Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases


Gayle C. Avery

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures, Tables and Boxes

    • 2.1 Traditional organigram and networked organization 27
    • 3.1 Matching leadership styles to the leadership paradigms 48
    • 4.1 Reconceptualized relationship between leader styles and follower development levels in Situational Leadership 80
    • 4.2 Fielder's contingency model showing effective and ineffective domains 82
    • 7.1 Potential links between Fielder's model and the leadership paradigms 148
    • CS3.1 Novartis' structure showing Agribusiness that was spun off 190
    • CS4.1 New Navy structure, 2000 205
    • CS5.1 Number of employees at SAP 220
    • CS6.1 Profit and cash flow, 1997–99 235
    • CS9.1 Geographical distribution of The Swatch Group's worldwide employees 273
    • 10.1 Rodenstock Group net sales (in million euros and DM) 1997–2000 281
    • 10.2 The organizational structure 286
    • 10.3 The company personality 288
    • 2.1 Leadership paradigms 19
    • 3.1 Comparing the leadership paradigms 39
    • 3.2 Four basic decision-making styles linked to the paradigms 46
    • 3.3 Defining national value dimensions 52
    • 3.4 Cultural dimensions hypothesized to match the leadership paradigms 54
    • 4.1 Six leader traits 71
    • 4.2 Linking micro-level theories to the leadership paradigms 87
    • 5.1 Emotion-based approaches and the leadership paradigms 109
    • 6.1 Strategic planning modes linked to the leadership paradigms 123
    • 6.2 Broad macro-level approaches related to the leadership paradigms 135
    • 7.1 Linking theories and approaches to leadership paradigms 146
    • CS3.1 Financial highlights (full year 2000) 192
    • 1.1 Mental models of leadership 9
    • 2.1 Self-managing workers at Columbia Conserve Company 32
    • 3.1 Types of power 42
    • 3.2 Managing in chaos 50
    • 3.3 Organizational versus national culture 55
    • 3.4 Women's way of leading through inclusion 56
    • 4.1 Where are the great women leaders? 69
    • 4.2 Guidelines for influencing 73
    • 4.3 Avoiding being directive 80
    • 5.1 What is emotional intelligence? 92
    • 5.2 Beyond charisma and visionary leadership – Level 5 leadership 95
    • 5.3 Narcissistic potential in heroic visionary leaders 98
    • 5.4 What makes an effective vision? 101
    • 5.5 Sustainability of overwork 105
    • 6.1 Managing knowledge 127
    • 6.2 Knowledge and structure 129
    • 6.3 Emerging roles for leaders 130
    • 7.1 How do presidents rate in the eyes of their VPs? 142
    • 7.2 Linking the leadership paradigms to Fiedler's model 148
    • CS1.1 Portrait of CEO Helmut Panke 158
    • CS3.1 Divisional visions at Novartis 188
    • CS4.1 Some Royal Australian Navy customs, traditions and language 211
    • 5.1 Contrasting Co-CEOs and Co-Chairs 222
    • 6.1 Christophe Bonduelle 241
    • 10.1 Lens innovation 283


    The changing face of leadership in today's increasingly dynamic and dispersed world presents management practitioners and scholars alike with considerable challenges. Are current ways of leading really appropriate for today's organizations, let alone tomorrow's? What kind of leadership is appropriate for different kinds of people and organizations? What are future-thinking organizations doing about developing leadership for tomorrow? How should leadership relate to its context, and is there any one best approach? And how do all those theories and ideas about leadership relate to one another?

    To try to answer these and other questions, contemporary case studies from well-known organizations in Europe, Australia and the US are presented to illustrate how diverse leadership can be in ‘successful’ organizations. In today's interconnected, global world, traditional ideas about leadership are being challenged as both large and small organizations strive to continuously adapt to changing internal and external environments. Future leadership will depend on many factors, some of which most of us probably cannot yet even envision. These research based case studies provide some clues.

    This book innovates in various ways in its endeavour to capture the complexity and diversity surrounding leadership. First, it introduces four leadership paradigms to help simplify and clarify the fuzzy, ill-defined field of leadership. The Classical, Transactional, Visionary and Organic paradigms are intended to provide a useful language and set of concepts for understanding leadership theory and practice, as well as to provoke discussion. Many aspects of leadership are integrated in the paradigms in distinguishing them from one another. Some of these differences will undoubtedly be controversial.

    In addition, this book covers an extensive range of leadership theories and concepts. Approaches range from getting the every-day front-line managerial work done, to working through emotion, vision, values, and organizational strategy and learning. This eclectic approach contrasts with writings on leadership that adopt a more limited theoretical framework. Rarely have both psychological and strategic approaches to leadership been incorporated in the one book. Traditionally, the study of leadership has tended to focus either on the characteristics of the heroic individual and leader–follower interactions, or else on broad strategic leadership issues.

    Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases also departs from many conventional leadership books by approaching leadership at different levels, ranging from the micro-level, through the group and organizational levels, to incorporating considerations beyond the organization itself. This book reflects the fact that, in practice, leadership occurs at different organizational levels, and necessarily encompasses a wide range of issues – including managing knowledge, developing self-managing teams and leadership capability, managing change and innovation, forming partnerships with stakeholders, developing cultures, learning and mentoring, promoting spirituality and meaning in the workplace, and sustaining and growing the organization itself.

    Throughout, the book refers to examples derived from the prominent organizations illustrated in Part II. In most of these case studies, the case author worked in or visited the organization in 1999 and 2000, seeking information about the organization at the beginning of the new millennium. The case study organizations are considered leading-edge in their field, and cover both private and government enterprises, and a range of different sizes and industries.

    The conceptual tools developed in Part I can be used to understand how leadership operates in the case studies. The reader sees that a best practice company need not always be best practice in every sphere of activity, and that there is no one best way of leading, despite a trend towards more self-leading members in organizations. These living cases depict a palette of leadership approaches, displaying either aspects of excellence in leadership, or raising common leadership issues. Although excellence in leadership is difficult to define, the case study organizations have created, or are adapting, their ‘leadership’ to fit both their internal and external environments. At the end of each case study, specific questions guide the reader in interpreting and analysing the cases, connecting them to the leadership frameworks and theories in Part I, and challenging the reader to think about the issues raised in each case study.


    A book like this can only be written over a long time, and with the support of many people around the world. In particular, I would like to thank:

    For his on-going criticism, many illustrations and loving patience throughout the drawn-out writing process: Harry Bergsteiner, Australia.

    For their invaluable contribution to case study writing: Andrew Bell, Australia; Martin Hilb, Switzerland; Anne Witte, France; and MBA students from Macquarie Graduate School of Management, Australia.

    For generously sharing their knowledge and insights about the organizations covered in the case studies with the case authors: Senior executives in the case study organizations.

    For an inspiring set of books and personal communication: Wilfred Drath, USA.

    For her enthusiastic assistance in editing and production: Gillian Lucas, Australia.

    For excellence in obtaining most of the references: Shawkat Alam and Macquarie University Librarians, Australia.

