Understanding Tourism: A Critical Introduction

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Kevin Hannam & Dan Knox

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  • From the Reviews

    ‘With this book Hannam and Knox have gone a long way towards elevating the study of tourism from the obscure margins of social science into a bona fide research area. They encourage us to think critically about the subject and successfully interweave dominant contemporary concepts to present tourism as a social, cultural, economic, and spatial phenomenon. Students will be sure to enjoy this innovative contribution which takes a ‘user-friendly’ approach and provides a useful pedagogic tool for those at all levels of study.’

    Dimitri Ioannides, Professor of Human Geography, Mid-Sweden University and ETOUR

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    For Kieran and Alexander

    Seek and you shall find your illusions through the magic of tourism.

    AmyTan (2005) Saving Fish From Drowning. London: Harper. p. 147.

    Acknowledgements

    A large number of individuals and organisations were involved in the various activities that have made the publishing of this book possible. Specifically, we would like to acknowledge the support of our friends and colleagues at the University of Sunderland, namely, Nicole Mitsche, James Scott, James Johnson and Pau Obrador. Many academic friends and fellow-travellers have given us valuable support – we hope we have done justice to some of their ideas in this book. We would also like to thank the many postgraduate and undergraduate students who have inspired us over the years (you know who you are). Of course, our families have also been a valuable source of support for us and we thank them for this. DK offers special thanks to his wife, Judy, and to new colleagues at Liverpool John Moores University. We would like to thank the various editors at SAGE, particularly Jai Seaman, for their forbearance with this project. We think it has been worth it in the end. Any errors, of course, remain our own.

    We would like to formally acknowledge the following for their kind permission to publish the following images: James Johnson, The Venetian, Las Vegas, USA; Marina Novelli, Stonehenge, UK; James Scott, On Safari, Matesi Game Reserve, Zimbabwe; Xu Zhuang, Window of the World, Changsha and Superlambananas, Liverpool; Alasdair Ewen of Etchatan Photography, Aberdeen, Image of Authors.

    We also acknowledge permission from the following for the use of copyright material: Channel View Publications for summaries from Sue Beeton's book Film and Tourism, and Gibson and Connell's book Music and Tourism; Rob Witherow and http://GoogleSightseeing.com for material on Paris, China; Gap Adventures. All other permissions have been actively sought.

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  • Glossary

    authenticity: the idea that objects, artefacts and human cultures exist in original, unspoiled and objectively truthful versions. An authentic culture would be one that has not been altered by interactions with the processes of globalisation or tourism and, as such, would prove very difficult to ever locate.

    banality: the flow of everyday life against which the spectacular stands out. Banal occurrences or ideas are those that ordinarily we do not question, such as our membership of particular nation-states or the characteristics of local cultures.

    body: the physical and cultural characteristics of the human body. The body has traditionally been ignored by the social sciences but is at the centre of contemporary writings about practice, performance and sensuality.

    commodification: the processes whereby exchange value is attached to objects and subjects, thereby turning them into commodities. The original use value is replaced with an economic price, which is often seen to devalue whatever aspect of cultural heritage that has been commodified.

    consumption: the selection and use of commodities, and their associated signs, as a means of building a social identity.

    creative industries: creative or artistic activities that have the ability to generate income, regardless of whether or not that is the primary reason for their being undertaken – incorporates performing arts, publishing, software, music, visual arts, advertising and fashion. Creative industries often create an infrastructure on which the tourism industry can draw.

    critical tourism studies: a nuanced, thoughtful and theoretically engaged intellectual pursuit that has the practice and processes of tourism as its main object of investigation.

    cultural capital: a metaphor that explains the use of choices concerning consumption as a way of identifying the self as a member of a particular socio-cultural group. Cultural capital is accumulated through time in the collecting of experiences that distinguish individuals within their peer groups.

    culture: used to describe the whole of the material and symbolic way of life of an identifiable ethnic or national group of people. Also used to label the practices of those that share a social class, a lifestyle, an interest in a particular cultural pursuit, subcultural group membership or a particular set of behaviours.

    dark tourism: visiting sites associated with death, destruction and other unattractive elements of recent human history, such as former concentration camps, prisons and battlefields.

    diaspora: those members of an ethnic, cultural or national group who are dispersed around the globe or living in communities outside a recognised homeland or nation-state.

