A seminal work in the field of motivation by the leading author on the topic, this classic has been fully revised and updated to include and distill the most current research from top international scholars. Drawing upon his experiences as a staff psychologist and consultant, Gary P. Latham writes in a mentor voice that is highly personal and rich in examples, providing a unique behavioral science framework for motivating employees in organizational settings. The book offers a chronological review of the field, and a taxonomy for the study and practice of motivation, complete with anecdotes about the major thought leaders in the field of motivation and behind-the-scenes research accounts. Highlights of this updated edition include new findings in goal-setting research, including insight into the dark side of goal-setting; more on the self in motivation, including self-regulated learning, self-evaluation methods, and the significance of self-efficacy as a predictor of performance and satisfaction; and more trending in the area of positive psychology and prosocial behavior in organizations.
Chapter 10: Social Cognitive Theory
Social Cognitive Theory
Bandura's social cognitive theory also dominates the work motivation literature in the present century. This theory emphasizes dual control systems in the self-regulation of motivation, namely a proactive discrepancy production system that works in concert with a reactive discrepancy reduction system (Bandura, 2001a). As noted earlier, research on social cognitive theory shows empirically that the effects of environmental antecedents and consequences are mediated by cognitive variables. People are motivated by the foresight of goals, not just the hindsights of shortfalls. A specific high goal creates negative performance discrepancies to be mastered. People mobilize their effort and resources based on their anticipatory estimates of what is necessary for goal attainment. Therefore, at the outset, a goal can enhance performance before any ...