··Awarded the Descartes Prize 2004 of the European Commission·· How do gender inequalities translate at the top of politics and business? Is the gender gap eliminated for the most influential players in industrial democratic society? This informed and compelling analysis examines the demographic characteristics, family circumstances and career paths of a group of elite women. The book is noteworthy for being one of the first empirically based studies of women elites. Drawing on a sample from no less than 27 countries, a convincing and highly original picture is constructed that informs readers of career paths, values, social networks and gender battles for women elites. Co-ordinated by Mino Vianello and Gwen Moore, the research fills in a huge gap about how power actually operates in industrial-democratic societies. It enables us to test the view that substantial equality between the sexes has been achieved in the twenty first century. It constitutes a landmark work, both in the study of gender difference and the analysis of power. The findings will be of interest to academics and advanced students in a wide range of disciplines including stratification, globalization, political science, international relations, gender, sociology, organizational studies and much more.
Chapter 8: Gender Differences in Access to and Exercise of Power
Gender Differences in Access to and Exercise of Power
This article consists of two parts: in the first, we deal with access to power, in the second with exercise of power. A short theoretical note on the phenomenon which is power is necessary, although even a mere hint at the history of the concept or any attempt to give an exhaustive definition of it would take us too far from our topic and would therefore be inappropriate here (for an introduction to the problem of power and its history, see Lukes, 1986).
Yet, in explaining the parameters used in this article in order to measure power, the reader will immediately realize that the way they are constructed is ...