
64. Goldman Sachs economist Jim O’Neill first coined the name BRICs in 2001, to which South Africa was added in 2010.
65. “GDP Growth (Annual %),” The World Bank, http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG; “When Giants Slow Down,” The Economist, July 27, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21582257-most-dramatic-and-disruptive-period-emerging-market-growth-world-has-ever-seen.
66. The Bretton Woods Committee, March 5, 2013, http://www.brettonwoods.org/sites/default/files/publications/Bretton%20Woods%20Comm_Bipartisan%20Officials%20Letter%20to%20Support%20IMF%20Quota%20Changes%202013.pdf.
67. Nick Timiraos, “5 Questions on Trade Adjustment Assistance,” The Wall Street Journal, June 15, 2015, http://blogs.wsj.com/briefly/2015/06/15/5-questions-on-trade-adjustment-assistance.
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1. Michael Ignatieff, “No Exceptions?” Legal Affairs 59 (2002), http://www.legalaffairs.org/issues/May-June-2002/review_ignatieff_mayjun2002.msp.
2. William Korey, “Human Rights Treaties: Why Is the U.S. Stalling?” Foreign Affairs, April 1967, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23875/william-korey/human-rights-treaties-why-is-the-us-stalling.
3. Felice D. Gaer, “Protecting Human Rights,” in Charles Mayes and Richard Williamson, eds., U.S. Foreign Policy and the United Nations System (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, 1996), 148.
4. Cited in Sydney Blumenthal, The Rise of the Counter-Establishment (New York, NY: Union Square Press, 2008), 142.
5. Andrew Moravcsik, “The Paradox of U.S. Human Rights Policy,” in Michael Ignatieff, ed., American Exceptionalism and Human Rights (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 154.
6. Cited in Louis Henkin, “U.S. Ratification of Human Rights Conventions: The Ghost of Senator Bricker,” American Journal of International Law 89:2 (1995): 347.
7. Cited in ibid., 349.
8. David P. Forsythe, “Human Rights and U.S. Foreign Policy,” Political Science Quarterly 105:3 (1990): 437.
9. Cited in Roberta Cohen, “Integrating Human Rights in U.S. Foreign Policy: The History, Challenges, and the Criteria for an Effective Policy,” Foreign Service Institute, April 2008, 2, http://www.brookings.edu/research/speeches/2008/04/human-rights-cohen.
10. Douglas Brinkley, “Democratic Enlargement: The Clinton Doctrine,” Foreign Policy 106 (Spring 1997): 116.
11. Gordon S. Wood, cited in David P. Forsythe, “U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights: Situating Obama,” Human Rights Quarterly 33:3 (2011): 769–770.
12. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., “Human Rights and the American Tradition,” Foreign Affairs, 57:3 (1978), http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/31960/arthur-m-schlesinger-jr/human-rights-and-the-american-tradition.
13. Laurence J. Haas, Sound the Trumpet: The United States and Human Rights Promotion (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2012), 69.
14. Henkin, “U.S. Ratification of Human Rights Conventions,” 341.
15. Ibid., 346.[Page 489]
16. Cited in Haas, Sound the Trumpet, 90.
18. Cited in “‘Legitimate Concerns’ over Outcome of Michael Brown and Eric Garner Cases—UN Rights Experts,” UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, December 5, 2014, http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=15384&LangID=E.
19. Cited in Robert Mackey, “Russia, Iran, and Egypt Heckle U.S. about Tactics in Ferguson,” New York Times, August 19, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/20/world/europe/russia-iran-and-egypt-heckle-us-about-tactics-in-ferguson.html.
20. Cited in Robin Wright, “Dictators: Upbraid U.S. for Racial Unrest in Ferguson,” The Wall Street Journal, August 19, 2014, http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2014/08/19/dictators-upbraid-u-s-for-racial-unrest-in-ferguson.
21. Mackey, “Russia, Iran, and Egypt Heckle U.S. about Tactics in Ferguson.”
22. Wright, “Dictators.”
23. Cited in “Rodong Sinmun Brands U.S. as Worst Human Rights Abuser,” KFA United Kingdom, April 29, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=811146578977439&id=223522167739886.
24. Cited in Mary E. Stuckey, Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and the National Agenda (College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2009), 56, 57.
25. Cited in Forsythe, “U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights,” 770.
26. Cited in Tamar Jacoby, “The Reagan Turnaround on Human Rights,” Foreign Affairs, Summer 1986, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/41064/tamar-jacoby/the-reagan-turnaround-on-human-rights.
27. Kathryn Sikkink, Mixed Signals: U.S. Human Rights Policy and Latin America (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2004), 182–185.
28. Remarks of Anthony Lake, “From Containment to Enlargement,” Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, Washington, DC, September 21, 1993, http://www.fas.org/news/usa/1993/usa-930921.htm.
29. “Chinese Politics and the WTO: No Change,” The Economist, December 20, 2011, http://www.economist.com/node/21541461.
30. Cited in John W. Dietrich, “U.S. Human Rights Policy in the Post-Cold War Era,” Political Science Quarterly 121:2 (2006): 274.
31. John Kerry, Press Statement, “Special Envoy for the Human Rights of LGBT Persons,” Department of State, February 23, 2015, http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2015/02/237772.htm.
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33. Cited in Colum Lynch, “U.S. to Seek Seat on UN Human Rights Council,” Washington Post, April 1, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/31/AR2009033104115.html.
35. Brett D. Schaeffer, “UN Human Rights Council: A Flawed Body That Should Be Replaced,” The Heritage Foundation Issue Brief #4088, November 19, 2013, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/11/un-human-rights-council-a-flawed-body-that-should-be-replaced.
36. Jackson Nyamuya Maogoto, War Crimes and Realpolitik (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner 2004), 219–220.
37. The White House, “National Security Strategy” (May 2010), https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf, 48.
38. The UN Refugee Agency (UNFR),“Child Soldiers Global Report 2001—Sudan,” UN High Commissioner for Refugees, http://www.refworld.org/docid/498805cb32.html.
39. Asteris Huliaras, “Evangelists, Oil Companies, and Terrorists: The Bush Administration’s Policy towards Sudan,” Orbis 50:4 (Autumn 2006), 714.
40. Cited in Ty McCormick, “Unmade in the USA,” Foreign Policy, February 25, 2015, http://foreignpolicy.com/2015/02/25/unmade-in-the-usa-south-sudan-bush-obama.
41. “Conflicts in South Sudan,” Enough Project, October 1, 2014, http://www.enoughproject.org/conflicts/sudans/conflicts-south-sudan.
42. “South Sudan: United States Provides Support for Justice and Accountability,” U.S. Department of State Press Release, May 5, 2015, http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2015/05/241927.htm.[Page 490]
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45. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Adopted by the General Assembly of the UN on 9 December 1948, https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%2078/volume-78-I-1021-English.pdf.
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49. Nicholas Kristof, “Angelina Jolie and Darfur,” New York Times, October 20, 2008, http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/20/angelina-jolie-and-darfur.
50. Dugald McConnell and Brian Todd, “Cuban Prisoners Said to Make Videos Exposing Prison Conditions,” CNN, March 17, 2012, http://www.cnn.com/2012/03/16/world/americas/cuban-prison-videos.
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54. Cited in Perry Bacon, Jr., “Obama Meets Privately with Dalai Lama,” Washington Post, July 16, 2011, http://articles.washingtonpost.com/2011-07-16/politics/35236863_1_dalai-lama-tibet-concerns-support-tibetan-independence.
55. Cited in “Xi Jinping: China Will ‘Smash’ Tibet Separatism,” BBC News, July 19, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-14205998.
56. René Värk, “The Status and Protection of Unlawful Combatants,” Juridica International Law Review, University of Tartu, 2005, http://www.juridicainternational.eu/?id=12632.
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58. For a complete list, see Open Society Justice Initiative, Globalizing Torture: CIA Secret Detention and Extraordinary Rendition (New York, NY: Open Society Foundation, 2013), 6.
59. Ibid., 16.
60. Cited in Dana Priest, “CIA Holds Terror Suspects in Secret Prisons,” Washington Post, November 2, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/11/01/AR2005110101644_2.html.
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63. Statement of Tom Malinowski, Washington Advocacy Director, Human Rights Watch, Washington, D.C., Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, July 26, 2007, http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-110shrg40379/html/CHRG-110shrg40379.htm.
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65. Cited in Jo Becker and Scott Shane, “Secret ‘Kill List’ Proves a Test of Obama’s Principles and Will,” New York Times, May 29, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/05/29/world/obamas-leadership-in-war-on-al-qaeda.html?pagewanted=all.
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70. Cited in “Senate Ignores Veto Threat in Limiting Detainee Treatment,” CNN, October 6, 2005, http://www.cnn.com/2005/POLITICS/10/06/senate.detainees.
71. White House, “Executive Order 13491—Ensuring Lawful Interrogations,” January 22, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/EnsuringLawfulInterrogations.
72. Mark Mazzetti, “Panel Faults CIA over Brutality and Deceit in Terrorism Interrogations,” New York Times, December 9, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/10/world/senate-intelligence-committee-cia-torture-report.html.
73. “Un-American by Any Name,” New York Times, June 5, 2005, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/05/opinion/05sun1.html.
74. Jimmy Carter, “A Cruel and Unusual Record,” New York Times, June 24, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/25/opinion/americas-shameful-human-rights-record.html.
75. “Text: Obama’s Speech in Cairo,” New York Times, June 4, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/04/us/politics/04obama.text.html?pagewanted=all.
76. Justin McCarthy, “Americans Continue to Oppose Closing Guantanamo Bay,” Gallup, June 13, 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/171653/americans-continue-oppose-closing-guantanamo-bay.aspx.
77. Barack Obama, “Statement on Signing the Ike Skelton National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2011,” January 7, 2011, The American Presidency Project, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=88886.
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45. Daniel Yergin, The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power (New York, NY: Free Press, 2008), 392.
46. Cited in “Analysis: Awash in Oil, U.S. Reshapes Mideast Role 40 Years after OPEC Embargo,” Reuters, October 17, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/10/17/us-usa-energy-geopolitics-analysis-idU.S.BRE99G14P20131017.
47. Mark Thompson, “U.S. to Become Biggest Oil Producer—IEA,” CNNMoney, November 12, 2012, http://money.cnn.com/2012/11/12/news/economy/us-oil-production-energy/index.html.
