Criminal Negligence and Directors’ Liability Under Indian Penal Code: The Case of Bhopal Gas Tragedy

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Between December 2 and December 3, 1984, there was a leak of methyl isocyanate and other toxic gases from the chemical plant of Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) situated in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. UCIL was a subsidiary company of Union Carbide Corporation, a multinational company registered in the USA.

In order to deal with the disaster, the Government of India proclaimed an Ordinance and later passed ‘The Bhopal Gas Leak Disaster (Processing of Claims) Act, 1985’. This legislation conferred an exclusive right on the Central Government to represent, and act in place of every person who has made a claim, or is entitled to make a claim arising out of, or connected with, the Bhopal gas leak disaster.

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