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The evolution of the modern political campaign has taken us from television sets in the living room to wireless new media in the hands of voters. Reaching voters with targeted messages, candidates increasingly rely on consumer-driven techniques. What works at the national level can be tailored to work even more effectively at the individual level. Future campaigns will continue to make use of recent innovations like meet-ups, blogs and Internet polling. Newer tactics such as fundraising on the web and get-out-the vote drives with micro-targeting via Blackberrys and PDAs are changing the way candidates advertise, ask for money, interact with the media, co-ordinate with their party organizations and make the most of interest group support. What, then, are the implications for the democratic process and governance? To help students make sense of how and why campaigns are changing, well-respected scholars and practitioners keep their focus on the horizon of campaigning and offer a cutting-edge look at what to expect in the 2008 elections and beyond.

Fundraising—Continuity and Change
Fundraising—Continuity and change
Robert G.Boatright

During the 2008 presidential campaign, Barack Obama raised a total of $765 million—more than twice what his opponent, Republican senator John McCain, raised, more than twice what either George W. Bush or John Kerry raised in 2004, and more than six times what Democratic nominee Al Gore raised in 2000. As the election was taking shape, few would have predicted that Obama, a first-term senator who had never actually run in a close election, would be able to eclipse veteran politicians such as his primary opponent Hillary Clinton. Yet there were signs long before 2008 that the Internet had already begun to revolutionize campaign fundraising, at least at the presidential level, and that once candidates figured out how to ...

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