    For their critical reading of early manuscripts and valuable feedback: Dr Katarina Hackman, Australia; Dr Sooksan Kantabutra, Thailand; Dr Steven Segal, Australia; my students.

    For support in producing the manuscript: Macquarie Graduate School of Management, especially Laura Deverson, TISO, Nick Martorana and their teams.

    For background on competencies and Hay-McBer approaches: Wendy Montague, Australia.

    For his most valuable assistance in editing the book: Dr Robert Rich, Australia.

    For editing and publishing the manuscript: Seth Edwards, Kiren Shoman and the team at Sage Publications, London.

    For generously providing stunning environments for writing in Ruhpolding, Bavaria and Roquebrune, France: The Tirichter-Koerner Family, Munich, Germany.

    Gayle C.Avery
  • References

    Abell, A. (2000) ‘Skills for knowledge environments’, Information Management Journal, 34(3): 33–41.
    Albert, M. (1992) ‘The Rhine model of capitalism: An investigation’, European Business Journal, 4(3): 8–22.
    Alvesson, M. (2002) Understanding Organizational Culture. London: Sage.
    Andrews, J.P. and Field, R.H.G. (1998) ‘Regrounding the concept of leadership’, Leadership and Organization Development, 19(3): 128–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739810210176
    Aryee, S, Chay, Y.W. and Chew, J. (1996) ‘The motivation to mentor among managerial employees: An interactionalist approach’, Group and Organization Management, 21(3): 261–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601196213002
    Ashkanasy, N.M. and Weierter, S.J.M. (1996) ‘Modeling the leader-member relationship: The role of value congruence and charisma’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 91–103.
    Atwater, D.C. and Bass, B.M. (1994) ‘Transformational leadership in teams’, in B.M.Bass and B.J.Avolio (eds), Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 48–83.
    Atwater, L.E. and Yammarino, F.J. (1996) ‘Bases of power in relation to leader behavior: A field investigation’, Journal of Business and Psychology, 11(1): 3–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02278251
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (2001) ‘Employment arrangements and superannuation, Australia’, Report 6361.0. Canberra: Government Printer.
    Avery, G.C. (2001) ‘Situational leadership in Australia: Congruity, flexibility and effectiveness’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22(1): 11–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730110380183
    Avery, G.C. (2003) ‘Weathering the Storm: Towards Sustainable Leadership’. Unpublished paper. Sydney: Macquarie Graduate School of Management.
    Avery, G.C. and Ryan, J. (2002) ‘Applying situational leadership in Australia’, Journal of Management Development, 21(4): 242–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710210423784
    Avolio, B.J. (1996) ‘What's all the Karping about Down Under? Transforming Australia's leadership systems for the twenty-first century’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 3–15.
    Avolio, B.J. and Bass, B.M. (1988) ‘Transformational leadership, charisma and beyond’, in, J.G.Hunt, B.R.Baliga, H.P.Dachler and C.A.Schreisheim (eds), Emerging Leadership Vistas. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books. pp. 29–49.
    Avolio, B.J. and Bass, B.M. (1991) The Full Range Leadership Development Program. Binghamton, NY: Bass Avolio.
    Avolio, B.J. and Bass, B.M. (1994) ‘Conclusions and implications’, in B.M.Bass and B.J.Avolio (eds), Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 202–17.
    Ayman, R., Chemers, M.M. and Fiedler, F.E. (1995) ‘The contingency model of leadership effectiveness: Its level of analysis’, Leadership Quarterly, 6(2): 147–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2895%2990032-2
    Ball, G.A, Trevino, L.K. and Sims, H.P, Jr. (1992) ‘Understanding subordinate reactions to punishment incidents: Perspectives from justice and social affect’, Leadership Quarterly, 3: 307–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2892%2990019-C
    Bass, B.M. (1985) Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Bass, B.M. (1988) ‘The inspirational process of leadership’, Journal of Management Development, 7(5): 21–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb051688
    Bass, B.M. (1990a) Bass and Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications,
    3rd edn
    . New York, NY: Free Press.
    Bass, B.M. (1990b) ‘From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision’, Organizational Dynamics, 18(3): 19–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2890%2990061-S
    Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1990) ‘Developing transformational leadership: 1992 and beyond’, Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5): 21–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090599010135122
    Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (eds) (1994) Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bass, B.M, Valenzi, E.R, Farrow, D.L. and Solomon, R.J. (1975) ‘Management styles associated with organizational, task, and interpersonal contingencies’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60(6): 720–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.60.6.720
    Baum, J.R, Locke, E.A. and Kirkpatrick, S.A. (1998) ‘A longitudinal study of the relation of vision and vision communication to venture growth in entrepreneurial firms’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(1): 43–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.1.43
    Bechtold, B.L. (2000) ‘Evolving to organizational learning’, Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly, 21(30): 11–25.
    Bennis, W. (1983) ‘The artform of leadership’, in S. Srivastva and Associates (eds), The Executive Mind: New Insights on Managerial Thought and Action. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Bennis, W. (1989) Why Leaders Can't Lead: The Unconscious Conspiracy Continues. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Bennis, W. (1998) ‘Rethinking leadership’, Executive Excellence, 15(2): 7–8.
    Bennis, W. and Nanus, B. (1985) Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Bergsteiner, H. and Avery, G.C. (2003) ‘Responsibility and accountability: Towards an integrative process model’, International Business and Economics Research Journal, 2(2): 31–40.
    Bernardin, H.J. and Russell, J.E.A. (1993) Human Resource Management: An Experiential Approach. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Berstein, B.J. and Kaye, B.L. (1986) ‘Teacher, tutor, colleague, coach’, Personnel Journal, 65(11): 44–51.
    Blanchard, K.H. and Nelson, R. (1997) ‘Recognition and reward’, Executive Excellence, 14(4): 15.
    Blanchard, K.H, Zigarmi, D. and Nelson, R.B. (1993) ‘Situational leadership after 25 years: A retrospective’, Journal of Leadership Studies, 1(1): 22–36.
    Blanchard, K.H, Zigarmi, P. and Zigarmi, D. (1985) Leadership and the One Minute Manager. New York, NY: Morrow.
    Blank, W, Weitzel, J.R. and Green, S.G. (1990) ‘A test of situational leadership theory’, Personnel Psychology, 43(3): 579–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1990.tb02397.x
    Boal, K.B. and Hooijberg, R. (2001) ‘Strategic leadership research: Moving on’, Leadership Quarterly, 11(4): 515–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2800%2900057-6
    Bolman, L.G. and Deal, T.E. (1997) Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Bradford, D.L. and Cohen, A.R. (1984) Managing for Excellence: The Guide to Developing High Performance Organizations. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Briscoe, J.P. and Hall, D.T. (1998) ‘Grooming and picking leaders using competency frameworks: Do they work? An alternative approach and new guidelines for practice’, Organizational Dynamics, 28(2): 37–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0090-2616%2800%2980015-7
    Britt, D.W. (1997) A Conceptual Introduction to Modeling: Qualitative and Quantitative Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Brodbeck, P.W. (2002) ‘Implications for organization design: Teams as pockets of excellence’, Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 8(1/2): 21–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527590210425068