    discourse: a way of talking or writing about a particular cultural phenomenon. This can also be used metaphorically to symbolise the practices of participation in a particular way of life.

    ecotourism: most simply defined as a form of tourism that involves visits to and consumption of nature and ecology, whether in a national park, a wilderness area or even a zoo. More robust definitions emphasise aspects of community development, power-sharing, environmental education, conservation of natural resources and ethics.

    embodiment: the experience and sensual stimuli of living in, with and through the human body. People can be said to embody certain elements of their cultural background in the ways they manage, display and deport their bodies.

    epistemology: a theory of knowledge, i.e. a way in which we understand the world and things within it.

    ethnography: literally defined as ‘writing about people', ethnography is the practice of participating in a cultural pursuit or group in order to gain insight and understanding of people, their activities and their motivations. Ethnographic knowledge is generated during in-depth encounters and the associated writing is characteristically detailed with significant use of direct quotations from interviews and research diaries.

    exotic: the spectacular, the remarkable or the unusual. The experience of the exotic is always contingent upon the everyday norm of the person consuming sights, sounds or sensations. Cultures, places and peoples are exoticised by being represented as spectacular in a range of representations including novels, films, guidebooks, travel brochures, etc.

    experience: increasing numbers of tourism destinations and attractions are being marketed as experiences, suggesting sensual stimulation and the enjoyment of something remarkable when compared with everyday life.

    everyday: the day-to-day life and experiences of a person or group of persons. The everyday is traditionally viewed as something that tourists wish to escape from, although recent writings in tourism studies have begun to explore the relationships between everyday practices and vacation behaviours.

    familiarity: sets of images or ideas about a place or a culture that are known to the tourist prior to making their visit, and then consumed while on vacation, e.g. aspects of national culture, or folk architecture or the works of famous artists.

    gender: the cultural understandings and expectations of lifestyle choices relating to the supposedly natural sexual characteristics.

    globalisation: an on-going process whereby culture, commerce and everyday life around the world become more and more similar under the influence of multinational organisations, communication technologies and human mobility. Globalisation has frequently been associated with arguments that a global culture emerges as local differences are eroded, although this notion is also contested by other researchers.

    governance: the infrastructure and processes of governing a State, including central, local and regional government, supranational organisations, quangos and public services.

    heritage: the collective cultural and built inheritance and history of a group of people (or of a place) that can be used to build an identity through the telling of stories. Heritage is often seen as the selective presentation and interpretation of elements of history.

    identity: a sense of the self and of having a place within society, which usually draws on national, cultural, subcultural, ethnic, gender, class or any other demographic category.

    independent tourism: often associated with ‘backpacking’; the practice of undertaking travel or tourism without reference to travel agents or tour guides, often making use of domestic travel infrastructures rarely used by mainstream tourists.

    interpretation: the practice of selecting, attaching and telling stories relating to heritage sites and artefacts. Also relates to the technologies used to provide information for visitors to a museum or heritage park.

    leisure: the time spent away from formal work is frequently labelled as leisure and has tended historically to be seen as a separate pursuit to tourism. Leisure is assumed to take place near to home while tourism occurs at a distance. Recent approaches to tourism and leisure research (e.g. banality, familiarity, serious leisure) have problematised this distinction and shown the close relationship between leisure at home and vacation activities.

    mass tourism: ordinarily used to refer to a form of popular tourism in which large numbers of package tourists take holidays in large resorts, but increasingly also relevant to aspects of cultural and heritage tourism in established destinations.

    material culture: the physical elements of a way of life (e.g. ornaments, furniture, necklaces and bracelets, crockery, etc.) flagged in contrast to the everyday, ritual or symbolic uses of such items. Often associated with the tangible elements of a culture as opposed to intangible meanings.

    mobilities: a school of thought that focuses on the movements of people, objects, capital and information through spaces. These movements include not only tourism but also the flow of everyday life, through transport, migration and communication.

    nature: the natural world of plants, animals and landscapes that is assumed to pre-exist human impacts and interpretations. Often contrasted with culture in terms of understanding landscapes or human behaviours.

    non-representational theory: a body of thought that places performance and practice at the heart of social life and posits that identities and realities are built up out of performances rather than representations. Put simply, ideas do not pre-exist their re-performance or representation.

    ontology: a theory of the nature of existence, i.e. how we understand the world and phenomena within it.

    orientalism: a discourse in which those countries and people considered to be Eastern in popular discourse are figured as exotic, servile and feminine in the eyes of those in the West. A symbolic Othering of the Orient.

