Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases

Books

Gayle C. Avery

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    List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

    Figures
    • 2.1 Traditional organigram and networked organization 27
    • 3.1 Matching leadership styles to the leadership paradigms 48
    • 4.1 Reconceptualized relationship between leader styles and follower development levels in Situational Leadership 80
    • 4.2 Fielder's contingency model showing effective and ineffective domains 82
    • 7.1 Potential links between Fielder's model and the leadership paradigms 148
    • CS3.1 Novartis' structure showing Agribusiness that was spun off 190
    • CS4.1 New Navy structure, 2000 205
    • CS5.1 Number of employees at SAP 220
    • CS6.1 Profit and cash flow, 1997–99 235
    • CS9.1 Geographical distribution of The Swatch Group's worldwide employees 273
    • 10.1 Rodenstock Group net sales (in million euros and DM) 1997–2000 281
    • 10.2 The organizational structure 286
    • 10.3 The company personality 288
    Tables
    • 2.1 Leadership paradigms 19
    • 3.1 Comparing the leadership paradigms 39
    • 3.2 Four basic decision-making styles linked to the paradigms 46
    • 3.3 Defining national value dimensions 52
    • 3.4 Cultural dimensions hypothesized to match the leadership paradigms 54
    • 4.1 Six leader traits 71
    • 4.2 Linking micro-level theories to the leadership paradigms 87
    • 5.1 Emotion-based approaches and the leadership paradigms 109
    • 6.1 Strategic planning modes linked to the leadership paradigms 123
    • 6.2 Broad macro-level approaches related to the leadership paradigms 135
    • 7.1 Linking theories and approaches to leadership paradigms 146
    • CS3.1 Financial highlights (full year 2000) 192
    Boxes
    • 1.1 Mental models of leadership 9
    • 2.1 Self-managing workers at Columbia Conserve Company 32
    • 3.1 Types of power 42
    • 3.2 Managing in chaos 50
    • 3.3 Organizational versus national culture 55
    • 3.4 Women's way of leading through inclusion 56
    • 4.1 Where are the great women leaders? 69
    • 4.2 Guidelines for influencing 73
    • 4.3 Avoiding being directive 80
    • 5.1 What is emotional intelligence? 92
    • 5.2 Beyond charisma and visionary leadership – Level 5 leadership 95
    • 5.3 Narcissistic potential in heroic visionary leaders 98
    • 5.4 What makes an effective vision? 101
    • 5.5 Sustainability of overwork 105
    • 6.1 Managing knowledge 127
    • 6.2 Knowledge and structure 129
    • 6.3 Emerging roles for leaders 130
    • 7.1 How do presidents rate in the eyes of their VPs? 142
    • 7.2 Linking the leadership paradigms to Fiedler's model 148
    • CS1.1 Portrait of CEO Helmut Panke 158
    • CS3.1 Divisional visions at Novartis 188
    • CS4.1 Some Royal Australian Navy customs, traditions and language 211
    • 5.1 Contrasting Co-CEOs and Co-Chairs 222
    • 6.1 Christophe Bonduelle 241
    • 10.1 Lens innovation 283

    Preface

    The changing face of leadership in today's increasingly dynamic and dispersed world presents management practitioners and scholars alike with considerable challenges. Are current ways of leading really appropriate for today's organizations, let alone tomorrow's? What kind of leadership is appropriate for different kinds of people and organizations? What are future-thinking organizations doing about developing leadership for tomorrow? How should leadership relate to its context, and is there any one best approach? And how do all those theories and ideas about leadership relate to one another?

    To try to answer these and other questions, contemporary case studies from well-known organizations in Europe, Australia and the US are presented to illustrate how diverse leadership can be in ‘successful’ organizations. In today's interconnected, global world, traditional ideas about leadership are being challenged as both large and small organizations strive to continuously adapt to changing internal and external environments. Future leadership will depend on many factors, some of which most of us probably cannot yet even envision. These research based case studies provide some clues.