    Brown, A.D. (1994) ‘Transformational leadership in tackling change’, Journal of General Management, 19(4): 1–12.
    Brown, S.L. and Eisenhardt, K.M. (1997) ‘The art of continuous change: Linking complexity theory and time-paced evolution in relentlessly shifting organizations’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1): 1–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393807
    Burke, R.J. and McKeen, C.A. (1997) ‘Benefits of mentoring relationships among managerial and professional women: A cautionary tale’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(1): 43–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1997.1595
    Burla, S, Alioth, A., Frei, F. and Müller, W.R. (1994) Die Erfindung von FüUhrung: Vom Mythos der Machbarkeit in der FüUhrungsausbildung. Zurich: vdf Verlag der Fachvereine an den schweizerischen Hochsculen und Techniken AG.
    Burns, J.M. (1978) Leadership. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Bussel, R. (1997) ‘Business without a boss: The Columbia Conserve Company and workers' control, 1917–1943’, Business History Review, 71(3): 417–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3116079
    Cacioppe, R. (1997) ‘Leadership moment by moment!’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18(7): 335–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739710190648
    Cacioppe, R. (1998) ‘Leaders developing leaders: An effective way to enhance leadership development programs’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 19(4): 194–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739810217179
    Cairncross, F. (1997) The Death of Distance: How the Communications Revolution will Change our Lives. London: Orion Business Books.
    Cairns, T.D, Hollenback, J., Preziosi, R.C. and Snow, W.A. (1998) ‘Technical note: A study of Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 19(2): 113–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739810208692
    Cameron, K.S, Whetten, D.A. and Kim, M.U. (1987) ‘Organizational dysfunctions of decline’, Academy of Management Journal, 30(1): 126–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255899
    Campbell, J.P. (1977) ‘The cutting edge of leadership: An overview’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press. pp. 221–34.
    Cannella, A.A, Pettigrew, A. and Hambrick, D. (2001) ‘Upper echelons: Donald Hambrick on executives and strategy’, Academy of Management Executive, 15(3): 36–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.2001.5229499
    Carless, S.A, Mann, L. and Wearing, A.J. (1996) ‘Transformational leadership and teams: An examination of the Bass and Kouzes-Posner models’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 77–90.
    Carroll, P.J. (1999) ‘A letter to the people of Shell Oil Company’ at URL: http://learning.mit.edu/pra/pro/shell/people_of_shell/full.htm accessed on 3 March 1999.
    Chaleff, I. (1995) ‘The courageous follower’, World Executive's Digest, November: 68–9.
    Chao, G.T. (1997) ‘Mentoring phases and outcomes’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 51(1): 15–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1997.1591
    Chao, G.T, Walz, P.M. and Gardner, P.D. (1992) ‘Formal and informal mentorships: A comparison on mentoring functions and contrast with nonmentored counterparts’, Personnel Psychology, 45(3): 619–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1992.tb00863.x
    Clegg, S.R. and Gray, J.T. (1996) ‘Leadership research and embryonic industry: Harvesting competitive advantage’, in K.W.Parry (1996) (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 29–40.
    Cohen, E. and Tichy, N. (1997) ‘How leaders develop leaders’, Training and Development, 51(5): 58–73.
    Colins, C. and Chippendale, P. (1991) New Wisdom II: Values-Based Development. Brisbane: Acorn.
    Collins, J. (1999) ‘And the walls came tumbling down’, in F.Hesselbein, M.Goldsmith and I.Somerville (eds), Leading Beyond the Walls. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 19–28.
    Collins, J. (2001) ‘Level 5 leadership: The triumph of humility and fierce resolve’, Harvard Business Review, 79(1): 67–76.
    Collins, J. and Porras, J. (1994) Built to Last. New York: HarperCollins.
    Communal, C. and Senior, B. (1999) ‘National culture and management: Messages conveyed by British, French and German advertisements for managerial appointments’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 20(1): 26–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739910251161
    Complexity and Management Centre (2000) ‘Survey of complexity science and how it is being used in organisations and their management’. University of Hertfordshire. URL: http://www.herts.ac.uk/business/centres/cmc/pub8.htm, accessed August.
    Conger, J.A. (1989) The Charismatic Leader: Behind the Mystique of Exceptional Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R.N. (1987) ‘Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings’, Academy of Management Review, 12(4): 637–47.
    Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R.N. (1988) ‘Behavioral dimensions of charismatic leadership’, in J.A.Conger and R.N.Kanungo (eds), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 78–97.
    Conger, J.A. and Kanungo, R.N. (1994) ‘Charismatic leadership in organizations: Perceived behavioral attributes and their measurement’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(4): 439–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030150508
    Coulson-Thomas, C. (1992) ‘Strategic vision or strategic con? Rhetoric or reality?’, Long Range Planning, 25(1): 81–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301%2892%2990313-Q
    Cross, R. and Baird, L. (2000) ‘Technology is not enough: Improving performance by building organizational memory’, Sloan Management Review, 41(3): 69–78.
    Dansereau, F., Graen, G. and Haga, W.J. (1975) ‘A vertical dyad linkage approach to leadership within formal organizations: A longitudinal investigation of the role making process’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 13: 46–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2875%2990005-7
    de Vries, R.E, Roe, R.A. and Taillieu, T.C.B. (1998) ‘Need for supervision: Its impact on leadership effectiveness’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(4): 486–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886398344015
    Deming, W.E. (1993) The New Economics for Industry, Government, Education. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
    den Hartog, D.N, House, R.J, Hanges, P.J, Ruiz-Quintanilla, S.A. and Dorfman, P.W. (1999) ‘Culture specific and cross-culturally generalizable implicit leadership theories: Are attributes of charismatic/transformational leadership universally endorsed?’, Leadership Quarterly, 10(2): 219–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2899%2900018-1
    Donaldson, T. (1999) ‘Making stakeholder theory whole’, Academy of Management Review, 24(2): 237–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/259079
    Donaldson, T. and Preston, L.E. (1995) ‘The stakeholder theory of the corporation: Concepts, evidence, and implications’, Academy of Management Review, 20(1): 65–91.
    Douglas, C.A. and McCauley, C.D. (1999) ‘Formal developmental relationships: A survey of organizational practices’, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 10(3): 203–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.3920100302
    Drago, W.A. (1998) ‘Mintzberg's “pentagon” and organizational positioning’, Management Research News, 21(4/5): 30–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01409179810781491
    Drath, W.H. (1998) ‘Approaching the future of leadership development’, in C.D.McCauley, R.S.Moxley, and E.van Velsor (eds), The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 403–39.
    Drath, W.H. (2001) The Deep Blue Sea: Rethinking the Source of Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Dreher, G.F. and Ash, R.A. (1990) ‘A comparative study of mentoring among men and women in managerial, professional, and technological positions’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 75(5): 539–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.75.5.539
