School leadership quality is among the biggest factors ensuring high-quality student learning worldwide. Women school leaders develop greater interactivity with children, helping them achieve greater engagement with learning and better results. Developing women school leaders is therefore key to improving school education in India and across the world. The proportion of women teachers in developing countries, including India, has risen significantly in recent years. However, their participation in school leadership is comparatively low due to ingrained negative perceptions as well as several sociocultural barriers. Women in School Leadership aims to document vividly the initiative by women, especially in developing countries, to achieve parity in school leadership. It analyses and interprets qualitative primary data collected from detailed case studies of women school heads, and secondary data from Unified District Information System for Education (U-DISE), the Indian national database for school information, as per a multi-disciplinary approach. The book validates the current level of progress and suggests ways to improve the situation further through policy measures and by reducing barriers to women's school leadership development. Success in this endeavour is expected to lead to gender equality, scope for fair access and the promotion of the merit principle in education, competition and employment opportunities in schools.

Career and Human Development

Career and human development

Structure–Agency Interaction and Human Development

Ecology of human development takes place across five sub-systems nested together, namely micro, meso, exo, macro and chrono (Bronfenbrenner, 1994). There is a complex relationship between these five sub-systems as they interact with people and processes, structures and agency and systems and sub-systems, giving rise to specific groups of people with ‘social structure power’. These social structure powers are entities or wholes having emergent properties or causal powers distinct from human individuals (Elder-Vass, 2010). Nevertheless, they depend on the contributions of individuals. In other words, social practices are shaped by officially sanctioned structures and institutions that also enforce certain other social practices (Ostrom, 1986). Thus, social structure powers which are wholes or entities ...

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