48. Cited in Matthew L. Wald, “Shale’s Effect on Oil Supply Is Not Expected to Last,” New York Times, November 12, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/13/business/energy-environment/shales-effect-on-oil-supply-is-not-expected-to-last.htm.
49. Cited in Clifford Krauss, “Texas Refinery Is Saudi Foothold in U.S. Market,” New York Times, April 4, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/05/business/texas-refinery-is-saudi-foothold-in-us-market.html.
50. Jonathan L. Ramsur, Richard K. Lattanzio, Linda Luther, Paul W. Parfomak, and Nicole T. Carter, “Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues,” CRS Report R42611, April 14, 2014, 16, https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42611.pdf.
51. Lawrence Kumins and Robert Bamberger, “Oil and Gas Disruption from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita,” CRS Report for Congress, October 21, 2005, http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/55824.pdf.
52. David Biello, “How Much Will Tar Sands Oil Add to Global Warming?” Scientific American, January 23, 2013, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/tar-sands-and-keystone-xl-pipeline-impact-on-global-warming; Ramsur et al., “Oil Sands and the Keystone XL Pipeline: Background and Selected Environmental Issues.”
53. Environmental Protection Agency, “The Social Cost of Carbon,” updated July 21, 2015, http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/EPAactivities/economics/scc.html.[Page 498]
54. Jacques Leslie, “Shipping Crude Oil by Rail: New Front in Tar Sands Wars,” Yale Environment 360, December 5, 2013, http://e360.yale.edu/feature/shipping_crude_oil_by_rail_new_front_in_tar_sands_wars/2717.
55. White House, “Remarks by the President on Climate Change,” Georgetown University, Washington, DC, June 25, 2013, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/06/25/remarks-president-climate-change.
56. Erica Meltzer, “Boulder Issue 2A: Voters Approve Carbon Tax Extension by Wide Margin,” Daily Camera, November 6, 2012, http://www.dailycamera.com/ci_21941854/boulder-issue-2a-carbon-tax-appears-likely-be.
57. Jane A. Leggett, “Climate Change: Conceptual Approaches and Policy Tools,” CRS Report for Congress, August 29, 2011, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41973.pdf., 22; Richard Coniff, “The Political History of Cap and Trade,” Smithsonian.com, August 2009, http://www.smithsonianmag.com/air/the-political-history-of-cap-and-trade-34711212.
58. Michael Specter, “The Climate Fixers,” The New Yorker, May 14, 2012, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2012/05/14/120514fa_fact_specter.
59. Ruth Greenspan Bell, Barry Blechman, and Micha Ziegler, “Beyond the Durban Climate Talks,” Foreign Affairs, October 30, 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136627/ruth-greenspan-bell-barry-blechman-and-micah-ziegler/beyond-the-durban-climate-talks.
60. “U.S. Imports of Crude Oil and Petroleum Products,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/hist/LeafHandler.ashx?n=PET&s=MTTIMU.S.1&f=M.
61. Cited in Brad Plummer, “China Is Using Up Oil Faster Than We Can Produce It,” Washington Post, April 29, 2013, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/04/29/china-is-using-oil-faster-than-we-can-produce-it.
62. “U.S. Imports by Country of Origin,” U.S. Energy Information Administration, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.eia.gov/dnav/pet/pet_move_impcus_a1_NMX_ep00_im0_mbbl_m.htm.
63. Cited in Juliet Eilperin, “Obama Proposes Vast Expansion of Pacific Ocean Sanctuaries for Marine Life,” Washington Post, June 17, 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/obama-will-propose-vast-expansion-of-pacific-ocean-marine-sanctuary/2014/06/16/f8689972-f0c6-11e3-bf76-447a5df6411f_story.html.
64. Cited in Justin Gillis, “Bipartisan Report Tallies High Toll on Economy from Global Warming,” New York Times, June 24, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/24/science/report-tallies-toll-on-economy-from-global-warming.html.
65. Cited in Andrew Mayeda, “Incentives for Carbon to Help Keystone Bid, Canada’s Liberal Party Leader Says,” Bloomberg, June 26, 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-26/trudeau-says-incentinves-for-carbon-to-help-keystone-bid.html.Chapter 9
1. Max Rodenbeck, “Midnight at the Oasis,” New York Times, January 28, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/28/books/review/Rodenbeck.t.html.
2. “Our Mission,” AIPAC, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.aipac.org/about/mission.
3. “How We Work,” AIPAC, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.aipac.org/about/how-we-work.
4. Walter Russell Mead, “Jerusalem Syndrome: Decoding the Israel Lobby,” Foreign Affairs 86:6 (November/December 2007): 163.
5. Cited in David D. Kirkpatrick, “For Evangelicals, Supporting Israel Is ‘God’s Foreign Policy,’” New York Times, November 14, 2006, http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/14/washington/14israel.html?pagewanted=all.
6. Pew Research Center, “Evangelical Support for Israel,” April 6, 2011, http://www.pewresearch.org/daily-number/evangelical-support-for-israel.
7. William B. Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 (Washington, DC and Berkeley, CA: The Brookings Institute and the University of California Press, 2005), 1. Emphasis in original.
8. Cited in “1977: Egyptian Leader’s Israel Trip Makes History,” BBC News, n.d., http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/november/19/newsid_2520000/2520467.stm.
9. Michael Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East: 1776 to the Present (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2007), 570.
10. Cited in ibid.
11. Cited in William Safire, Lend Me Your Ears (New York, NY: W. W. Norton, 2004), 171, 172.[Page 499]
12. Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “The Israel-Palestinian Interim Agreement,” September 28, 2005, http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/THE+ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN+INTERIM+AGREEMENT.htm.
14. The Jewish Peace Lobby, “The Clinton Parameters,” n.d., http://www.peacelobby.org/clinton_parameters.htm.
15. “The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement,” August 18, 1988, Avalon Project, Yale Law School, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/hamas.asp.
16. Cited in Kareem Fahim, “Palestinians Find Show of Support Lacking from Arab Leaders amid Offensive,” New York Times, July 19, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/20/world/middleeast/palestinians-find-show-of-support-lacking-from-arab-nations-amid-offensive.html?_r=0.
17. Cited in Mark Landler, “Gaza War Strains Relations between U.S. and Israel,” New York Times, August 4, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/05/world/middleeast/gaza-is-straining-us-ties-to-israel.html.
18. Cited in Jay Solomon, “U.S. Moves against Hezbollah ‘Cartel,’” The Wall Street Journal, April 23, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323735604578441251544900808.html.
19. Cited in Jo Becker, “Beirut Bank Seen as a Hub of Hezbollah’s Financing,” New York Times, December 13, 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/14/world/middleeast/beirut-bank-seen-as-a-hub-of-hezbollahs-financing.html?pagewanted=all.
20. Human Rights Watch, “Why They Died” 19:5(E), September 2007, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/lebanon0907.pdf, 4.
21. Cited in Mark Landler, “Israel’s U.S. Envoy Shares Thoughts as He Prepares for a New Chapter,” New York Times, July 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/world/middleeast/israeli-envoy-shares-thoughts-as-he-prepares-for-a-new-chapter.html?pagewanted=all.
22. Cited in “Israel’s Netanyahu Says Iran Closer to Nuclear ‘Red Line,’” Reuters, July 14, 2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/14/us-nuclear-israel-iran-idUSBRE96D08H20130714.
23. Cited in Jodi Rudoren, “Netanyahu Dismisses Iranian President’s Remarks,” New York Times, September 20, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/21/world/middleeast/prime-minister-netanyahu-on-iranian-president-rouhani.html?ref=iran.
24. Cited in David E. Sanger and Jodi Rudoren, “Split on Accord on Iran Strains U.S.-Israel Ties,” New York Times, November 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/19/world/middleeast/split-on-accord-on-iran-strains-us-israel-ties.html.
25. “Text of Obama’s Speech in Israel,” The Wall Street Journal, March 21, 2013, http://blogs.wsj.com/washwire/2013/03/21/text-of-obamas-speech-in-israel.
26. Cited in Mark Landler, “Discussing Iran, Obama and Netanyahu Display Unity,” New York Times, September 30, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/01/us/politics/tensions-over-iran-seem-to-ebb-between-netanyahu-and-obama.html.
27. Cited in “Obama Says Iran Nuclear Row ‘Larger’ Than Syrian Crisis,” BBC News, September 15, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-24102723.
28. Cited in David E. Sanger, “Quick Turn of Fortunes as Diplomatic Options Open Up with Syria and Iran,” New York Times, September 19, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/20/us/politics/on-mideast-heads-spin-over-shift-in-diplomacy.html.
29. Pew Research Global Attitudes Project, “Despite Their Wide Differences, Many Israelis and Palestinians Want Bigger Role for Obama in Resolving Conflict,” May 9, 2013, http://www.pewglobal.org/2013/05/09/despite-their-wide-differences-many-israelis-and-palestinians-want-bigger-role-for-obama-in-resolving-conflict.
30. Cited in Michael R. Gordon and Jodi Rudoren, “Kerry Achieves Deal to Revive Mideast Talks,” New York Times, July 19, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/20/world/middleeast/kerry-extends-stay-in-mideast-to-push-for-talks.html?pagewanted=all.
31. Cited in Michael R. Gordon and Isabel Kershner, “Israel and Palestinians Set to Resume Peace Talks, U.S. Announces,” New York Times, July 28, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/29/world/middleeast/israel-agrees-to-prisoner-release-clearing-way-for-talks.html.
32. Cited in Yolande Knell, “Reconsidering the Two-State Solution,” BBC News, March 21, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-21850739.[Page 500]
33. Cited in “Netanyahu Says Abbas Must Abandon Unity Deal with Hamas,” BBC News, April 24, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-27142594.
34. Cited in Jodi Rudoren and Isabel Kershner, “Arc of a Failed Deal: How Nine Months of Mideast Talks Ended in Disarray,” New York Times, April 28, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/world/middleeast/arc-of-a-failed-deal-how-nine-months-of-mideast-talks-ended-in-dissarray.html.
35. Cited in Isabel Kershner, “Israel Says It Is ‘Deeply Disappointed’ by Kerry’s Remarks on Peace Talks,” New York Times, April 9, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/10/world/middleeast/middle-east-peace-effort.html.
36. Cited in Michael R. Gordon, “Kerry Expresses Regret after Apartheid Remark,” New York Times, April 28, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/world/middleeast/kerry-apologizes-for-remark-that-israel-risks-apartheid.html.