    DuBrin, A.J. (1998) Leadership: Research Findings, Practice and Skills,
    2nd edn
    . Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Duchon, D., Green, S. and Tabor, T. (1986) ‘Vertical dyad linkage: A longitudinal assessment of attitudes, measures and consequences’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1): 56–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.71.1.56
    Duerst-Lahti, G. and Kelly, R.M. (eds) (1995) Gender Power, Leadership and Governance. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Dunphy, D. and Stace, D. (1988) ‘Transformational and coercive strategies for planned organizational change’, Organization Studies, 9(3): 317–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068800900302
    Dunphy, D. and Stace, D. (1990) Under New Management: Australian Organisations in Transition. Sydney: McGraw-Hill.
    Dyer, J.H. and Nobeoka, K. (2000) ‘Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case’, Strategic Management Journal, 21(3): 345–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0266%28200003%2921:3%3C345::AID-SMJ96%3E3.0.CO;2-N
    Emery, F.E. and Trist, E.L. (1973) Toward a Social Ecology. New York, NY: Plenum.
    Emrich, C.G. (1999) ‘Context effects in leadership and perception’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(8): 991–1006. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/01461672992511007
    Estes, R. (1996) The Tyranny of the Bottom Line: Why Corporations Make Good People Do Bad Things. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Fagenson, E.A. (1989) ‘The mentor advantage: Perceived career/job experience of protègè vs. non-protéAgé’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10(4): 309–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.4030100403
    Fairholm, G.W. (1998a) Perspectives on Leadership. London: Quorum.
    Fairholm, G.W. (1998b) Values Leadership: Toward a New Philosophy of Leadership. New York, NY: Praeger.
    Farnham, A. (1993) ‘Mary Kay's lessons in leadership’, Fortune, 20(58): 60–4.
    Fayol, H. (1949) General and Industrial Management. London: Pitman.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1967) A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Fiedler, F.E. (1997) ‘Situational control and a dynamic theory of leadership’, in K.Grint (ed.), Leadership: Classical, Contemporary, and Critical Approaches. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 211–23.
    Fleischman, E.A. and Harris, E.F. (1962) ‘Patterns of leadership behavior related to employee grievances and turnover’, Personnel Psychology, 15: 43–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1962.tb01845.x
    Fondas, N. (1997) ‘Feminization unveiled: Management qualities in contemporary writings’, Academy of Management Review, 22(1): 257–82.
    Freeman, R.E. (1984) Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    French, J. and Raven, B.H. (1959) ‘The bases of social power’, in D.Cartwright (ed.), Studies of Social Power. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research. pp. 150–67.
    Frink, D.D. and Klimoski, R.J. (1998) ‘Toward a theory of accountability in organizations and human resources management’, Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 16: 1–51.
    Geletkanycz, M.A. and Hambrick, D.C. (1997) ‘The external ties of top executives: Implications for strategic choice and performance’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(4): 654–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393653
    Gemmill, G. and Oakley, J. (1992) ‘Leadership: An alienating social myth?’, Human Relations, 45(2): 113–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679204500201
    Gergen, K.J. (1997) ‘Social psychology as social construction: The emerging vision’, in C.McGarty and A.Haslam (eds), The Message of Social Psychology: Perspectives on Mind in Society. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Ghoshal, S. and Bartlett, C.A. (1998) The Individualized Corporation, London: Heinemann.
    Gilmore, T.N. and Shea, G.P. (1997) ‘Organizational learning and the leadership skill of time travel’, Journal of Management Development, 16(4): 302–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621719710164571
    Gleick, J. (1987) Chaos: Making a New Science. London: Cardinal.
    Goleman, D. (1995) Emotional Intelligence. New York, NY: Bantam.
    Goodson, J.R, McGee, G.W. and Cashman, J.F. (1989) ‘Situational leadership theory: A test of leadership prescriptions’, Group and Organizational Studies, 13(4): 446–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960118901400406
    Graeff, C. (1983) ‘The situational leadership theory: A critical review’, Academy of Management Review, 8(2): 285–91.
    Graeff, C. (1997) ‘Evolution of situational leadership theory – A critical review’, Leadership Quarterly, 8(2): 153–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2897%2990014-X
    Graen, G. and Cashman, J.F. (1975) ‘A role-making model of leadership in formal organizations: A developmental approach’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Leadership Frontiers. Kent, OH: Kent State University. pp. 143–65.
    Greenleaf, R.K. (1977) Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New York, NY: Paulist.
    Gregersen, H.B, Morrison, A.J. and Black, J.S. (1998) ‘Developing leaders for the global frontier’, Sloan Management Review, 40(1): 21–32.
    Grendstad, G. and Strand, T. (1999) ‘Organizational types and leadership roles’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 15(4): 385–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0956-5221%2898%2900023-2
    Grensing-Pophal, L. (1998) ‘Plays well with others’, Credit Union Management, May, 52–4.
    Gronn, P. (1995) ‘Greatness re-visited: The current obsession with transformational leadership’, Leading and Managing, 1(1): 14–27.
    Hambrick, D.C. and Mason, P.A. (1984) ‘Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers’, Academy of Management Review, 9(2): 193–206.
    Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C.K. (1989) ‘Strategic intent’, Harvard Business Review, 89(3): 63–76.
    Hay-McBer (1995) ‘Mastering Global Leadership: Hay/McBer International CEO Leadership Study’. Report issued by the Hay Group, McBer and Company Inc, Baston.
    Hede, A. and Wear, R. (1996) ‘Dimensions of political and organizational leadership’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 65–75.
    Heifetz, R.A. (1994) Leadership Without Easy Answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Helgesen, S. (1990) The Female Advantage: Women's Way of Leadership. New York, NY: Double Day/Currency.
    Henriques, I. and Sadorsky, P. (1999) ‘The relationship between environmental commitment and managerial perceptions of stakeholder importance’, Academy of Management Journal, 42(1): 87–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256876
    Herbert, I. (2000) ‘Knowledge is a noun, learning is a verb’, Management Accounting, 78(2): 68–9.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. (1969) ‘Life-cycle theory of leadership’, Training and Development Journal, 2(May): 6–34.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. (1982) Management of Organizational Behavior.
    4th edn
    . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Hersey, P. and Blanchard, K. (1996) ‘Great ideas revisited: Revisiting the life-cycle theory of leadership’, Training and Development, 50(1): 42–7.
    Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M. and Somerville, I. (eds) (1997) The Organization of the Future: The Drucker Foundation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Hesselbein, F., Goldsmith, M. and Somerville, I. (eds) (1999) Leading Beyond the Walls. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Hilb, M. (1997) Management by Mentoring: How to Develop Presidents. Neuwied: Luchterhand.
    Hilb, M. (1999) Integriertes Personal-Management: Ziele, Strategien, Instrumente,
    7th edn
    . Neuwied: Luchterhand.
    Hillman, A.J. and Hitt, M.A. (1999) ‘Corporate political strategy formulation: A model of approach, participation, and strategy decisions’, Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 825–42.
