Opposing Violence and Taxes: Hortensia’s Leadership During the Roman Civil War


In 42 B.C. the three-man ruling junta (“the triumvirs”) in Rome needed money to fund further military actions against their enemies in Rome’s Civil War. When property confiscations from civilian domestic opponents proved insufficient, they promulgated a plan to tax the 1,400 wealthiest women in Rome. This case invites students to consider how the women shifted from private appeals to public protest under the leadership of Hortensia and how her socially transgressive leadership brought change in a time of personal danger and public crisis. In wartime, ideas about the social good can easily come into conflict; Hortensia’s leadership leverages traditional values and social networks in new ways to protect women’s interests while dampening internal social conflict.

You are not authorized to view Teaching Notes. Please contact your librarian for access or sign in to your existing instructor profile.
locked icon

Sign in to access this content

Get a 30 day FREE TRIAL

  • Watch videos from a variety of sources bringing classroom topics to life
  • Read modern, diverse business cases
  • Explore hundreds of books and reference titles