`For any student of physical education, Physical Education provides an excellent springboard from which to explore theoretical aspects of their subject. The list of authors reads like a who's who of PE and the extensive list of references provides opportunities to investigate areas of interest in more depth' - John Matthews, Chief Executive PEA UK 'Distinguished authors who provide critical analyses of key contemporary issues in physical education: a core text…. Required reading for anybody seeking insight into the key issues of the day in physical education' - Dr Dick Fisher, Vice Principal of St. Mary's University College and Honorary President of the European Physical Education AssociationsAimed at students of physical education and sport in schools, this book consists of a collection of essential readings, covering a breadth of salient and enduring themes, as well as contemporary issues. Many of the authors are distinguished figures who have, over the last two decades, made substantial and distinctive contributions to our understanding of the process of physical education.Themes explored include: the nature and values of physical education; the relationship between the subject and physical activity and health; the growth of examinations in physical education and innovations and developments in teaching styles and formats. The study of physical education has increasingly become multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary and the book reflects this, incorporating philosophical, sociological, pedagogical and comparative perspectives.This book will give readers, both in the UK and internationally, and at all levels of education, a greater understanding of the subject.
Chapter 3: The ‘State’ of Physical Education
The ‘State’ of Physical Education
In very many developed and developing countries worldwide, PE is a conventional (in the sense of being generally practised), often compulsory element of primary and secondary school curricula (Hardman and Marshall, 2005). Despite the formal status of PE in many countries, it has become an orthodoxy in PE circles to advocate the view that, since the early 1970s, PE has been in a state of decline and marginalization – when measured, for example, in terms of the number and quality of facilities and suitably qualified teachers, time devoted to PE and curriculum content. The supposed downturn in the fortunes of PE is said to have occurred not only in countries in the English-speaking world such as ...