37. Cited in Jodi Rudoren, “Israel ‘Troubled’ by U.S. Plan to Work with Palestinian Unity Government,” New York Times, June 3, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/04/world/middleeast/israel-troubled-by-us-plan-to-work-with-palestinian-unity-government.html.
38. Cited in Mark Landler, “Hamas Looms over Latest Israel-U.S. Dispute,” New York Times, June 4, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/05/world/middleeast/hamas-looms-over-latest-israel-us-dispute.html?_r=0.
39. Cited in Mark Landler, “A ‘Battered’ Mideast Envoy Steps Downs, but Keeps a Bag Packed,” New York Times, July 3, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/04/world/middleeast/martin-indyk-mideast-peace-talks.html.
40. Cited in “The Masochism Tango,” The Economist, December 15, 2012, 49.
41. “Text: Obama’s Speech in Israel.”
42. Thomas L. Friedman, “A Wonderful Country,” New York Times, February 1, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/02/opinion/sunday/friedman-a-wonderful-country.html.
43. Cited in Jodi Rudoren, “Netanyahu’s History on Palestinian Statehood,” New York Times, March 20, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/03/20/world/middleeast/netanyahu-two-state-solution.html.
44. Cited in Julie Hirschfeld Davis, “Obama Says He Told Netanyahu That Talk before Election Hurt the Peace Process,” New York Times, March 21, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/22/world/middleeast/obama-says-he-told-netanyahu-that-campaign-talk-hurt-the-peace-process.html.
45. Cited in Rudoren, “Netanyahu’s History on Palestinian Statehood.”
46. Cited in “Haniyeh Calls for Formation of Palestinian State on 1967 Lines,” Haaretz, December 19, 2006, http://www.haaretz.com/news/haniyeh-calls-for-formation-of-palestinian-state-on-1967-lines-1.207641.
47. Cited in Arnold Wesker, “My Brother the Quarryman,” The Guardian, May 28, 2004, http://www.theguardian.com/books/2004/may/29/highereducation.israelandthepalestinians.
48. “Text of Obama’s Speech in Israel.”
49. Cited in Jodi Rudoren, “Israeli Move over Housing Poses a Threat to Peace Talks,” New York Times, November 12, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/13/world/middleeast/netanyahu-halts-some-settlement-plans-but-others-to-proceed.html.
50. “Text: Obama’s Speech in Cairo,” New York Times, June 4, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/06/04/us/politics/04obama.text.html?pagewanted=all.
51. “Text of Obama’s Speech in Israel.”
52. The White House, “Letter from President Bush to Prime Minister Sharon,” April 14, 2004, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2004/04/20040414-3.html.
53. Cited in Adiv Sterman, “’Abbas Was Ready to Compromise on Right of Return,’” Times of Israel, March 11, 2013, http://www.timesofisrael.com/abbas-was-willing-to-compromise-on-right-of-return.
54. Cited in Harriet Sherwood, “Mahmoud Abbas Outrages Palestinian Refugees by Waiving His Right to Return,” The Guardian, November 4, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/nov/04/mahmoud-abbas-palestinian-territories.
55. Cited in Jay Solomon and Carol E. Lee, “Strains with Israel over Iran Snarl U.S. Goals in Mideast,” The Wall Street Journal, November 18, 2013, A11.
56. Cited in Adam Entous and Julian E. Barnes, “Pentagon Bulks Up ‘Bunker Buster’ Bomb to Combat Iran,” The Wall Street Journal, May 2, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324582004578459170138890756.html.[Page 501]
57. Trita Parsi, “Pushing Peace,” Foreign Affairs, October 1, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139981/trita-parsi/pushing-peace.
59. Jim Zanotti, “U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians,” Congressional Research Service, January 18, 2013, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RS22967.pdf.
60. See Jihan Abdalla, “Israel Denies Palestinians Equal Water Access,” Al-Monitor, April 8, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/04/westbank-water-restrictions-israel.html; and Amira Hass, “Two Pipes for Two Peoples: The Politics of Water in the West Bank,” Haaretz, September 23, 2012, http://www.haaretz.com/news/features/two-pipes-for-two-peoples-the-politics-of-water-in-the-west-bank-1.466250.
61. Cited in Somini Sengupta, “Palestinian Leader Urges U.N. to Back a Deadline to End Israeli Occupation,” New York Times, September 26, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/27/world/middleeast/un-general-assembly-abbas-israel.html?_r=0.
62. Cited in Jodi Rudoren, “Region Boiling, Israel Takes Up Castle Strategy,” New York Times, January 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/19/world/middleeast/region-boiling-israel-takes-up-castle-strategy.html.
63. “Text: Obama’s Speech in Cairo.”
64. Cited in “A Peace Process that Is Going Nowhere,” The Economist, April 12, 2014, 39.
65. Dennis R. Ross, “To Achieve Mideast Peace, Suspend Disbelief,” New York Times, March 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2013/03/03/opinion/sunday/opinion-israel-palestine-mideast-peace.html.
66. “Text of Obama’s Speech in Israel.”
67. Cited in Michael R. Gordon and Jodi Rudoren, “Kerry, Invoking Mandela, Says Peace in Mideast Is Possible,” New York Times, December 6, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/07/world/middleeast/kerry-invoking-mandela-says-peace-in-mideast-is-possible.html.Chapter 10
1. Edward D. Mansfield and Jack Snyder, “Democratization and the Arab Spring,” International Interactions 38:5 (2012): 723.
2. Cited in Ryan Lizza, “The Consequentialist,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011, http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/05/02/110502fa_fact_lizza?printable=true¤tPage=all.
3. “Modern History Sourcebook: Sir Henry McMahon: Letter to Ali ibn Husain, 1915,” July 1998, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1915mcmahon.html.
4. David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East (New York, NY: Henry Holt, 1989), 9.
5. John C. Campbell, “The Soviet Union and the United States in the Middle East,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 401 (May 1972): 127.
6. John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1997), 171.
7. John Lewis Gaddis, The Cold War: A New History (New York, NY: Penguin Press, 2005), 128.
8. Philip Anderson, “‘Summer Madness’: The Crisis in Syria, August–October 1957,” British Journal of Middle East Studies 22:1/2 (1995): 34.
9. Richard M. Nixon, “Address to the Nation on the War in Vietnam,” November 3, 1969, http://www.nixonlibrary.gov/forkids/speechesforkids/silentmajority/silentmajority_transcript.pdf.
10. Jimmy Carter, “The State of the Union Address Delivered before a Joint Session of the Congress,” January 23, 1980, The American Presidency Project, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=33079.
11. Cited in Craig A. Daigle, “The Russians Are Going: Sadat, Nixon and the Soviet Presence in Egypt, 1970–1971,” Middle East Review of International Affairs 8:1 (March 2004): 1.
12. Anwar al-Sadat, In Search of Identity (New York, NY: Harper & Row, 1978), 187; cited in NSA, “Moscow’s Realignment with Cairo: A Look at Gorbachev’s New Political Thinking,” Cryptologic Quarterly, n.d., unclassified, 3, http://www.nsa.gov/public_info/_files/cryptologic_quarterly/Moscows_Realignment_with_Cairo.pdf.
13. Charles E. Butterworth, “Political Islam: The Origins,” Annals of the American Academy off Political and Social Science 524 (November 1992): 29.[Page 502]
14. Carrie Rosefsky Wickham, “The Path to Moderation: Strategy and Learning in the Formation of Egypt’s Wasat Party,” Comparative Politics 36:2 (January 2004): 205.
15. Abul A’la Maududi, Jihad in Islam (Beirut: The Holy Koran Publishing House, n.d.), 5, http://www.muhammadanism.org/Terrorism/jihah_in_islam/jihad_in_islam.pdf.
16. Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996), 68.
17. Beverley Milton-Edwards, Islamic Fundamentalism since 1945 (New York, NY: Routledge, 2005), 27.
18. Rupe Simms, “‘Islam Is Our Politics’: A Gramscian Analysis of the Muslim Brotherhood (1928–1953),” Social Compass 49:4 (December 2002): 573.
19. Leon Carl Brown, Religion and State: The Muslim Approach to Politics (New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 2000), 146.
21. Robert S. Leiken and Steven Brooke, “The Moderate Muslim Brotherhood,” Foreign Affairs 82:2 (March/April 2007): 110.
22. Sana Abed-Kotob, “The Accommodationists Speak: The Goals and Strategies of the Muslim Brotherhood of Egypt,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 27:3 (August 1995): 331.
23. Simms, “‘Islam Is Our Politics,’” 574.
24. Bernard Lewis, The Crisis of Islam: Holy War and Unholy Terror (New York, NY: Random House, 2003), 111–112.
25. Stephen M. Saideman, “When Conflict Spreads: Arab Spring and the Limits of Diffusion: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations,” International Interactions 38:5 (2012): 717.
26. Economist Intelligence Unit, “Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in Retreat,” Table 3, p. 5, http://www.eiu.com/Handlers/WhitepaperHandler.ashx?fi=Democracy_Index_2010_Web.pdf&mode=wp&campaignid=demo2010. The remaining three were ranked as “hybrid regimes,” a category just above “authoritarian” but below “flawed democracies.”
27. Muzammil M. Hussain and Philip Howard. “What Best Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring,” International Studies Review 15:1 (March 2013): 49, 51.
28. Anthony Billingsley, “Writing Constitutions in the Wake of the Arab Spring,” Foreign Affairs, November 30, 2011, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/136699/anthony-billingsley/writing-constitutions-in-the-wake-of-the-arab-spring.
29. Cited in Kavitha A. Davidson, “Democracy Index 2013: Global Democracy at a Standstill, The Economist Intelligence Unit’s Annual Report Shows,” Huffington Post, March 21, 2013, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/03/21/democracy-index-2013-economist-intelligence-unit_n_2909619.html.
30. Cited in “Tunisia Counts Votes in Historic Free Election,” BBC News, October 24, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15425407.
31. Cited in Lyse Doucet, “Tunisians’ Frustrations, Two Years On,” BBC News, December 10, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-20663981.
32. Cited in Maria Golovnina, “World Raises Pressure on Libya, Battles for Key Towns,” Reuters, February 28, 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/28/us-libya-protests-idUSTRE71G0A620110228.
33. Cited in Devin Dwyer and Luis Martinez, “U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya,” ABC News, March 19, 2011, http://abcnews.go.com/International/libya-international-military-coalition-launch-assault-gadhafi-forces/story?id=13174246#.T35yGdl0SZR.