    Hirschhorn, L. (1988) The Workplace Within. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
    Hirschhorn, L. (1997) Reworking Authority: Leading and Following in the Post-Modern Organization. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
    Hochschild, A. (1997) Timebind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York, NY: Metropolitan.
    Hofstede, G.H. (1984) Culture's Consequences, International Differences in Work-Related Values. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G.H. (1991) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Hofstede, G.H. (1996) ‘An American in Paris: The influence of nationality on organization theories’, Organizational Studies, 17(3): 525–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069601700308
    Hollander, E.P. (1979) ‘Leadership and social exchange processes’, in K.Gergen, M.S.Greenberg and R.H.Willis (eds), Social Change: Advances in Theory and Research. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Holt, K. (1999) ‘Management and organization through 100 years’, Technovation, 19(3): 135–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4972%2898%2900113-8
    House, R.J. (1971) ‘A goal-path theory of leader effectiveness’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 16: 321–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2391905
    House, R.J. (1977) ‘A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press. pp. 189–207.
    House, R.J. and Dessler, G. (1974) ‘The goal-path theory of leadership: Some post hoc and a priori tests’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Contingency Approaches to Leadership. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press.
    House, R.J. and Mitchell, T.R. (1974) ‘Path-goal theory of leadership’, Contemporary Business, 3(4): 81–98.
    House, R.J. and Shamir, B. (1993) ‘Towards the integration of transformational, charismatic and visionary theories’, in M.M.Chemers and R.Ayman (eds), Leadership Theory and Research. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Howard, A. and Bray, D.W. (1988) Managerial Lives in Transition: Advancing Age and Changing Times. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
    Howell, J.P, Bowen, D.E, Dorfman, P.W., Kerr, S. and Podsakoff, P.M. (1990) ‘Substitutes for leadership: Effective alternatives to ineffective leadership’, Organizational Dynamics, 19(1): 21–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2890%2990046-R
    Hunt, D.M. and Michael, C. (1983) ‘Mentorships: A career training and development tool’, Academy of Management Review, 8(3): 475–85.
    Hunt, J.G. (1991) Leadership: A New Synthesis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Ichikawa, A. (1996) ‘Leadership as a form of culture: Its present and future states in Japan’, in R.M.Steers, L.W.Porter and G.A.Bigley (eds), Motivation and Leadership at Work.
    6th edn
    . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 455–68.
    Intagliata, J., Ulrich, D. and Smallwood, N. (2000) ‘Leveraging leadership competencies to produce leadership brand: Creating distinctiveness by focusing on strategy and results’, Human Resource Planning, 23(3): 12–23.
    Jacobs, D. and Singell, L. (1993) ‘Leadership and organizational performance: Isolating links between managers and collective success’, Social Science Research, 22(2): 165–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ssre.1993.1008
    Jacobs, T.O. and Jaques, E. (1990) ‘Military executive leadership’, in K.E.Clark and M.B.Clark (eds), Measures of Leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America. pp. 281–95.
    Johns, G. (1978) ‘Task moderators of the relationship between leadership style and subordinate responses’, Academy of Management Journal, 21(2): 319–25http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255766
    Jones, T.M. (1995) ‘Instrumental stakeholder theory: A synthesis of ethics and economics’, Academy of Management Review, 20(2): 404–437.
    Judge, W.Q. (1999) The Leader's Shadow: Exploring and Developing Executive Character. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Kantabutra, S. (2003) ‘An empirical examination of relationships between vision components, and customer and staff satisfaction in retail apparel stores in Sydney, Australia’. Unpublished PhD thesis, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.
    Kantabutra, S. and Avery, G.C. (2002a) ‘Proposed model for investigating relationships between vision components and business unit performance’, Journal of Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, 8(2): 22–39.
    Kantabutra, S. and Avery, G.C. (2002b) ‘Effective visions: Components and realization factors’, SASIN Journal of Management, 8(1): 33–49.
    Kaplan, R. and Norton, D. (1992) ‘The balanced scorecard – Measures that drive performance’, Harvard Business Review, 70(1): 71–9.
    Kerr, S., Schriesheim, C.A, Murphy, C.J. and Stogdill, R.M. (1974) ‘Toward a contingency theory of leadership based upon the consideration and initiating structure literature’, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 12: 62–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073%2874%2990037-3
    Kets de Vries, M.F.R. (1994) ‘The leadership mystique’, The Academy of Management Executive, 8(3): 73–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AME.1994.9503101181
    Kets de Vries, M.F.R. with Florent-Treacy, E. (1999) The New Global Leaders: Richard Branson, Percy Barnevik, David Simon and the Remaking of International Business. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kezar, A. (2000) ‘Pluralistic leadership: Incorporating diverse voices’, Journal of Higher Education, 71(6): 722–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2649160
    King, A.B. and Fine, G.A. (2000) ‘Ford on the line: Business leader reputation and the multiple-audience problem’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(1): 71–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105649260091017
    Kirkpatrick, S.A. and Locke, E.A. (1991) ‘Leadership: Do traits matter?’, Academy of Management Executive, 5(2): 48–60.
    Klimecki, R. and Lassleben, H. (1998) ‘Models of organizational learning: Indications from an empirical study’, Management Learning, 29(4): 405–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350507698294002
    Kotter, J.P. (1985) Power and Influence: Beyond Formal Authority. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Kotter, J.P. (1990) A Force for Change: How Leadership Differs from Management. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Kotter, J.P. and Heskett, J.L. (1992) Corporate Culture and Performance. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Kotter, J.P, Schlesinger, L.A. and Sathe, V. (1979) Organization: Text, Cases and Readings on the Management of Organizational Design and Change. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
    Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (1987) The Leadership Challenge: How to Get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kouzes, J.M. and Posner, B.Z. (1995) The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Kraatz, M.S. (1998) ‘Learning by association? Interorganizational networks and adaptation to environmental change’, Academy of Management Journal, 41(6): 621–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256961
    Kram, K.E. (1983) ‘Phases of the mentor relationship’, Academy of Management Journal, 26(4): 608–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255910
    Kram, K.E. (1985) ‘Improving the mentoring process’, Training and Development Journal, 39: 40–3.
    Krantz, J. (1990) ‘Lessons from the field: An essay on the crisis of leadership in contemporary organizations’, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 26(1): 49–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002188639002600105
    Kuhnert, K.W. (1994) ‘Transforming leadership: Developing people through delegation’, in B.M.Bass and B.J.Avolio (eds), Improving Organizational Effectiveness Through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 10–25.
