A seminal work in the field of motivation by the leading author on the topic, this classic has been fully revised and updated to include and distill the most current research from top international scholars. Drawing upon his experiences as a staff psychologist and consultant, Gary P. Latham writes in a mentor voice that is highly personal and rich in examples, providing a unique behavioral science framework for motivating employees in organizational settings. The book offers a chronological review of the field, and a taxonomy for the study and practice of motivation, complete with anecdotes about the major thought leaders in the field of motivation and behind-the-scenes research accounts. Highlights of this updated edition include new findings in goal-setting research, including insight into the dark side of goal-setting; more on the self in motivation, including self-regulated learning, self-evaluation methods, and the significance of self-efficacy as a predictor of performance and satisfaction; and more trending in the area of positive psychology and prosocial behavior in organizations.
Chapter 1: 1900–1925: Biology, Behavior, and Money
1900–1925: Biology, Behavior, and Money
The term motivation, as Steers, Mowday, and Shapiro (2004) pointed out, is a derivation of the Latin word for movement, movere. Its importance in the workplace is captured in the equation promulgated by Victor Vroom's former mentor, N. R. F. Maier (1955), more than a half century ago: job performance = ability × motivation. This equation succinctly explains why the subject of motivation is a cornerstone in the fields of human resource management (HRM), industrial and organization psychology (I-O), and organization behavior (OB).1
Motivation is an integral aspect of training. The time, money, and resources an organization devotes to ways of increasing a person's abilities [Page 4]are wasted to the extent that an employee chooses not to ...