34. Cited in Amy Chozick, “Clinton Calls Benghazi Her ‘Biggest Regret’ as Secretary,” New York Times, January 27, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/28/us/politics/clinton-calls-benghazi-attack-her-biggest-regret-as-secretary.html.
35. “Obama’s Speech to the United Nations General Assembly—Text,” New York Times, September 25, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/26/world/obamas-speech-to-the-united-nations-general-assembly-text.html.
36. Jason Pack, “Libya on the Brink,” Foreign Affairs, July 28, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141666/jason-pack/libya-on-the-brink.
37. George Joffé, “Navigating the Nile,” Foreign Affairs, September 21, 2012, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138128/george-joffe/navigating-the-nile.
38. Cited in “Obama: I Told Mubarak He Must Deliver on His Promises,” CNN World, January 28 2011, http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/01/28/egypt.protests.u.s..response/index.html.[Page 503]
39. “Remarks by the President on the Situation in Egypt,” The White House, February 1, 2011, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2011/02/01/remarks-president-situation-egypt.
40. Cited in Andrew Quinn, “Clinton Warns of ‘Perfect Storm’ in Middle East,” The Independent, February 5, 2011, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/clinton-warns-of-quotperfect-stormquot-in-middle-east-2205407.html.
41. Thomas L. Friedman, “Can Egypt Pull Together?” New York Times, July 6, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/07/opinion/sunday/friedman-can-egypt-pull-together.html.
42. Cited in Hamza Hendawi, “Morsi’s Constitutional Declarations Grant Egypt’s President Far-reaching Powers,” Huffington Post, November 22, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/22/morsi-constitutional-declaration_n_2175651.html.
43. Cited in Human Rights Watch, “Egypt: New Constitution Mixed on Support of Rights,” November 30, 2012, http://www.hrw.org/news/2012/11/29/egypt-new-constitution-mixed-support-rights.
44. Nathan J. Brown, “Redoing the Egyptian Revolution,” Foreign Affairs, July 3, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139555/nathan-j-brown/redoing-the-egyptian-revolution.
45. Cited in Mark Landler, “Political Turmoil in Egypt Is Replay for White House,” New York Times, July 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/03/world/middleeast/political-turmoil-in-egypt-is-replay-for-white-house.html.
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66. Cited in Helene Cooper, “Obama Seeks Money to Train ‘Appropriately Vetted’ Syrian Rebels,” New York Times, June 26, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/27/world/middleeast/obama-seeks-500-million-to-train-and-equip-syrian-opposition.html?_r=0.
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69. Cited in Thom Shanker, “General Says Syrian Rebels Aren’t Ready to Take Power,” New York Times, August 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/22/world/middleeast/general-says-syrian-rebels-arent-ready-to-take-power.html.
70. Cited in Anne Barnard, “Syrians on Both Sides of the War Increasingly See Assad as Likely to Stay,” New York Times, November 8, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/09/world/middleeast/syrians-and-observers-increasingly-see-assad-as-likely-to-stay.html.
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72. Cited in David D. Kirkpatrick, “Overwhelming Vote for Egypt’s Constitution Raises Concern,” New York Times, January 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/19/world/middleeast/vote-validates-egypts-constitution-and-military-takeover.html.
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74. Cited in Steven Lee Myers, “To Back Democracy, U.S. Prepares to Cut $1 Billion from Egypt’s Debt,” New York Times, September 3, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/04/world/middleeast/us-prepares-economic-aid-to-bolster-democracy-in-egypt.html?pagewanted=all.
75. Cited in Peter Baker, “Egypt Crisis Finds Washington Largely Ambivalent and Aloof,” New York Times, July 5, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/06/world/middleeast/egypt-crisis-finds-washington-ambivalent-and-aloof.html.
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77. Cited in David D. Kirkpatrick and Kareem Fahim, “U.S. Warns Egypt’s Generals against Jeopardizing ‘Second Chance’ at Democracy,” New York Times, July 15, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/16/world/middleeast/us-steps-up-public-diplomacy-in-egypt-crisis.html.
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79. Cited in Thom Shanker and Eric Schmitt, “Ties with Egypt Army Constrain Washington,” New York Times, August 16, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/17/world/middleeast/us-officials-fear-losing-an-eager-ally-in-the-egyptian-military.html.
80. Robert Springborg, “The Nasser Playbook,” Foreign Affairs, November 5, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140242/robert-springborg/the-nasser-playbook.
81. UNHCR, “Syria Regional Refugee Response,” April 14, 2015, http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php.
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84. UNHCR, “Syria Regional Refugee Response,” April 14, 2015.
85. USAID, “Syria,” March 31, 2015, http://www.usaid.gov/crisis/syria.
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87. Cited in Michael R. Gordon, “Criticism of United States’ Mideast Policy Increasingly Comes from Allies,” New York Times, October 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/24/world/middleeast/kerry-reassures-israel-on-iran-but-divisions-remain.html.
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89. Clinton, Hard Choices, 461.
90. Cited in David Rothkopf, “National Insecurity,” Foreign Policy 208 (September/October 2014): 47.
92. Cited in Mark Landler and Thom Shanker, “Pentagon Lays Out Options for U.S. Military Effort in Syria,” New York Times, July 22, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/23/world/middleeast/pentagon-outlining-options-to-congress-suggests-syria-campaign-would-be-costly.html.
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97. Gerald F. Seib, “Few Good Choices for U.S. in Mideast,” The Wall Street Journal, July 30, 2013, A4.
98. Seth Jones, “The Mirage of the Arab Spring,” Foreign Affairs 92:1 (January/February 2013): 56.
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2. Cited in Peter Baker, “How Obama Came to Plan for ‘Surge’ in Afghanistan,” New York Times, December 5, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/06/world/asia/06reconstruct.html?pagewanted=all.
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4. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Hard Choices (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2014), 190.
5. Robert M. Gates, Duty: Memoirs of a Secretary at War (New York, NY: Knopf, 2014), 585.
6. Leon Panetta, “The CIA Is Proud to Be on the Frontlines against al-Qaeda,” Washington Post, January 10, 2010, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/01/08/AR2010010803588.html.
7. Cited in Clinton, Hard Choices, 469.
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10. Ole Holsti, American Public Opinion on the Iraq War (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2011), 132. Emphasis in original.
11. Ibid., 137.
12. Gallup, “Iraq,” accessed January 6, 2015, http://www.gallup.com/poll/1633/iraq.aspx.
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14. George W. Bush, Second Inaugural Address, January 20, 2005, in “Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States,” Bartleby.com, http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres67.html.
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18. John L. Esposito, What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2011), 55–56.
19. Ibid., 133.
21. Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 276.
22. Bruce Livesey, “The Salafist Movement,” Frontline, n.d., http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/front/special/sala.html.
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24. “The CIA’s Intervention in Afghanistan: Interview with Zbigniew Brzezinski,” Le Nouvel Observateur, Paris, 15–21 January 1998, http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/BRZ110A.html.
25. William Malley, The Afghanistan Wars, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), 223. Emphasis in original.
26. Bill Roggio, “The Seven Phases of the Base,” The Long War Journal, August 15, 2005, http://www.longwarjournal.org/archives/2005/08/the_seven_phase.php.
27. “Al Qaeda’s Second Fatwa,” PBS NEWSHOUR, February 23, 1998, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/military/jan-june98/fatwa_1998.html.
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31. “Text for Authorization of Military Force,” September 18, 2001, https://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/sjres23/text.
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33. Cited in Michael R. Gordon and Eric Schmitt, “A Nation Challenged: The Hunt; Marines and Army May Scour Caves, U.S. General Says,” New York Times, December 20, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/12/20/world/a-nation-challenged-the-hunt-marines-and-army-may-scour-caves-us-general-says.html.
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39. IntelCenter: Words of Osama bin Laden, vol. 1 (Alexandria, VA: Tempest, 2008), 75.
40. “President Bush Announces Major Combat Operation in Iraq Have Ended,” White House, May 1, 2003, http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2003/05/20030501-15.html.
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42. Cited in Daniel Schorn, “Bush Talks about His Biggest Fear,” CBS News, February 11, 2009, http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500923_162-1980081.html.
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46. Cited in R. Jeffrey Smith, “Hussein’s Prewar Ties to Al-Qaeda Discounted,” Washington Post, April 6, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/05/AR2007040502263.html.
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48. Cited in Kim Sengupta, “Occupation Made World Less Safe, Pro-War Institute Says,” The Independent, May 26, 2004, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/occupation-made-world-less-safe-prowar-institute-says-6169169.html.
49. Cited in Dana Priest, “Iraq New Terror Breeding Ground,” Washington Post, January 14, 2005, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7460-2005Jan13.html.
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51. Cited in “Bin Laden Raid: Barack Obama Describes ‘Huge Risks,’” BBC News, May 9, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-13331762.
52. Cited in Adrian Brown, “Osama Bin Laden’s Death: How It Happened,” BBC News, September 10, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13257330.
53. Clinton, Hard Choices, 197.
54. Bill Roggio, “Charting the Data for US Airstrikes in Pakistan, 2004–2015,” The Long War Journal, April 13, 2015, http://www.longwarjournal.org/pakistan-strikes.
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56. Cited in “The Unquenchable Fire,” The Economist, September 28, 2013, 21.
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60. Jacob N. Shapiro, The Terrorist’s Dilemma: Managing Violent Covert Organizations (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013), 4.
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62. Cited in Eric Schmitt, “Qaeda Affiliates Gain Regional Influence as Central Leadership Fades,” New York Times, April 30, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/01/world/middleeast/qaeda-affiliates-gain-regional-influence-as-central-leadership-fades.html.
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64. “Shoe Bomber” Richard Reid tried unsuccessfully to ignite PETN hidden in the hollowed-out bottoms of his shoes to destroy an American Airlines flight from Paris to Miami in 2001.
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72. U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence, “Boko Haram Emerging Threat to the U.S. Homeland,” November 30, 2011, 2, http://homeland.house.gov/sites/homeland.house.gov/files/Boko%20Haram-%20Emerging%20Threat%20to%20the%20US%20Homeland.pdf.
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80. Cited in Peter Baker, “Obama, with Reluctance, Returns to Action in Iraq,” New York Times, August 7, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/world/middleeast/a-return-to-action.html.
