A seminal work in the field of motivation by the leading author on the topic, this classic has been fully revised and updated to include and distill the most current research from top international scholars. Drawing upon his experiences as a staff psychologist and consultant, Gary P. Latham writes in a mentor voice that is highly personal and rich in examples, providing a unique behavioral science framework for motivating employees in organizational settings. The book offers a chronological review of the field, and a taxonomy for the study and practice of motivation, complete with anecdotes about the major thought leaders in the field of motivation and behind-the-scenes research accounts. Highlights of this updated edition include new findings in goal-setting research, including insight into the dark side of goal-setting; more on the self in motivation, including self-regulated learning, self-evaluation methods, and the significance of self-efficacy as a predictor of performance and satisfaction; and more trending in the area of positive psychology and prosocial behavior in organizations.

Values: Trans-Situational Goals

Values: Trans-situational goals


Values reflect an employee's needs and personality. The values for conservatism versus openness to change, for example, are related to an employee's needs for security versus self-actualization and to a prevention versus a promotion personality focus (Van Dijk & Kluger, 2004).

Values are relatively enduring criteria used in generating and evaluating one's cognitions, affect, and behavior. Thus, they serve as strong regulatory guides for choosing among alternative modes of behavior (Lord & Brown, 2001). As latent structures, values are general in nature rather than person, object, or task specific (Kark & Van Dijk, 2007).

Even though the majority of work values are related to personality traits, they exhibit unique variance beyond these traits. Traits are core qualities or basic tendencies of an ...

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