    Lam, A. (2000) ‘Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: An integrated framework’, Organization Studies, 21(3): 487–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840600213001
    Lambert, L. (1995) The Constructivist Leader. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
    Larwood, L., Falbe, C.M, Kriger, M.R. and Miesling, P. (1995) ‘Structure and meaning of organizational vision’, Academy of Management Journal, 38(3): 740–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256744
    Lawler, E.E, III and Mohrman, S.A. (1989) ‘With HR help, all managers can practice high-involvement management’, Personnel, 66(4): 26–31.
    Lawrence, P.R. and Lorsch, J.W. (1967) Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.
    Leavitt, H.J. (2003) ‘Why hierarchies thrive’, Harvard Business Review, 81(3): 96–102.
    Lewis, D. (1996) ‘New perspectives on transformational leadership’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 17–28.
    Lieberson, S. and O'Connor, J.F. (1972) ‘Leadership and organizational performance: A study of large corporations’, American Sociological Review, 37(2): 117–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094020
    Lim, B. (1997) ‘Transformational leadership in the UK management culture’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18(6): 283–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739710176220
    Locke, E.A, Kirkpatrick, S., Wheeler, J.K., Schneider, J., Niles, K., Goldstein, H., Welsh, K. and Chah, D.O. (1991) The Essence of Leadership. New York, NY: Lexington Books.
    Lord, R.G. (1985) ‘An information processing approach to social perceptions, leadership and behavioral measurement in organizations’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 7:87–128.
    Lord, R.G. and Maher, K.J. (1991) ‘Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance’, People and Organizations, Vol. 1. Boston, MA: Unwin and Hyman.
    Maccobry, M. (2000) ‘Narcissistic leaders: The incredible pros, the inevitable cons’, Harvard Business Review, 78(1): 68–77.
    Mann, S. (1997) ‘Emotional labor in organizations’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18(1): 4–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739710156231
    Manz, C.C. (1986) ‘Self-leadership: Toward an expanded theory of self-influence in organizations’, Academy of Management Review, 11(3): 585–600.
    Manz, C.C. (1990) ‘Beyond self-managing work teams: Toward self-leading teams in the workplace’ in R.Woodman and W.Pasmore (eds), Research in Organizational Change and Development. Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.
    Manz, C.C. (1996) ‘Self-leading work teams: Moving beyond self-management myths’, in R.M.Steers, L.W.Porter and G.A.Bigley (eds), Motivation and Leadership at Work.
    6th edn
    . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 581–99.
    Manz, C.C. and Sims, H.P. (1989) SuperLeadership: Leading others to lead themselves. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
    Manz, C.C. and Sims, H.P, Jr. (1991) ‘Superleadership: Beyond the myth of heroic leadership’, Organizational Dynamics, 19(4): 18ff. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2891%2990051-A
    Masi, R.J. and Cooke, R.A. (2000) ‘Effects of transformational leadership on subordinate motivation, empowering norms, and organizational productivity’, International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 8(1): 16–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb028909
    Mayrhofer, W. (1997) ‘Of dice and men: High-flyers in German-speaking countries’, Career Development International, 2(7): 331–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13620439710187963
    McCauley, C.D. and Lombardo, M.M. (1990) ‘Benchmarks: An instrument for diagnosing managerial strengths and weaknesses’, in K.E.Clark and M.B.Clark (eds), Measures of Leadership. West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America. pp. 535–45.
    McCauley, C.D. and Young, D.P. (1993) ‘Creating developmental relationships: Roles and strategies’, Human Resource Management Review, 3(?): 219–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1053-4822%2893%2990014-U
    McClelland, D. (1973) ‘Testing for competence rather than intelligence’, American Psychologist, 28: 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034092
    McCullough, C. (1998a) The Song of Troy. London: Orion.
    McCullough, C. (1998b) Caesar. London: Arrow.
    McKinley, W., Mone, M.A. and Moon, G. (1999) ‘Determinants and development of schools in organizational theory’, Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 634–48.
    Meindl, J.R. (1998) ‘Invited reaction: Enabling visionary leadership’, Human Resource Development Quarterly, 9(1): 21–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrdq.3920090103
    Meindl, J.R. and Ehrlich, S.B. (1987) ‘The romance of leadership and the evaluation of organizational performance’, Academy of Management Journal, 30(1): 90–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255897
    Meindl, J.R., Ehrlich, S.B. and Dukerich, J.M. (1985) ‘The romance of leadership’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 30(1): 78–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392813
    Merry, U. (1995) Coping with Uncertainty: Insights from the New Sciences of Chaos, Self-Organization, and Complexity. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Merry, U. (1999) ‘Nonlinear organizational dynamics’, URL: http://pw2.netcom.com/~nmerry/art2.htm accessed August 2000.
    Miles, R. and Snow, C. (1978) Organizational Strategy, Structure, and Process. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Miller, D. (1990) ‘Organizational configurations: Cohesion, change, and prediction’, Human, Relations, 43(8): 771–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679004300805
    Miller, D. and Droge, C. (1986) ‘Psychological and traditional determinants of structure’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 31(4): 539–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392963
    Miller, D. and Friesen, P.H. (1980) ‘Momentum and revolution in organizational adaptation’, Academy of Management Journal, 23(4): 591–614. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255551
    Mintzberg, H. (1973a) The Nature of Managerial Work. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Mintzberg, H. (1973b) ‘Strategy-making in three modes’, California Management Review, 16(2): 44–53.
    Mintzberg, H. (1979) The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mintzberg, H. (1993) Structure in Fives: Designing Effective Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Mintzberg, H. (1994) The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Mintzberg, H. (1998) ‘Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals’, Harvard Business Review, 76(6): 140–7.
    Mintzberg, H. and van der Heyden, L. (1999) ‘Organigraphs: Drawing how companies really work’, Harvard Business Review, 77(5): 87–94.
    Mitchell, T.R, Agle, B.R. and Wood, D.J. (1997) ‘Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really counts’, Academy of Management Review, 22(4), 853–86.
    Mitroff, I.I. and Denton, E.A. (1999) ‘A study of spirituality in the workplace’, Sloan Management Review, 40(4): 83–92.
    Mitroff, I.I. and Pondy, L.R. (1978) ‘Afterthoughts on the leadership conference’, in M.W.McCall, Jr. and M.M.Lombardo (eds), Leadership: Where Else Can We Go?Dunbar, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 145–50.
    Moss Kanter, R. (1989) When Giants Learn to Dance – Mastering the Challenges of Strategy, Management and Careers in the 1990s. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
    Nadler, D. and Tushman, M. (1990) ‘Beyond the charismatic leader: Leadership and organizational change’, California Management Review, 32(2): 77–97.
    Nahavandi, A. (1997) The Art and Science of Leadership. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Nanus, B. (1992) Visionary Leadership: Creating a Compelling Sense of Direction for Your Organization. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Noe, R.A. (1991) ‘Mentoring relationships for employee development’, in J.W.Jones, B.D.Steffy and D.W.Bray (eds), Applying Psychology in Business: The Handbook for Managers and Human Resource Professionals. Lexington, MA: Heath. pp. 475–82.