81. “Transcript of Obama’s Remarks on the Fight against ISIS,” New York Times, September 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/world/middleeast/obamas-remarks-on-the-fight-against-isis.html.
82. Cited in Peter Baker, “Obama Defends Progress against Extremists,” New York Times, December 15, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/16/us/politics/obama-says-coalition-forces-have-halted-islamic-state-momentum.html.
83. Cited in Jeffrey Goldberg, “Hillary Clinton: ‘Failure’ to Help Syrian Rebels Led to the Rise of ISIS,” The Atlantic, August 10, 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/08/hillary-clinton-failure-to-help-syrian-rebels-led-to-the-rise-of-isis/375832.
84. Cited in Robert F. Worth and Eric Schmitt, “Jihadist Groups Gain in Turmoil across Middle East,” New York Times, December 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/04/world/middleeast/jihadist-groups-gain-in-turmoil-across-middle-east.html.
85. Cited in Helene Cooper, “U.S. and Allies Form Coalition with Intent to Destroy ISIS,” New York Times, September 5, 2014, http://www.newsdiffs.org/diff/668927/668939/www.nytimes.com/2014/09/06/world/europe/nato-summit.html.
86. Cited in Scott Shane, “A Homemade Style of Terror: Jihadists Push New Tactics,” New York Times, May 5, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/06/us/terrorists-find-online-education-for-attacks.html.
87. Cited in ibid.
88. Cited in Eric Schmitt, “Worries Mount as Syria Lures West’s Muslims,” New York Times, July 27, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/28/world/middleeast/worries-mount-as-syria-lures-wests-muslims.html?pagewanted=all.
89. Charlie Savage, “Secret Papers Describe Size of Terror Lists Kept by U.S.,” New York Times, August 5, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/06/us/secret-papers-describe-size-of-terror-lists-kept-by-us.html.
90. Cited in Andrew McAfee, “Enterprise 2.0 Is a Crock: Discuss,” Andrew McAfee’s Blog, September 2, 2009, http://andrewmcafee.org/2009/09/e20-is-a-crock-discuss.
91. The White House, “Remarks of President Barack Obama,” May 23, 2013, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2013/05/23/remarks-president-barack-obama.
92. Cited in ibid.
93. Cited in Mark Landler, “U.S. Troops to Leave Afghanistan by End of 2016,” New York Times, May 27, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/28/world/asia/us-to-complete-afghan-pullout-by-end-of-2016-obama-to-say.html.
94. Cited in Thom Shanker, “Pentagon Sees Support for Afghans after 2014,” New York Times, July 30, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/31/world/asia/pentagon-report-foresees-continued-support-for-afghanistan.html.
95. Cited in ibid.
96. Dalia Sussman, “How Americans View the Afghan War,” New York Times, May 27, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/28/upshot/how-americans-view-the-afghan-war.html?action=click&contentCollection=Asia%20Pacific&module=RelatedCoverage®ion=Marginalia&pgtype=article.
97. Husain Haqqani, “Breaking Up Is Not Hard to Do,” Foreign Affairs 92:2 (March/April 2013): 64, 65.
98. Cited in Alissa J. Rubin and Rod Nordland, “Sunnis and Kurds on Sidelines of Iraqi Leader’s Military Plans,” New York Times, June 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/17/world/middleeast/sunnis-and-kurds-on-sidelines-of-iraq-leaders-military-plans.html.
99. Cited in Peter Baker, “Obama Finds He Can’t Put Iraq War behind Him,” New York Times, June 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/14/world/middleeast/obama-finds-he-cant-put-iraq-behind-him.html.[Page 510]
100. Daniel Byman and Jeremy Shapiro, “Homeward Bound?” Foreign Affairs, September 30, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/142025/daniel-byman-and-jeremy-shapiro/homeward-bound.
101. Jytte Klausen, “They’re Coming,” Foreign Affairs, October 1, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/142129/jytte-klausen/theyre-coming.
102. Cited in Gregory S. McNeal, “Americans Fighting for ISIS Could Face Array of Criminal Charges,” Forbes, June 13, 2014, http://www.forbes.com/sites/gregorymcneal/2014/06/13/americans-fighting-for-isis-could-face-array-of-criminal-charges/print.
103. Peter Bergen, Holy War, Inc.: Inside the Secret World of Osama bin Laden (London, UK: Phoenix, 2002), 38.
104. Cited in Eric Schmitt, “A U.S. Reply, in English, to Terrorists’ Online Lure,” New York Times, December 4, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/05/world/middleeast/us-aims-to-blunt-terrorist-recruiting-of-english-speakers.html.
105. Cited in Brian Knowlton, “Digital War Takes Shape on Websites over ISIS,” New York Times, September 26, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/27/world/middleeast/us-vividly-rebuts-isis-propaganda-on-arab-social-media.html.
106. “Transcript of Obama’s Remarks on the Fight against ISIS,” New York Times, September 10, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/11/world/middleeast/obamas-remarks-on-the-fight-against-isis.html.
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108. Cited in Mark Mazzetti and Mark Landler, “Despite Administration Promises, Few Signs of Change in Drone Wars,” New York Times, August 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/03/us/politics/drone-war-rages-on-even-as-administration-talks-about-ending-it.html?pagewanted=all.
109. Institute for Economics & Peace, Global Terrorism Index 2014 (2014), http://www.visionofhumanity.org/sites/default/files/Global%20Terrorism%20Index%20Report%202014_0.pdf, 12.
110. “Jihadism: Tracking a Month of Deadly Attacks,” BBC News, December 10, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-30080914.Chapter 12
1. Cited in Mark Landler, “An Inconvenient Protest for Both China and the U.S.,” New York Times, October 3, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/04/world/asia/an-inconvenient-protest-for-china-and-us-relations-obama-jinping.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&module=first-column-region®ion=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0.
2. Cited in “China and U.S. Hail ‘Shared Interests,’” BBC News, March 19, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-21840071.
3. Zalmay Khalilzad, “Congage China,” Rand Issue Paper (1999), http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/issue_papers/2006/IP187.pdf, 1, 6. See also Joseph S. Nye, Jr., “Our Pacific Predicament,” The American Interest (March/April 2013), http://www.the-american-interest.com/article.cfm?piece=1388; and Aaron Friedberg, A Contest for Supremacy (New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2011), 89–90.
4. Thom Shanker, “U.S. Forecast as No. 2 Economy, but Energy Independent,” New York Times, December 10, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/world/china-to-be-no-1-economy-before-2030-study-says.html?_r=0.
5. Juan Pablo Cardenal and Heriberto Araújo, China’s Silent Army: The Pioneers, Traders, Fixers and Workers Who Are Remaking the World in Beijing’s Image, trans. Catherine Mansfield (New York, NY: Crown, 2013), xi.
6. David Shambaugh, China Goes Global: The Partial Power (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013), 6, 7. Emphasis in original.
7. Cited in Wang Chien-Hui, “Bombardment of Quemoy,” Taiwan Review, August 1, 1988, 4, http://taiwantoday.tw/ct.asp?xItem=107119&CtNode=124.
8. “McCarthy Publicly Attacks Owen Lattimore,” 2009, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/mccarthy-publicly-attacks-owen-lattimore.
9. Cited in Mohammed M. Zaki, America’s Global Challenges: The Obama Era (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 36.
10. Cited in “Bush Opposes Taiwan Independence,” Fox News, December 9, 2003, http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,105239,00.html.
11. Andrew J. Nathan and Andrew Scobell, “How China Sees America,” Foreign Affairs 91:5 (September/October 2012): 43.[Page 511]
12. Kenneth Lieberthal, “The American Pivot to Asia,” Foreign Policy, December 21, 2011, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/12/21/the_american_pivot_to_asia.
13. Hillary Rodham Clinton, Hard Choices (New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2014), 45,
14. Cited in “US Pledges Wider Military Presence across Pacific Rim,” BBC News, June 4, 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-13652176.
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17. Lieberthal, “The American Pivot to Asia.”
18. Nathan and Scobell, “How China Sees America,” 33, 34.
19. Cited in Jane Perlez, “China Looks West as It Bolsters Regional Ties,” New York Times, September 7, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/08/world/asia/china-looks-west-as-it-strengthens-regional-ties.html.
20. Nathan and Scobell, “How China Sees America,” 36.
21. Usha C. V. Haley and George T. Haley, Subsidies to Chinese Industry: State Capitalism, Business Strategy and Trade Policy (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2013), 4.
22. Chris Giles, “China Poised to Pass US as World’s Leading Economic Power This Year,” Financial Times, April 30, 2014, http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/d79ffff8-cfb7-11e3-9b2b-00144feabdc0.html?siteedition=intl#axzz33A0ZMQ00.
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25. CIA, “Country Comparison: GDP per Capita,” The World Factbook, 2012, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html.
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27. Cited in Dana Mattioli, Dana Cimilluca, and David Kesmodel, “China Makes Biggest U.S. Play,” The Wall Street Journal, May 30, 2013, A6.
28. “Top Outsourcing Countries,” SourcingLine, 2012, http://www.sourcingline.com/top-outsourcing-countries.
29. Richard D. Fisher, Jr., China’s Military Modernization: Building for Regional and Global Research (Westport, CT, Greenwood, 2008), viii.
30. Cited in Jane Perlez and Chris Buckley, “China’s Leader, Seeking to Build Its Muscle, Pushes Overhaul of the Military,” New York Times, May 24, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/25/world/asia/chinas-leader-seeking-to-build-its-muscle-pushes-overhaul-of-the-military.html?ref=world.
31. Fisher, China’s Military Modernization, viii–ix.
32. Cited in Christian Le Mière, “China’s Unarmed Arms Race,” Foreign Affairs, July 29, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139609/christian-le-miere/chinas-unarmed-arms-race.
33. Fisher, China’s Military Modernization, ix.
34. Cited in Siobhan Gorman and Siobhan Hughes, “U.S. Steps Up Alarm over Cyberattacks,” The Wall Street Journal, March 13, 2013, A1.
35. Cited in David E. Sanger, “In Cyberspace, New Cold War,” New York Times, February 24, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/25/world/asia/us-confronts-cyber-cold-war-with-china.html.
36. Cited in Julian E. Barnes, Siobhan Gorman, and Jeremy Page, “U.S., China Ties Tested in Cyberspace,” The Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2013, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887323764804578314591857289004.html.[Page 512]
37. Cited in David E. Sanger, David Barboza, and Nicole Perlroth, “Chinese Army Unit Is Seen as Tied to Hacking Against U.S.,” New York Times, February 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/19/technology/chinas-army-is-seen-as-tied-to-hacking-against-us.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0.
