- Subject index
This accessible and original text combines a systematic examination of the theories of welfare with an historical account of the evolution of the welfare state and its impact in promoting social justice. It identifies the principles governing social distribution and examines the rationales for these different distributive principles. This book also links the theories of distribution to the actual development of social policy and considers their outcomes. State Welfare will be essential reading for students of social policy. It provides a clear understanding of both theories of welfare and the history of the development of the British welfare state.
Chapter 2: The ‘Invisible Hand’ and the Emerging State
The ‘Invisible Hand’ and the Emerging State
It is, of course, an error to construct the nineteenth century as the era of doctrinaire prohibition of government intervention. Nonetheless, as Hoppen (1998: 92) has argued, ‘the ideology which spoke most powerfully to the condition of the new industrial society was that which had first sprung from the so-called classical economists and then been filtered down through the utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and his disciples’.
Adam Smith (1723–1790)
A critique of mercantilist ideas was at the heart of Adam Smith's Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776). Mercantilism, a loose collection of maxims derived from the doctrine of the absolute rights of kings, asserted that, because the ...