This collection of original research articles explores how race, ethnicity, and social class have shaped the work lives of women. Women and Work explores womenÆs working conditions, their wages and salaries, their abilities to control their work environments, and how they see themselves and their options in the workplace. A great deal of importance is given to women of color, non-citizens, and working-class womenùgroups that are often neglected in other treatments of this subject. The integration of work and family, womenÆs vision of their own work and consciousness as employees, and womenÆs resistance to exploitative and limiting work are themes are also addressed throughout this book. Written by and interdisciplinary group of women scholars, Women and Work will be of interest to faculty, researchers, and advanced students in the fields of sociology, organization studies, psychology, gender studies, womenÆs history, and economics.

The Third Shift: Black Women's Club Activities in Denver, 1900–1925

The Third Shift: Black Women's Club Activities in Denver, 1900–1925

The third shift: Black women's club activities in denver, 1900–1925
LyndaF.Dickson

One salient example of unpaid work among African American women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is found in the activities of federated women's clubs in Denver, Colorado. There is evidence that the members of these clubs were for the most part middle class, using “respectability” as the major criterion for membership; married with children; and employed outside of the home. Their club work created a third work shift, contributing to racial uplift efforts within their communities. The African American federated women's clubs (i.e., those affiliated with the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs) embraced the then prevailing defensive philosophy of self-help, self-improvement, and ...

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