    Noe, R.A. (1988) ‘An investigation of the determinants of successful assigned mentoring relationships’, Personnel Psychology, 41(3): 257–81.
    Norburn, D. and Birley, S. (1988) ‘The top management team and corporate performance’, Strategic Management Journal, 9(6): 225–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250090303
    O'Hara-Devereaux, M. and Johansen, R. (1994) Global Work: Bridging Distance, Culture and Time. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    O'Reilly, C. (1996) ‘Corporations, culture and commitment: Motivation and social control in organizations’, in in R.M.Steers, L.W.Porter and G.A.Bigley (eds), Motivation and Leadership at Work.
    6th edn
    . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 370–82.
    O'Shannassy, T. (2003) ‘Modern strategic management: Balancing strategic thinking and strategic planning for internal and external stakeholders’, Singapore Management Review, 25(1): 53ff.
    Ogden, S. and Watson, R. (1999) ‘Corporate performance and stakeholder management: Balancing shareholder and customer interests in the UK privatized water industry’, Academy of Management Journal, 42(5): 526–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256974
    Oswald, S., Mossholder, K. and Harris, S. (1994) ‘Vision salience and strategic involvement: Implications for psychological attachment to organization and job’, Strategic Management Journal, 15(6): 477–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250150605
    Oswald, S., Stanwick, P. and LaTour, M. (1997) ‘The effect of vision, strategic planning, and cultural relationships on organizational performance: A structural approach’, International Journal of Management, 14(3): 521–9.
    Parry, K.W. and Sarros, J.C. (1996) ‘An Australasian perspective on transformational leadership’, in K.W.Parry (ed.), Leadership Research and Practice: Emerging Themes and New Challenges. Melbourne: Pitman. pp. 105–11.
    Pearson, A.E. (1989) ‘Six basics for general managers’, Harvard Business Review, 67(4): 94–101.
    Perlow, L.A. (1999) ‘The time famine: Toward a sociology of work time’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(1): 57–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667031
    Peters, L.H., Hartke, D.D. and Pohlmann, J.T. (1985) ‘Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership: An application of the meta-analysis procedure of Schmitt and Hunter’, Psychological Bulletin, 97(2): 274–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.97.2.274
    Pfeffer, J. (1978) ‘The ambiguity of leadership’, in M.W.McClelland, Jr. and M.M.Lombardo (eds), Leadership: Where Else Can We Go?Dunbar, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 13–34.
    Pfeffer, J. (1992) ‘Understanding power in organizations’, reprinted in R.M.Steers, L.W.Porter and G.A.Bigley (eds), Motivation and Leadership at Work.
    6th edn
    . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 280–99.
    Pfeffer, J. (1998) ‘The ambiguity of leadership’, in M.W.McClelland, Jr. and M.M.Lombardo (eds), Leadership: Where Else Can We Go?Dunbar, NC: Duke University Press. pp. 13–34.
    Pfeffer, J. and Sutton, R.I. (1999) ‘Knowing “what” to do is not enough: Turning knowledge into action’, California Management Review, 42(1): 83–108.
    Phillips, R.L. and Hunt, J.G. (1992) ‘Strategic leadership: an introduction’, in R.L.Phillips and J.G.Hunt (eds), Strategic Leadership: A Multiorganizational-level Perspective. Westport, CT: Quarum.
    Pierce, C. (1994) ‘Executive competencies: Research issues, activities and responses’, Executive Development, 7(4): 18–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09533239410061815
    Porter, L.W. and Lawler, E.E. (1968) Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, IL: Irwin-Dorsey.
    Raelin, J. (2003) Creating Leadership Organizations: How to Bring out Leadership in Everyone. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Ragins, B.R. (1997) ‘Diversified mentoring relationships in organizations: A power perspective’, Academy of Management Review, 22(2): 482–521.
    Ragins, B.R. and Scandura, T.A. (1994) ‘Gender and the termination of mentoring relationships’, in 1994 Academy of Management Best Paper Proceedings. Dallas, TX: Academy of Management. pp. 361–65.
    Roberts, N. (1985) ‘Transforming leadership: A process of collective action’, Human Relations, 38(11): 1023–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678503801103
    Roethlisberger, E.J. and Dickson, W.J. (1939) Management and the Worker. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rokeach, M. (1973) The Nature of Human Values. New York, NY: Free Press.
    Rosenbach, W.E. (1993) ‘Mentoring: Empowering followers to be leaders’, in W.E.Rosenbach and R.L.Taylor (eds), Contemporary Issues in Leadership. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. pp. 141–51.
    Rost, J.C. (1991) Leadership for the Twenty-first Century. New York, NY: Praeger.
    Rothschild, J. and Whitt, J.A. (1986) The Cooperative Workplace: Potentials and Dilemmas of Organizational Democracy and Participation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rousseau, D. (1997) ‘Organizational behavior in the new organizational era’, Annual Review of Psychology, 48: 515–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.48.1.515
    Salancik, G.R. and Pfeffer, J. (1977) ‘Constraints on administrator discretion: The limited influence of mayors in city budgets’, Urban Affairs Quarterly, 12(4): 475–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/107808747701200405
    Salovey, P. and Mayer, J.D. (1990) ‘Emotional intelligence’, Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3): 185–211.
    Sashkin, M. (1988) ‘The visionary leader’, in J.A.Conger and R.N.Kanungo (eds), Charismatic Leadership: The Elusive Factor in Organizational Effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. pp. 122–60.
    Scandura, T.A. and Viator, R. (1994) ‘Mentoring in public accounting firms: An analysis of mentor-protégé relationships, mentoring functions, and protégé turnover intentions’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, 19(8): 717–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0361-3682%2894%2990031-0
    Schein, E.H. (1985) Organizational Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schein, E.H. (1992) Organizational Culture and Leadership.
    2nd edn
    . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schermerhorn, J.R. and Bond, M.H. (1997) ‘Cross-cultural leadership dynamics in collectivism and high power distance settings’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 18(4): 187–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739710182287
    Schriesheim, C.A. and Kerr, S. (1977) ‘Theories and measures of leadership: A critical appraisal of current and future directions’, in J.G.Hunt and L.L.Larson (eds), Leadership: The Cutting Edge. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois Press. pp. 51–6.
    Schriesheim, C.A. and Neider, L.L. (1989) ‘Leadership theory and development: The coming “new phase” ’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 10(6): 17–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001145
    Scott, S.G. and Lane, V.R. (2000) ‘A stakeholder approach to organizational identity’, Academy of Management Review, 25(1): 43–62.
    Senge, P.M. (1990a) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York, NY: Double Day/Currency.
    Senge, P.M. (1990b) ‘The leader's new work: Building learning organizations’, Sloan Management Review, 31(1): 7–23.
    Senge, P.M., Kleiner, A., Roberts, C., Ross, R.B. and Smith, B.J. (1994) The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization. London: Nicholas Brealey.
    Shamir, B. (1991) ‘The charismatic relationship: Alternative explanations and predictions’, Leadership Quarterly, 2: 81–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2891%2990024-V
    Shamir, B., House, R.J. and Arthur, M.B. (1993) ‘The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory’, Organization Science, 4(4): 577–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.4.4.577
