Women in Science and Technology: Confronting Inequalities comprehensively explores women’s status in the Science and Technology (S&T) domain by rigorously analysing and interpreting extensive recent information on major areas such as engineering, medicine, physical sciences, biosciences and mathematics. The book forcefully demonstrates that gender-based differences and expectations play the determining role in limiting women’s participation in S&T. These exist in various forms, from making subject choices in school and opting for specific disciplines in college to embracing specific career avenues such as scientific research. This book shows how the construction of gendered identities is perpetuated through a masculine culture in the informal environment of elite educational institutes and in major S&T workplaces such as academia and research laboratories, which serve together to exclude women from peer groups and opportunities for advancement. The book makes substantive recommendations for policy measures on college admissions, improvement of institutional and organizational environments, and recruitment and capacity building for women in S&T. It calls for substantially reducing the myriad societal and familial barriers through cooperation and understanding
Chapter 3: Women in S&T Professions
Women in S&T Professions
This chapter analyses the position of women in some of the key professions related to S&T such as scientific research, IT, medicine and S&T entrepreneurship. The first part deals with women's careers in non-academic/non-research careers in S&T; the second part analyses the position of women in S&T academia/research. The next chapter specifically delves into the organizational context of scientific research in academia and labs.
Part I Non-academic Careers in S&T Visible Discrimination in S&T Professions
Although the Indian constitution guarantees equality to women in pay and work opportunities, there remain discrepancies. Gender pay gap occurs mostly in the private sector since salaries in the government jobs do not vary on the basis of sex. Gender pay gap has been ...