    This book innovates in various ways in its endeavour to capture the complexity and diversity surrounding leadership. First, it introduces four leadership paradigms to help simplify and clarify the fuzzy, ill-defined field of leadership. The Classical, Transactional, Visionary and Organic paradigms are intended to provide a useful language and set of concepts for understanding leadership theory and practice, as well as to provoke discussion. Many aspects of leadership are integrated in the paradigms in distinguishing them from one another. Some of these differences will undoubtedly be controversial.

    In addition, this book covers an extensive range of leadership theories and concepts. Approaches range from getting the every-day front-line managerial work done, to working through emotion, vision, values, and organizational strategy and learning. This eclectic approach contrasts with writings on leadership that adopt a more limited theoretical framework. Rarely have both psychological and strategic approaches to leadership been incorporated in the one book. Traditionally, the study of leadership has tended to focus either on the characteristics of the heroic individual and leader–follower interactions, or else on broad strategic leadership issues.

    Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases also departs from many conventional leadership books by approaching leadership at different levels, ranging from the micro-level, through the group and organizational levels, to incorporating considerations beyond the organization itself. This book reflects the fact that, in practice, leadership occurs at different organizational levels, and necessarily encompasses a wide range of issues – including managing knowledge, developing self-managing teams and leadership capability, managing change and innovation, forming partnerships with stakeholders, developing cultures, learning and mentoring, promoting spirituality and meaning in the workplace, and sustaining and growing the organization itself.

    Throughout, the book refers to examples derived from the prominent organizations illustrated in Part II. In most of these case studies, the case author worked in or visited the organization in 1999 and 2000, seeking information about the organization at the beginning of the new millennium. The case study organizations are considered leading-edge in their field, and cover both private and government enterprises, and a range of different sizes and industries.

    The conceptual tools developed in Part I can be used to understand how leadership operates in the case studies. The reader sees that a best practice company need not always be best practice in every sphere of activity, and that there is no one best way of leading, despite a trend towards more self-leading members in organizations. These living cases depict a palette of leadership approaches, displaying either aspects of excellence in leadership, or raising common leadership issues. Although excellence in leadership is difficult to define, the case study organizations have created, or are adapting, their ‘leadership’ to fit both their internal and external environments. At the end of each case study, specific questions guide the reader in interpreting and analysing the cases, connecting them to the leadership frameworks and theories in Part I, and challenging the reader to think about the issues raised in each case study.

    Acknowledgements

    A book like this can only be written over a long time, and with the support of many people around the world. In particular, I would like to thank:

    For his on-going criticism, many illustrations and loving patience throughout the drawn-out writing process: Harry Bergsteiner, Australia.

    For their invaluable contribution to case study writing: Andrew Bell, Australia; Martin Hilb, Switzerland; Anne Witte, France; and MBA students from Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Australia.

    For generously sharing their knowledge and insights about the organizations covered in the case studies with the case authors: Senior executives in the case study organizations.

    For an inspiring set of books and personal communication: Wilfred Drath, USA.

    For her enthusiastic assistance in editing and production: Gillian Lucas, Australia.

    For excellence in obtaining most of the references: Shawkat Alam and Macquarie University Librarians, Australia.

    For their critical reading of early manuscripts and valuable feedback: Dr Katarina Hackman, Australia; Dr Sooksan Kantabutra, Thailand; Dr Steven Segal, Australia; my students.

    For support in producing the manuscript: Macquarie Graduate School of Management, especially Laura Deverson, TISO, Nick Martorana and their teams.

    For background on competencies and Hay-McBer approaches: Wendy Montague, Australia.

    For his most valuable assistance in editing the book: Dr Robert Rich, Australia.

    For editing and publishing the manuscript: Seth Edwards, Kiren Shoman and the team at Sage Publications, London.

    For generously providing stunning environments for writing in Ruhpolding, Bavaria and Roquebrune, France: The Tirichter-Koerner Family, Munich, Germany.

    Gayle C.Avery
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