100 Americans Making Constitutional History: A Biographical History presents 100 profiles of the key people behind some of the most important U.S. Supreme Court cases. Edited by Melvin I. Urofsky, a respected constitutional historian, each 2,000-word profile delves into the social and political context behind landmark Court decisions. For example, while a case like Brown v. Board of Education is about an important idea—the equal protection of the law—at its heart it is the story of a little girl, Linda Brown, who wanted to go to a decent school near her home. The outcome is accessible and objective “stories” about the individuals—heroes and scoundrels—who fought their way to constitutional history.

Ann Hopkins

Ann Hopkins

Making Partner the Hard Way

“Walk More Femininely, Talk More Femininely … and Wear Jewelry”

Price Waterhouse v. Hopkins

490 U.S. 228 (1989)

Ann Branigar Hopkins (1943-) was an accountant with one of the country's largest accounting firms, Price Waterhouse (now known as PricewaterhouseCoopers). When the firm declined to promote her to partner in 1982, she sued on the grounds of sex discrimination. Eight long years later, after two trials and a trip to the U.S. Supreme Court, Hopkins finally made partner “the hard way,” as she put it in her memoir, So Ordered—as the result of a court order.

With roots in Texas, Hopkins grew up in a peripatetic army family. She studied mathematics in college and chose a career in accountancy, specializing in designing computer-based ...

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