Incorporates important recent changes in women's political participation and representation, such as the election of new women presidents and prime ministers and the continued spread of gender quotas Expanded coverage of women's political participation now includes women judges and women in local levels of governance Updated coverage of women's political representation in the Middle East and North Africa highlights events and issues since the Arab Spring Incorporates more than 100 new studies from the rapidly expanding field of gender and politics Includes an up-to-date discussion on gender quotas and their effects, including coverage of the trend towards “parity” quotas KEY FEATURES: Six chapters cover women's political power in specific geographic regions with case studies from all over the world Includes the latest information available on women in politics worldwide Charts, maps, and tables give visual overviews of the substantial variation in women's access to political power around the world, the growth in women's political power over time, and persistent obstacles to gender equality in politics

Do Women Make a Difference?

Do women make a difference?

In previous chapters, we discussed women’s fight for representation and what factors explain women’s differential success in gaining power around the world. But a final question remains to be answered—what difference do women make anyway? Put another way, does having women in positions of power change anything? Have women changed the style of politics? Have they influenced public policy? If you viewed the past few chapters as addressing how women gain descriptive representation (see Chapter 1), then this chapter addresses women’s substantive representation.

Even if women act and legislate exactly the same way as men, justice arguments imply that, as half the population, women should appear in politics. But arguments for women’s representation are even more ...

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