    Silverhart, T.A. (1994) ‘It works: Mentoring drives productivity higher’, Managers, October: 14–5.
    Sims, H.P, Jr. and Lorenzi, P. (1992) The New Leadership Paradigm: Social Learning and Cognition in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sinclair, A. (1998) Doing Leadership Differently: Gender, Power and Sexuality in a Changing Business Culture. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.
    Spillane, R. and Spillane, L. (1998) ‘The two faces of authority: A critique’, Journal of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management, 5(2): 1–11.
    Stacey, R. (2000) ‘Excitement and tension at the edge of chaos’, University of Hertfordshire, Complexity and Management Centre, UK. URL: http://www.herts.ac.uk/business/centres/cmc/pub6.htm, accessed August.
    Steers, R.M., Porter, L.W. and Bigley, G.A. (eds) (1996) Motivation and Leadership at Work.
    6th edn
    . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Steiner, D.D. (1988) ‘Value perceptions in leader-member exchange’, Journal of Social Psychology, 128: 611–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1988.9922915
    Stewart, G.L. and Manz, C.C. (1995) ‘Leadership for self-managing work teams: A typology and integrative model’, Human Relations, 48(7): 747–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679504800702
    Stogdill, R.M. (1948) ‘Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature’, Journal of Psychology, 25: 35–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1948.9917362
    Strube, M.J. and Garcia, J.E. (1981) ‘A meta-analytical investigation of Fiedler's contingency model of leadership effectiveness’, Psychological Bulletin, 90(2): 307–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.90.2.307
    Sveiby, K. (2000) ‘The knowledge-focussed manager’, URL: http://www.sveiby.com.au/KnowledgeManagement.html accessed October.
    Takala, T. (1998) ‘Plato on leadership’, Journal of Business Ethics, 17(7): 785–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1005789531144
    Tan, J. (2000) ‘Knowledge management – Just more buzz words?’The British Journal of Administrative Management, 19 (March/April): 10–11.
    Tannenbaum, R. and Schmidt, W.H. (1973) ‘How to choose a leadership pattern’, Harvard Business Review, 51(3): 162–4, 166–8.
    Taylor, F.W. (1911) Principles of Scientific Management. New York, NY: Harper.
    Thomas, A.B. (1988) ‘Does leadership make a difference to organizational performance?’Administrative Science Quarterly, 33(3): 388–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392715
    Tichy, N.M. and Cohen, E. (1997) The Leadership Engine: How Winning Companies Create Leaders at All Levels. New York, NY: Harper Collins. pp. 57–81.
    Tichy, N.M. and Devanna, M.A. (1986) The Transformational Leader. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Tracey, J.B. and Hinkin, T.R. (1998) ‘Transformational leadership or effective managerial practice?’Group and Organization Management, 23(3): 220–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601198233002
    Trice, H.M. and Beyer, J.M. (1993) The Cultures of Work Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Truskie, S. (1990) The President/CEO Study: Leadership Behaviors, Skills, and Attributes of Executives Who Lead Corporate 1000 Companies. Pittsburgh, PA: Management Science and Development.
    Turner, J. (1999) ‘Spirituality in the workplace’, CA Magazine, 132(10): 41–2.
    Tvorik, S.J. and McGivern, M.H. (1997) ‘Determinants of organizational performance’, Management Decision, 35(6): 417–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251749710173797
    Vaill, P.B. (1989) Managing as a Performing Art. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Vecchio, R.P. (1987) ‘Situational Leadership Theory: An examination of a prescriptive theory’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 72(3): 444–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.72.3.444
    Vroom, V. (1964) Work and Motivation. New York, NY: Wiley.
    Vroom, V. and Jago, A.G. (1988) The New Leadership: Managing Participation in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Vroom, V. and Yetton, P.W. (1973) Leadership and Decision Making. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
    Waldman, D.A. and Yammarino, F.J. (1999) ‘CEO charismatic leadership: Levels-of-management and levels-of-analysis effects’, Academy of Management Review, 24(2): 266–85.
    Warnecke, H.-J. (1993) Revolution der Unternehmenskultur – das Fraktale Unternehmen. Berlin: Springer.
    Wasielewski, P. (1985) ‘The emotional basis of charisma’, Symbolic Interaction, 8(2): 207–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/si.1985.8.2.207
    Weber, M. (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, (T.Parsons, trans.). New York, NY: Free Press.
    Weber, M. (1978) Economy and Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Weick, K. (1991) ‘The vulnerable system: An analysis of the Teneriffe air disaster’, in P.J.Frost, L.F.Moore, M.R.Louis, C.C.Lundberg and J.Martin (eds), Reframing Organizational Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Weick, K.E. (1995) Sense-making in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Westley, F. and Mintzberg, H. (1989) ‘Visionary leadership and strategic management’, Strategic Management Journal, 10 (Summer): 17–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250100704
    Wexley, K.N., Alexander, R.A., Greenwalt, J.P. and Couch, M.A. (1980) ‘Attitudinal congruence and similarity as related to interpersonal evaluations in manager-subordinate dyads’, Academy of Management Journal, 23(2): 320–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255434
    Wheatley, M.J. (1992) Leadership and the New Science. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Wheatley, M.J. (1999) Leadership and the New Science: Discovering Order in a Chaotic World,
    2nd edn
    . San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
    Wilson, D.D. and Collier, D.A. (2000) ‘An empirical investigation of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award causal model’, Decision Sciences, 31(2): 361–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2000.tb01627.x
    Wilson, J.A. and Elman, N.S. (1990) ‘Organizational benefits of mentoring’, Academy of Management Executive, 4(4): 88–93.
    Wolff, M.F. (1999) ‘In the organization of the future, competitive advantage will lie with inspired employees’, Research Technology Management, 42(4): 2–4.
    Worrall, L. and Cooper, G.L. (1999) ‘Working patterns and working hours: Their impact on UK managers’, Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 20(1): 6–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437739910251125
    Yammarino, F.J. (1997) ‘Models of leadership for sales management’, The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 17(2): 43–56.
    Yammarino, F.J. and Dubinsky, A.J. (1994) ‘Transformational leadership theory: Using levels of analysis to determine boundary conditions’, Personnel Psychology, 47(4): 787–810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1994.tb01576.x
    Yammarino, F.J., Spangler, W.D. and Bass, B.M. (1993) ‘Transformational leadership and performance: A longitudinal investigation’, Leadership Quarterly, 4(1): 81–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/1048-9843%2893%2990005-E
    Yukl, G. (1981) Leadership in Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Yukl, G. (1994) Leadership in Organizations,
    3rd edn
    . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Yukl, G. (1998) Leadership in Organizations,
    4th edn
    . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Yukl.G, Kim, H. and Falbe, C. (1996) ‘Antecedents of influence outcomes’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 81(3): 309–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.81.3.309
    Zaheer, S, Albert, S. and Zaheer, A. (1999) ‘Time scales and organizational theory’, Academy of Management Review, 24(4): 725–41.
    Zaleznik, A. (1989) The Managerial Mystique: Restoring Leadership in Business. New York, NY: Harper and Row.
    Zey, M. (1991) The Mentor Connection: Strategic Alliances in Corporate Life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website