38. Cited in Siobhan Gorman, “U.S. Eyes Pushback on China Hacking,” The Wall Street Journal, April 22, 2013, A12.
39. Edward Wong and Chris Buckley, “China’s Military Budget Increasing 10% for 2015, Official Says,” New York Times, March 4, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/05/world/asia/chinas-military-budget-increasing-10-for-2015-official-says.html.
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42. Nathan and Scobell, “How China Sees America,” 37–38.
43. Kevin Rudd, “Beyond the Pivot,” Foreign Affairs, March/April 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/138843/kevin-rudd/beyond-the-pivot, 4.
44. Cited in David E. Sanger, “In the East China Sea, a Far Bigger Test of Power Looms,” New York Times, December 1, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/02/world/asia/in-the-east-china-sea-a-far-bigger-test-of-power-looms.html.
45. Christopher C. Joyner, “The Spratly Islands Dispute in the South China Sea: Problems, Policies, and Prospects for Diplomatic Accommodation,” in Ranjeet Singh, ed., Investigating Confidence Building Measures on the Asia Pacific Region (Washington, DC: The Henry Stimson Center, 1999), 78.
46. Ibid., 57.
47. Cited in Jane Perlez, “Kerry, in Asia, Urges Focus on Law in China Disputes,” New York Times, October 9, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/10/world/asia/kerry-asean-china.html.
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53. Cited in Jennifer Steinhauer and Martin Fackler, “Japan and U.S. Agree to Broaden Military Alliance,” New York Times, October 3, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/04/world/asia/japan-and-us-agree-to-broaden-military-alliance.html.
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56. Cited in Thom Shanker, “U.S. Sends Two B-52 Bombers into Air Zone Claimed by China,” New York Times, November 26, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/27/world/asia/us-flies-b-52s-into-chinas-expanded-air-defense-zone.html.
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58. Cited in Austin Ramzy and Chris Buckley, “Pacific Rim Deal Could Reduce Chances of Conflict in Contested Seas,” New York Times, April 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/24/world/asia/deal-could-reduce-chance-of-conflict-in-contested-pacific-seas.html.
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61. Clinton, “America’s Pacific Century.”
62. Cited in Annie Lowrey, “U.S. and China to Discuss Investment Treaty, but Cybersecurity Is a Concern,” New York Times, July 11, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/12/world/asia/us-and-china-to-discuss-investment-treaty-but-cybersecurity-is-a-concern.html.
63. Noah Feldman, Cool War: The Future of Global Competition (New York, NY: Random House, 2013), xii.
64. Cited in David E. Sanger and Mark Landler, “Obama’s Strategic Shift to Asia Is Hobbled by Pressure at Home and Crises Abroad,” New York Times, April 21, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/22/world/asia/obamas-strategic-shift-to-asia-is-hobbled-by-pressure-at-home-and-crises-abroad.html.
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71. Cited in ibid.
72. Cited in Mark Landler, “Chinese Claim Forces Obama to Flesh Out His Asia Strategy,” New York Times, November 27, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/28/world/asia/airspace-claim-forces-us-to-flesh-out-china-strategy.html.
73. Cited in “Obama and Xi End ‘Constructive’ Summit,” BBC News, June 9, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-22828678.
74. Banyan, “One Model, Two Interpretations,” The Economist, September 28, 2013, 42.
75. Cited in Jennifer Steinhauer, “Back in Asia, Hagel Pursues Shift to Counter China’s Goals in Pacific,” New York Times, October 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/03/world/asia/chuck-hagel-in-asia.html.
76. Cited in Sanger and Landler, “Obama’s Strategic Shift to Asia Is Hobbled by Pressures at Home and Crises Abroad.”
77. Clinton, “America’s Pacific Century.”
78. James B. Steinberg and Michael O’Hanlon, “Keep Hope Alive,” Foreign Affairs 93:4 (July/August 2014): 109.Chapter 13
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13. Ibid., 128.
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29. Cited in Alison Smale and David E. Sanger, “Spying Scandal Alters U.S. Ties with Allies and Raises Talk of Policy Shift,” New York Times, November 11, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/12/world/spying-scandal-alters-us-ties-with-allies-and-raises-talk-of-policy-shift.html
30. Cited in ibid.
31. Cited in Rachel Donadio, “Italy Convicts 23 Americans for C.I.A. Renditions,” New York Times, November 4, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/05/world/europe/05italy.html.
32. Bill Bradley, “A Diplomatic Mystery,” Foreign Policy, August 24, 2009, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/08/13/a_diplomatic_mystery.
33. Cited in Adrian Blomfield and Mike Smith, “Gorbachev: U.S. Could Start New Cold War,” The Telegraph, May 6, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/russia/1933223/Gorbachev-US-could-start-new-Cold-War.html.
34. Mary Elise Sarotte, “A Broken Promise?” Foreign Affairs 93:5 (September/October 2014): 91.
35. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, “Membership Action Plan (MAP),” April 24, 1999, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/official_texts_27444.htm?selectedLocale=en.[Page 515]
36. Cited in Steven Erlanger and Steven Lee Myers, “NATO Allies Oppose Bush on Georgia and Ukraine,” New York Times, April 3, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/03/world/europe/03nato.html?pagewanted=all. Russian
37. Cited in “Trading Insults,” The Economist, August 24, 2013, 49.
38. Cited in “EU Warns Russia over Trade ‘Threats’ to Ex-Soviet Bloc,” BBC News, September 12, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-24061556.
39. Jonas Grätz, “Freedom of Association,” Foreign Affairs, November 20, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/140280/jonas-graetz/freedom-of-association.
40. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, “Facing Russian Threat, Ukraine Halts Plans for Deals with E.U.,” New York Times, November 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/22/world/europe/ukraine-refuses-to-free-ex-leader-raising-concerns-over-eu-talks.html.
41. Grätz, “Freedom of Association.”
42. Cited in Andrew Higgins, “Ukraine Upheaval Highlights E.U.’s Past Miscalculations and Future Dangers,” New York Times, March 20, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/21/world/europe/ukrainian-tumult-highlights-european-unions-errors.html?hpw&rref=world.
43. Cited in “Ukraine Unrest: EU and US Clash with Russia in Munich,” BBC News, February 1, 2014, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-25996453.
44. Cited in Mark Felsenthal, “Obama Warns Ukraine Military Not to ‘Step over the Line,’” Reuters, February 19, 2014, http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/02/19/us-ukraine-obama-idUSBREA1I1AJ20140219.
45. Cited in Steven Erlanger, “Eastern Europe Frets about NATO’s Ability to Curb Russia,” New York Times, April 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/24/world/europe/eastern-europe-frets-about-natos-ability-to-curb-russia.html.
46. See “Responding to Mr. Putin,” The Economist, March 22, 201423.
47. Cited in Andrew Higgins and David M. Herszenhorn, “Ukraine Signs Trade Agreement with European Union,” Boston Globe, June 28, 2014, http://www.bostonglobe.com/news/world/2014/06/27/ukraine-signs-trade-agreement-with-european-union/RlBcuXrrPxsLydsLD4QV2H/story.html.
48. Raphael Cohen and Gabriel Scheinmann, “The Hollow Coalition,” Foreign Affairs, November 5, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/142336/raphael-cohen-and-gabriel-scheinmann/the-hollow-coalition.
49. Cited in NATO, “NATO Secretary General Urges EU Nations to Invest in Capabilities,” December 19, 2013, http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natolive/news_105954.htm?selectedLocale=en.
50. Michael R. Gordon, “Survey Points to Challenges NATO Faces over Russia,” New York Times, June 10, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/10/world/europe/survey-points-to-challenges-nato-faces-over-russia.html.
51. “Obama’s Statement on New Sanctions against Russia,” New York Times, March 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/obamas-statement-on-new-sanctions-against-russia.html.
52. Cited in Michael D. Shear and Peter Baker, “Obama Renewing U.S. Commitment to NATO Alliance,” New York Times, March 26, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/27/world/europe/obama-europe.html.
53. Cited in Steven Erlanger, “Russia’s Aggression in Crimea Brings NATO into Renewed Focus,” New York Times, March 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/19/world/europe/russias-aggression-in-crimea-brings-nato-into-renewed-focus.html.
54. Cited in ibid.
55. Cited in James Kanter, “Citing Russian Moves, NATO Plans New Deployments,” New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/17/world/europe/nato-ukraine.html.
56. Cited in “A New Ostpolitik,” The Economist, November 29, 2014, 48.
57. Cited in Tony Paterson, “Merkel Fury after Gerhard Schroeder Backs Putin on Ukraine,” The Telegraph, March 14, 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/ukraine/10697986/Merkel-fury-after-Gerhard-Schroeder-backs-Putin-on-Ukraine.html.
58. Cited in ibid.
59. Cited in Alison Smale, “Germany Urges Russia to Help Solve Ukraine Crisis,” New York Times, March 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/14/world/europe/germany-urges-russia-to-help-solve-ukraine-crisis.html.[Page 516]
60. Cited in Peter Baker, “Top Russians Face Sanctions by U.S. for Crimea Crisis,” New York Times, March 3, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/04/world/europe/top-russians-face-sanctions-by-us-for-crimea-crisis.html.
61. Cited in Peter Baker, “Doubting Putin, Obama Prepares to Add Pressure,” New York Times, June 24, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/25/world/europe/doubting-putin-obama-prepares-to-add-pressure.html.
62. Cited in Alison Smale and Danny Hakim, “European Firms Seek to Minimize Russia Sanctions,” New York Times, April 25, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/26/world/europe/european-firms-seek-to-minimize-russia-sanctions.html.
63. Cited in Stanley Reed, “A Conduit for Russian Gas, Tangled in Europe’s Conflicts,” New York Times, June 30, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/01/business/international/south-stream-pipeline-project-in-bulgaria-is-delayed.html.
64. Alison Smale, “Germany Puts Curbing Russia ahead of Commerce,” New York Times, August 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/14/world/europe/ukraine-crisis-hardens-germany-against-russia-an-old-partner.html.
65. Cited in Michael R. Gordon, “NATO Weighs Assistance for Ukraine to Dissuade Further Moves by Moscow,” New York Times, March 19, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/20/world/europe/nato-chief-russia-europe.html.
