NEW AND KEY FEATURES: Updated to reflect developments up through the end of the Obama administration and the transition to the Trump administration offering timelier application of the theories to what is currently happening in bureaucratic politics. Interviews with two new cabinet secretaries – Christine Todd Whitman and Tom Ridge – with insightful quotes from them throughout the book. New section on the diffusion of policy diffusion, an important topic both for researchers and policymakers, illustrates the idea that much policy is made at the state level, and that states learn and emulate one another on a range of issues. Added material on the battle over regulations, a battle that will loom large during the Trump administration, including midnight regulations and the Congressional Review Act. New examples demonstrate the activity and influence of constituencies of different kinds including the placing of women and minorities on US currency, a vignette that features the musical Hamilton, and the political protests surrounding the Dakota Access and Keystone XL pipelines. A new discussion of the pros and cons of the privatization of roads.

Bureaucracies as Policymaking Organizations

1 Bureaucracies as policymaking organizations

For decades, policymakers have confronted three interrelated challenges in elementary and secondary education: (1) finding a way to render public schools more accountable to parents, taxpayers, and other vital constituencies; (2) determining how to improve the performance of public schools so that the confidence of a long-disillusioned citizenry is at last restored; and (3) determining how public schools can best help narrow the achievement gap between whites and minorities, the latter of whom depend especially heavily on the school system for advancement and success.

Two recent presidents, George W. Bush and Barack Obama, placed considerable emphasis on performance measurement and accountability, especially in education policymaking. President Bush signed into law the historic No Child Left Behind Act ...

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