    Other: the Other is a person or group of persons imagined to be different to the Self, e.g. foreign citizens, members of other ethnic or racial groups, etc.

    package tours: a holiday in which the products (transport, accommodation, food, entertainment, etc.) of a number of suppliers are collectively sold under the umbrella of a travel agent or tour operator. All that the tourist is required to do is to book the holiday and turn up at the airport on time.

    performance: popularly used to talk about the staging of a local performance of cultural traditions for tourists; the term performance can also be used to understand the ways in which identities and places are re-created through the choreographed behaviour of tourists themselves.

    performativity: the way in which making representations or performing actions makes things happen or causes ideas to solidify and become fixed, e.g. consistently representing a resort or a culture in a particular way makes people perceive it that way.

    political ecology: the critical understanding of how various human socio-cultural impacts affect the environment in a politicised way.

    positivism: a philosophical position that holds that only phenomena that have been directly observed can be warranted as knowledge. Hypotheses can be tested by the gathering of objective facts so as to produce value free and objective knowledge.

    post-colonialism: the conditions of those lands previously under colonial control. The term is also used to refer to political relations and understandings of the world that emerge from formerly colonised lands.

    post-modernism: a period of history or an aesthetic characterised by playfulness, hybridity, globalisation and the ubiquity of the mass media. The period of time that comes after modernity.

    post-structuralism: a body of theories concerned with knowledge and identity, and how these are constructed out of texts or representations. Critical of structuralist theories of human behaviour that reduce this to specific models, instead of emphasising the complexity of human life in a post-modern world.

    power: the ability or opportunity to control a situation, to achieve an outcome or to regulate the behaviour of others. Power might be held by an individual, an institution or a state. Disciplinary power is that which has the ability to regulate human behaviour.

    practice: ways of behaving or doing things on a regular basis. The term in the social sciences is closely tied in with ideas of performance and embodied experience. Discourses are seen as leading to certain practices, i.e. a body of knowledge can lead to new ways of being or behaving in the world.

    ready-made ideas: ways of understanding or thinking about socio-cultural phenomena that have become fixed through repetition, reproduction and circulation.

    reductionism: the reduction of complex phenomena or ideas to a small number of simple statements, e.g. understanding tourism through the use of simple models or diagrams.

    reflexivity: the use of self-awareness throughout a research project to understand the role and position of the researcher and how that impacts on the project and those being researched. The term reflexive is also used to label any intellectual exercise that is reflective and critically informed.

    regulation: the management and control of a system or of patterns of behaviour through the implementing of formal procedures and management techniques.

    relativism: the idea that truth or reality is always reliant on context and is thus variable.

    research: a systematic investigation into socio-cultural phenomena that involves the collection, analysis and writing up of evidence in the form of data.

    sensuousness: the pleasurable stimulation of the senses as part of an experience.

    serious leisure: a theory that makes connections between the day-to-day leisure interests of individuals and their tourism behaviours and motivations.

    sex tourism: there are many interactions between tourism and sex, not all of which fit neatly into the category of sex tourism. Narrowly defined, sex tourism is the travelling to foreign destinations specifically to engage in sexual activity usually with relatively powerless partners, such as sex workers.

    sexuality: self-expression as a sexual being, usually referring to choice or habit in terms of the gender(s) of sexual partners. A person might, for example, be homosexual, heterosexual or bisexual.

    social construction: the theory that ideas, identities and appearances are constructed socially through repeated representations of citations of ready-made ideas.

    spectacular: those remarkable or unusual events or manifestations of cultures that punctuate everyday banality.

    staging: the putting on of a show for an audience, often used in a tourism context to discuss the performance of folk traditions for tourists, or an attempt to dupe tourists into believing they are witnessing an authentic aspect of local culture.

    State: the State is an institution that has a monopoly on the control of individuals and their behaviour within the territorial confines of the nation. The infrastructure of governance.

    sustainable tourism: tourism that is limited in terms of social, cultural, economic or political impacts on host communities, and does not damage resources that future generations of locals and tourists might also wish to consume.

    tourist gaze: a particular way of looking at and representing tourist places characterised by a tendency towards the exotic and the picturesque, and the popular practices of photography.

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