100 Americans Making Constitutional History: A Biographical History presents 100 profiles of the key people behind some of the most important U.S. Supreme Court cases. Edited by Melvin I. Urofsky, a respected constitutional historian, each 2,000-word profile delves into the social and political context behind landmark Court decisions. For example, while a case like Brown v. Board of Education is about an important idea—the equal protection of the law—at its heart it is the story of a little girl, Linda Brown, who wanted to go to a decent school near her home. The outcome is accessible and objective “stories” about the individuals—heroes and scoundrels—who fought their way to constitutional history.

A. Ernest Fitzgerald

A. Ernest Fitzgerald

Blowing the Whistle on Waste in the Pentagon

“Loyalty is the Name of the Game”

Nixon v. Fitzgerald

457 U.S. 731 (1982)

A. Ernest Fitzgerald was a Defense Department official who sued President Richard Nixon after being fired for blowing the whistle on cost overruns in a weapons program. In the process Fitzgerald helped to define the limits of presidential liability in civil lawsuits.

Fitzgerald was born in 1928 in Birmingham, Alabama. He began working in his father's shop at age fifteen as a pattern maker for production tools. He served in the U.S. Navy and then attended the University of Alabama on an American Foundryman's Scholarship and earned a bachelor of science degree in industrial engineering in 1951. He spent two years as a ...

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