NEW AND KEY FEATURES: Updated to reflect developments up through the end of the Obama administration and the transition to the Trump administration offering timelier application of the theories to what is currently happening in bureaucratic politics. Interviews with two new cabinet secretaries – Christine Todd Whitman and Tom Ridge – with insightful quotes from them throughout the book. New section on the diffusion of policy diffusion, an important topic both for researchers and policymakers, illustrates the idea that much policy is made at the state level, and that states learn and emulate one another on a range of issues. Added material on the battle over regulations, a battle that will loom large during the Trump administration, including midnight regulations and the Congressional Review Act. New examples demonstrate the activity and influence of constituencies of different kinds including the placing of women and minorities on US currency, a vignette that features the musical Hamilton, and the political protests surrounding the Dakota Access and Keystone XL pipelines. A new discussion of the pros and cons of the privatization of roads.

The Bureaucracy’s Bosses

3 The bureaucracy’s bosses

In september 2011, President Barack Obama stunned observers by rejecting a proposed Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulation on air pollution. The landmark regulation would have significantly reduced emissions of ground-level ozone, a smog-producing chemical that has been linked to asthma and other lung diseases.1 The regulation was a top priority of EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson, who had staked a strong claim that existing ozone standards were appreciably weaker than those recommended by the agency’s science advisers and therefore “not legally defensible.”2 Despite such claims and years of EPA effort, the regulation was quickly and unceremoniously scuttled during the course of a single White House meeting.

In a statement issued after the tense meeting, President Obama provided a rationale for ...

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