66. Mitchell A. Orenstein, “Get Ready for a Russo-German Europe,” Foreign Affairs, March 9, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141018/mitchell-a-orenstein/get-ready-for-a-russo-german-europe.
67. Cited in Peter Baker, “If Not a Cold War, a Return to a Chilly Rivalry,” New York Times, March 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/19/world/europe/if-not-a-new-cold-war-a-distinct-chill-in-the-air.html.Chapter 14
1. Tom W. Smith, “The Polls: American Attitudes toward the Soviet Union and Communism,” Public Opinion Quarterly 47:2 (Summer 1983): 280.
2. Ibid., 277.
3. Cited in Geoffrey Best, Churchill: A Study in Greatness (New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2001), 93.
4. Harry S. Truman, Memoirs: 1946–52 Years of Trial and Hope (New York, NY: Doubleday & Co., 1956), 332–333.
5. History Matters, accessed June 2, 2015, http://historymatters.gmu.edu.
6. Bogdan Szajkowski, Next to God, Poland: Politics and Religion in Contemporary Poland (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 1983), 72
7. Timothy Garton Ash, History of the Present: Essays, Sketches, and Dispatches from Europe in the 1990s (New York, NY: Random House, 1999), 315.
8. Cited in Douglas C. Waller, Congress and the Nuclear Freeze (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1987), 30.
9. Dimitri K. Simes, “Losing Russia,” Foreign Affairs 86:6 (November/December 2007): 38.
11. Cited in Timothy J. Colton, Yeltsin: A Life (New York, NY: Basic Books), note 78, 553.
12. Simes, “Losing Russia,” 39, 40.
13. Joshua Yaffa, “Reading Putin: The Mind and the State of Russia’s President,” Foreign Affairs 91:4 (July/August 2012): 127.
15. Cited in Caroline Wyatt, “Bush and Putin: Best of Friends,” BBC News, June 16, 2001, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/1392791.stm.
16. Cited in “Clinton Goofs on Russian Translation, Tells Diplomat She Wants to ‘Overcharge’ Ties,” Fox News, March 6, 2009, http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2009/03/06/clinton-goofs-russian-translation-tells-diplomat-wants-overcharge-ties.
17. Cited in “Vladimir Putin Steps Out,” The Economist, June 16, 2012, 61.
18. “Northern Distribution Network (NDN),” Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2012, http://csis.org/program/northern-distribution-network-ndn.
19. U.S. Department of State, Office of Cooperative Threat Reduction (ISN/CTR), accessed September 11, 2015, http://www.state.gov/t/isn/offices/c55411.htm.
20. Justin Bresolin, “Fact Sheet: The Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program,” July 2013, updated by Sam Kane and Kingston Reif, http://armscontrolcenter.org/publications/factsheets/fact_sheet_the_cooperative_threat_reduction_program.[Page 517]
21. Stephen Blank and Carol R. Saivetz, “Playing to Lose? Russia and the ‘Arab Spring,’” Problems of Post-Communism 59:1 (January/February 2012): 1, 2.
22. Cited in Ellen Barry, “Russians Say Anti-U.S. Attack in Libya Vindicates Their Position,” New York Times, September 12, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/13/world/europe/russians-say-anti-american-attack-in-libya-vindicates-their-position.html.
23. Blank and Saivetz, “Playing to Lose? Russia and the ‘Arab Spring,’” 4.
24. Cited in Steven Lee Myers and Michael R. Gordon, “Kerry Castigates Russia over Syria-Bound Missiles,” New York Times, May 31, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/01/world/middleeast/kerry-castigates-russia-over-syria-bound-missiles.html? pagewanted=all.
25. Cited in ibid.
26. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, “Putin Says Proof of Chemical Arms Attack Not Enough to Justify U.S. Action,” New York Times, September 4, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/05/world/europe/putin-says-proof-of-chemical-arms-attack-not-enough-to-justify-us-attack.html.
27. Cited in David E. Sanger, “Kerry’s Comments on Syria Are a Shift over Strike,” New York Times, September 9, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/10/world/middleeast/kerrys-comments-on-syria-mark-a-shift-over-strike.html.
28. Fiona Hill, “Putin Scores on Syria,” Foreign Affairs, September 11, 2013, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/139905/fiona-hill/putin-scores-on-syria.
29. Cited in David E. Sanger, “Quick Turn of Fortunes as Diplomatic Options Open Up with Syria and Iran,” New York Times, September 19, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/20/us/politics/on-mideast-heads-spin-over-shift-in-diplomacy.html.
30. Cited in Peter Baker, “Debate over Who in U.S. Is to Blame for Ukraine,” New York Times, March 5, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/06/world/europe/debate-over-who-in-us-is-to-blame-for-ukraine.html.
31. Cited in Somini Sengupta, “With Tumult around Him, Russian Diplomat Keeps Calm,” New York Times, February 21, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/22/world/europe/with-tumult-around-him-russian-diplomat-keeps-calm.html.
32. Cited in Alexei Anishchuk and Gabriela Baczynska, “Russia’s Putin Warns of Endless Conflict in Syria,” Reuters, December 20, 2012, http://mobile.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSBRE8BJ0GF20121220.
33. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, “Iran Mentions New Plan at Nuclear Talks as Stalemate Continues,” New York Times, April 5, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/04/06/world/middleeast/talks-resume-on-curbing-irans-nuclear-program.html?pagewanted=all.
34. Stephen J. Blank, Threats to Russian Security: The View from Moscow (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College Commandant, 2000), 4.
35. Simes, “Losing Russia,” 42.
36. “Russia,” World Public Opinion.org, http://www.americans-world.org/digest/regional_issues/russia/russia3.cfm.
37. Charles A. Kupchan, “NATO’s Final Frontier: Why Russia Should Join the Atlantic Alliance,” Foreign Affairs 89:3 (May/June 2010), 100.
38. “Statement on the Situation in South Ossetia,” August 8, 2008, http://archive.kremlin.ru/eng/speeches/2008/08/08/1553_type82912type82913_205032.shtml.
39. Jeffrey Mankoff, “The Politics of U.S. Missile Defense Cooperation with Europe and Russia,” International Affairs 88:2 (March 2012): 338.
40. Ibid., 339, 340.
41. “Budapest Memorandums on Security Assurances, 1994,” Council on Foreign Relations, December 5, 1994, http://www.cfr.org/arms-control-disarmament-and-nonproliferation/budapest-memorandums-security-assurances-1994/p32484.
42. Cited in Somini Sengupta, “Ukraine Premier Makes Plea at the U.N.,” New York Times, March 13, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/14/world/europe/ukraine-premier-makes-plea-at-the-un.html.
43. Cited in Steven Lee Myers, Ellen Barry, and Alan Cowell, “Defying West, Putin Signs Treaty to Annex Crimea,” New York Times, March 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/19/world/europe/ukraine.html?hpw&rref=world.[Page 518]
44. Cited in Michael R. Gordon, “Kerry Takes Offer of Aid to Ukraine and Pushes Back at Russian Claims,” New York Times, March 4, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/05/world/europe/secretary-of-state-john-kerry-arriving-in-kiev-offers-1-billion-in-loan-guarantees-to-ukraine.html.
45. Cited in Steven Lee Myers, “Putin Engages in Test of Will over Ukraine,” New York Times, March 2, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/03/world/europe/putin-engages-in-test-of-will-over-ukraine.html.
46. Cited in Michael D. Shear and Peter Baker, “Obama Answers Critics, Dismissing Russia as a ‘Regional Power,’” New York Times, March 25, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/26/world/europe/hague-summit-focuses-on-preventing-trafficking-of-nuclear-materials.html.
47. “Obama’s Statement on New Sanctions against Russia,” New York Times, March 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/obamas-statement-on-new-sanctions-against-russia.html.
48. Cited in Andrew E. Kramer, “In Ukraine’s East, Russians Are Blending Right In,” New York Times, April 14, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/15/world/europe/russians-blending-in-among-ukraine-separatists.html.
49. Cited in “Wearily Back to the Battlefield,” The Economist, April 12, 2014, 43.
50. Cited in Andrew Higgins, Michael R. Gordon, and Andrew E. Kramer, “Photos Link Masked Men in East Ukraine to Russia,” New York Times, April 20, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/21/world/europe/photos-link-masked-men-in-east-ukraine-to-russia.html.
51. Cited in ibid.
52. Cited in Andrew Higgins, “In Ukraine, Russia Plays a Weighted Word Game,” New York Times, April 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/17/world/europe/in-ukraine-russia-plays-a-weighted-word-game.html.
53. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, “Putin Asserts Right to Use Force in Eastern Ukraine,” New York Times, April 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/world/europe/russia-ukraine.html.
54. Cited in Michael R. Gordon, “U.S. and Russia Agree on Pact to Defuse Ukraine Crisis,” New York Times, April 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/18/world/europe/ukraine-diplomacy.html?hpw&rref=world.
55. Marjorie Connelly, “Ukrainians Favor Unity, Not Russia, Polls Find,” New York Times, May 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/world/europe/ukrainians-favor-unity-not-russia-polls-find.html.
56. “Into Battle,” The Economist, May 17, 2014, 50.
57. Cited in Peter Baker, “U.S. Expands Sanctions, Adding Holdings of Russians in Putin’s Financial Circle,” New York Times, April 28, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/world/asia/obama-sanctions-russia.html.
58. Cited in Andrew E. Kramer and Stanley Reed, “For Western Oil Companies, Expanding in Russia Is a Dance around Sanctions,” New York Times, June 9, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/10/business/international/for-western-oil-companies-expanding-in-russia-is-a-dance-around-sanctions.html.
59. Andrew E. Kramer, “Putin Indicates He’ll Respect Result of Ukrainian Election,” New York Times, May 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/24/world/europe/putin-indicates-hell-respect-result-of-ukrainian-election.html?ref=world.
60. Cited in Peter Baker and Rick Lyman, “With Ukraine Still Unsettled, Obama Sets Off to Soothe European Friends,” New York Times, June 1, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/02/world/europe/with-ukraine-crisis-cooling-obama-sets-off-to-soothe-european-friends.html?_r=0.
61. Cited in Peter Baker, “Doubting Putin, Obama Prepares to Add Pressure,” New York Times, June 24, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/25/world/europe/doubting-putin-obama-prepares-to-add-pressure.html.
