Women in Science and Technology: Confronting Inequalities comprehensively explores women’s status in the Science and Technology (S&T) domain by rigorously analysing and interpreting extensive recent information on major areas such as engineering, medicine, physical sciences, biosciences and mathematics. The book forcefully demonstrates that gender-based differences and expectations play the determining role in limiting women’s participation in S&T. These exist in various forms, from making subject choices in school and opting for specific disciplines in college to embracing specific career avenues such as scientific research. This book shows how the construction of gendered identities is perpetuated through a masculine culture in the informal environment of elite educational institutes and in major S&T workplaces such as academia and research laboratories, which serve together to exclude women from peer groups and opportunities for advancement. The book makes substantive recommendations for policy measures on college admissions, improvement of institutional and organizational environments, and recruitment and capacity building for women in S&T. It calls for substantially reducing the myriad societal and familial barriers through cooperation and understanding
Chapter : Introduction: Context and Theoretical Overview
Introduction: Context and Theoretical Overview
Focus and Purpose
This work examines the position of women in S&T at various levels of education and in various professions. Women in S&T generally constitute an urban educated middle class in India aspiring for white-collar jobs. The book analyses how trends related to women's position in S&T education and professions reflect a gendered social normative structure typically upheld by this class and how gendered sociocultural norms are reproduced in behaviours and interactions in families/schools/institutes/organizations impacting women's position in S&T. The book combines feminist perspectives, perspectives of gender and organization, and of gender and science in understanding gender inequalities.
While the book deals with women in S&T in different professions, it particularly emphasizes the position of women scientists ...