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The evolution of the modern political campaign has taken us from television sets in the living room to wireless new media in the hands of voters. Reaching voters with targeted messages, candidates increasingly rely on consumer-driven techniques. What works at the national level can be tailored to work even more effectively at the individual level. Future campaigns will continue to make use of recent innovations like meet-ups, blogs and Internet polling. Newer tactics such as fundraising on the web and get-out-the vote drives with micro-targeting via Blackberrys and PDAs are changing the way candidates advertise, ask for money, interact with the media, co-ordinate with their party organizations and make the most of interest group support. What, then, are the implications for the democratic process and governance? To help students make sense of how and why campaigns are changing, well-respected scholars and practitioners keep their focus on the horizon of campaigning and offer a cutting-edge look at what to expect in the 2008 elections and beyond.

Polling in the Twenty-First Century—Part Past, Part Future
Polling in the twenty-first century—Part past, part future
Candice J.Nelson

Polling was the first indicator that the Democratic nomination for president in 2008 would not be decided on February 5—Super Tuesday. Though national polls showed Hillary Clinton as the presumed front-runner for the nomination throughout most of 2007, polls by the Clinton campaign, the Obama campaign, and the Des Moines Register in the fall and prior to the Iowa caucuses all pointed to an Obama victory in the caucuses. In October, Joel Benenson, Obama's pollster, assured Obama that, despite the national polls, Obama could win in Iowa.1 An internal Clinton tracking poll in early December showed Clinton and Obama tied with 29 percent of the vote.2 On January 2, ...

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