62. Cited in Mark Landler and Michael R. Gordon, “NATO Chief Warns of Duplicity by Putin on Ukraine,” New York Times, July 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/09/world/europe/nato-chief-warns-of-duplicity-by-putin-on-ukraine.html.
63. Cited in Sabrina Tavernise, “In Ukraine War, Kremlin Leaves No Fingerprints,” New York Times, May 31, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/01/world/europe/in-ukraine-war-kremlin-leaves-no-fingerprints.html.
64. Stephen Holmes and Ivan Krastev, “Putin’s Losing Streak,” Foreign Affairs, July 30, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141663/stephen-holmes-and-ivan-krastev/putins-losing-streak.
65. Cited in “Alleged Phone Call: ‘We Have Shot Down a Plane,’” CNN, July 18, 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/07/18/world/europe/ukraine-mh17-intercepted-audio/.[Page 519]
66. Cited in “Putin’s War of Words: A Roundup,” New York Times, September 2, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/03/world/europe/putins-war-of-words-a-roundup.html.
67. Cited in Andrew E. Kramer, “U.S. Companies Worry about Effect of Russia Joining W.T.O.,” New York Times, August 21, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/22/business/with-russia-joining-wto-us-companies-worry-about-losing-business.html?pagewanted=all.
68. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, “Gays in Russia Find No Haven, Despite Support from the West,” New York Times, August 11, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/12/world/europe/gays-in-russia-find-no-haven-despite-support-from-the-west.html?pagewanted=all.
69. Cited in Peter Baker, “Obama May Cancel Moscow Trip as Tensions Build over Leaker,” New York Times, July 18, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/19/world/europe/moscow-trip-for-obama-may-be-off-as-snowden-tensions-build.html?pagewanted=all.
70. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn and Michael R. Gordon, “U.S. Cancels Part of Missile Defense That Russia Opposed,” New York Times, March 16, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/17/world/europe/with-eye-on-north-korea-us-cancels-missile-defense-russia-opposed.html.
71. John J. Mearsheimer, “Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault,” Foreign Affairs 93:5 (September/October 2014): 77.
72. Jeffrey Mankoff, “Russia’s Latest Land Grab,” Foreign Affairs 93:3 (May/June 2014): 60.
73. Alexander J. Motyl, “The Sources of Russian Conduct,” Foreign Affairs, November 16, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/142366/alexander-j-motyl/the-sources-of-russian-conduct.
74. “Russian Defense Budget to Hit Record $81 Billion in 2015,” Moscow Times, October 16, 2014, http://www.themoscowtimes.com/business/article/russian-defense-budget-to-hit-record-81bln-in-2015/509536.html.
75. Cited in Fred Weir, “Circling the Wagons? Putin Urges ‘Drastic Upgrade’ to Russia’s Military,” Christian Science Monitor, February 28, 2013, http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Europe/2013/0228/Circling-the-wagons-Putin-urges-drastic-upgrade-to-Russia-s-military.
76. Cited in Helene Cooper and Steven Erlanger, “Military Cuts Render NATO Less Formidable as Deterrent to Russia,” New York Times, March 26, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/27/world/europe/military-cuts-render-nato-less-formidable-as-deterrent-to-russia.html.
77. Cited in David M. Herszenhorn, Andrew E. Kramer, and Alan Cowell, “Russian Forces Release Ukraine Naval Commander,” New York Times, March 20, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/21/world/europe/crimea.html.
78. Cited in “Obama’s Statement on New Sanctions against Russia,” New York Times, March 17, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/18/world/europe/obamas-statement-on-new-sanctions-against-russia.html.
79. Joshua Yaffa, “Peace on Putin’s Terms,” Foreign Affairs, September 7, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141966/joshua-yaffa/peace-on-putins-terms.
80. Cited in Peter Baker, “Obama’s Test: Can Penalties Change Russia’s Course?” New York Times, March 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/19/world/europe/obamas-test-can-penalties-change-russias-course.html.
81. Cited in Coral Davenport and Steven Erlanger, “U.S. Hopes Boom in Natural Gas Can Curb Putin,” New York Times, March 5, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/06/world/europe/us-seeks-to-reduce-ukraines-reliance-on-russia-for-natural-gas.html.
82. Cited in Peter Baker, “3 Presidents and a Riddle Named Putin,” New York Times, March 23, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/24/world/europe/3-presidents-and-a-riddle-named-putin.html.
83. Cited in ibid.
84. Anton Barbashin and Hannah Thoburn, “Putin’s Brain,” Foreign Affairs, March 31, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141080/anton-barbashin-and-hannah-thoburn/putins-brain.
85. Cited in “Clinton Criticizes Russia on Europe Policy, Human Rights,” Voice of America, December 6, 2012, http://www.voanews.com/content/clinton-criticizes-russia-on-europe-policy-human-rights/1559739.html.
86. Cited in Peter Baker, “U.S.-Russian Ties Still Fall Short of ‘Reset’ Goal,” New York Times, September 2, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/03/world/europe/us-russian-ties-still-fall-short-of-reset-goal.html?pagewanted=all.[Page 520]
87. Ariel Cohen, “Why Russia Roots for Obama,” The National Interest, November 5, 2012, http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/why-russia-roots-obama-7696.
88. Andrei Shliefer and Daniel Treisman, “Why Moscow Says No: A Question of Russian Interests, Not Psychology,” Foreign Affairs 90:1 (January/February 2012): 125.
89. Luke March, “Nationalism for Export? The Domestic and Foreign-Policy Implications of the New ‘Russian Idea,’” Europe-Asia Studies, 64:3 (May 2012): 421, 422.
90. Robert Coalson, “Obama and the Russians: Moving On to the ‘Post-Reset,’” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, November 7, 2012, http://www.rferl.org/content/obama-russia-moving-on-post-reset-relations/24763754.html.
91. Brian D. Taylor, “Putin’s Own Goal,” Foreign Affairs, March 6, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141010/brian-d-taylor/putins-own-goal.
92. Cited in “CNN Poll: Most See Russia as a Threat to U.S.,” CNN Politics, March 14, 2014, http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2014/03/14/cnn-poll-most-see-russia-as-a-threat-to-u-s/?hpt=hp_t2.
93. Pew Global Attitudes Project, “Russia’s Global Image Negative amid Crisis in Ukraine,” July 9, 2014, http://www.pewglobal.org/2014/07/09/russias-global-image-negative-amid-crisis-in-ukraine/.
94. Cited in Peter Baker, “If Not a Cold War, a Return to a Chilly Rivalry,” New York Times, March 18, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/19/world/europe/if-not-a-new-cold-war-a-distinct-chill-in-the-air.html.
95. Shliefer and Treisman, “Why Moscow Says No,” 138.
96. Cited in David Herszenhorn and Andrew E. Kramer, “Another Reset with Russia in Obama’s Second Term,” New York Times, February 1, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/02/02/world/europe/another-reset-of-relations-with-russia-in-obamas-second-term.html?pagewanted=all.Chapter 15
1. Warren G. Harding, “Return to Normalcy,” May 14, 1920, TeachingAmericanHistory.org, http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/return-to-normalcy.
2. “X” (George F. Kennan), “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” Foreign Affairs 25:4 (July 1947): 566–582, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/23331/x/the-sources-of-soviet-conduct.
3. Robert Kagan, “Superpowers Don’t Get to Retire,” New Republic, May 26, 2014, http://www.newrepublic.com/article/117859/allure-normalcy-what-america-still-owes-world, 11.
4. G. John Ikenberry, “The Illusion of Geopolitics,” Foreign Affairs 93:3 (May/June 2014): 84, 89.
5. Robert Kagan, The World America Made (New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2012).
6. William C. Martel, “America’s Grand Strategy Disaster,” The National Interest, June 9, 2014, http://commentators.com/americas-grand-strategy-disaster-the-national-interest.
7. Randall L. Schweller, “The Age of Entropy,” Foreign Affairs, June 16, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141568/randall-l-schweller/the-age-of-entropy.
8. Kagan, “Superpowers Don’t Get to Retire,” 21.
9. John Mueller, “Iraq Syndrome Redux,” Foreign Affairs, June 18, 2014, http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/141578/john-mueller/iraq-syndrome-redux.
10. Kagan, “Superpowers Don’t Get to Retire,” 26.
11. Cited in Robert Kagan, “The September 12 Paradigm,” Foreign Affairs 87:5 (September/October 2008): 29.
12. Ibid., 30, 36.
13. Cited in “The War on Terror, Part Two,” The Economist, May 31, 2014, 23.
14. Cited in ibid.
15. Cited in Peter Baker, “Rebutting Critics, Obama Seeks Higher Bar for Military Action,” New York Times, May 28, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/29/us/politics/rebutting-critics-obama-seeks-higher-bar-for-military-action.html.
16. Cited in ibid.
17. Cited in Peter Baker, “Crises Cascade and Converge, Testing Obama,” New York Times, July 22, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/23/world/crises-cascade-and-converge-testing-obama.html.
18. Cited in “The Decline of Deterrence,” The Economist, May 3, 2014, 23.
19. Cited in ibid., 24.
20. Cited in ibid., 25.[Page 521]
21. Cited in Thomas L. Friedman, “Obama on the World,” New York Times, August 8, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/09/opinion/president-obama-thomas-l-friedman-iraq-and-world-affairs.html.
22. Cited in Mark Landler, “A Rift in Worldviews Is Exposed as Clinton Faults Obama on Policy,” New York Times, August 11, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/12/world/middleeast/attacking-obama-policy-hillary-clinton-exposes-different-worldviews.html.
23. Richard N. Haass, “The Unraveling,” Foreign Affairs 93:6 (November/December 2014): 70.
24. “Remarks by the President at the Acceptance of the Nobel Peace Prize,” The White House, December 10, 2009, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-acceptance-nobel-peace-prize.
25. Cited in Mark Landler, “Ending Asia Trip, Obama Defends His Foreign Policy,” New York Times, April 28, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/04/29/world/obama-defends-foreign-policy-against-critics.html.
26. Cited in David E. Sanger, “Global Crises Put Obama’s Strategy of Caution to the Test,” New York Times, March 16, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/03/17/world/obamas-policy-is-put-to-the-test-as-crises-challenge-caution.html.
27. Kagan, The World America Made, 94.
28. Cited in Peter Baker, “As World Boils, Fingers Point Obama’s Way,” New York Times, August 15, 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/16/world/middleeast/as-world-boils-fingers-point-obamas-way.html.
29. Haass, “The Unraveling,” 73–74.
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