Understanding Families: A Global Introduction


Linda McKie & Samantha Callan

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part 1: Introducing Families

    Part 2: Research and Policy

    Part 3: Families in Action

    Part 4: Conclusions

  • SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups, and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com


    View Copyright Page


    This book is dedicated to:

    My daughter Laura, mother Irene, father James, sister Ann and her family Glenn, Scott and Katie – for your energy, enthusiasm and pursuit of the important things in life!


    My husband Paul, children Elizabeth and Daniel, father Frank, sister Catrina, stepmother Moira, brother Peter and mother-in-law Anita – for all they have done and said to help me understand families.


    To colleagues at the Centre for Research in Families and Relationships (http://www.crfr.ac.uk) for their support during the writing and production of this book. As the Centre celebrates its tenth anniversary we look forward to future collaborations.

    Linda and Samantha

    About the Authors

    Linda McKie is Professor of Sociology, Glasgow Caledonian University and Associate Director, Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, University of Edinburgh. In 2004 she was elected to the Academy of Social Sciences. In addition to teaching courses on families, social theory, work, and research methods she co-ordinates a research programme on organizations, work and care (see http://www.organisationsworkandcare.org). Linda has strong links with a range of charities and is currently a trustee for Evaluation Support Scotland, the Institute of Rural Health and a co-opted trustee for the veterans charity, Erskine. In 2009 she qualified as a Certified Member of the Institute of Fundraising. Linda has published widely on the topics of families, gender, work and organizations. Recent relevant publications include Interdependency and Care Over the Lifecourse, with Sophia Bowlby, Susan Gregory and Isobel MacPherson (Routledge, 2010), Families in Society: Relationships and Boundaries, with Sarah Cunningham-Burley (Policy Press, 2005) and Families, Violence and Social Change (Open University Press, 2005).

    Samantha Callan is a published academic and honorary research fellow at Edinburgh University, based at the Centre for Research on Families and Relationships. She works with a broad spectrum of UK and international non-governmental family organizations and academics in her current role as a family policy specialist. She chairs major policy reviews for the Westminster-based Centre for Social Justice and advises government and opposition parties on issues concerning family life, children's early years and mental health. She is a frequent contributor to media, parliamentary and policy debates on these subjects. She is first author of the family volumes of Breakdown Britain (Centre for Social Justice, 2006) and Breakthrough Britain: Ending the Costs of Social Breakdown (Centre for Social Justice, 2007) and of Breakthrough Britain: The Next Generation (Centre for Social Justice, 2008). She also co-edited, with Harry Benson, What Works in Relationship Education? (Doha International Institute for Family Studies and Development, 2009).


    This book is intended to be as accessible as possible given that it aims to be an introductory text for students from a wide range of disciplines. With this in mind it was essential that fresh eyes scoured every page to check that ideas and material were clearly expressed and that we had not assumed prior knowledge of the field. Our ‘critical readers’ Ingrid Biese and Anita Callan, from Finland and England, respectively, performed this role superbly and provided many helpful comments within very tight timescales. The anonymous peer reviewer offered useful insights and ideas on clarity and content. We adopted and adapted most of their suggestions and thank them very much.

    Laura Keeler and Cheryl Hobbs worked with us closely in the editing stages of the manuscript. Both ensured we were kept on ‘our toes’ in this process, reminded us of the goal when the journey seemed long and tortuous, and offered practical and positive support in numerous ways. In the final stages Maria Breslin got us through to submission. Many thanks!

    We have both found the encouragement and practical support of staff at the Centre for Research on Families and Relationships (CRFR) based at the University of Edinburgh (where Linda is an associate director and Samantha is an honorary fellow) to be invaluable. In this centre of excellence for family studies, many insightful comments are made in everyday interactions. These have served to enrich a publication as wide ranging as this one intended to be.

    Similarly, many stimulating discussions have taken place with colleagues at the Westminster thinktank, the Centre for Social Justice, where Samantha is a Chairman-in-Residence. She has also benefited from many conversations with politicians and policy makers across the political spectrum, and from (Westminster) Houses of Parliament, devolved assemblies and local authorities. Interaction over several years with academic and political colleagues from Australia, the USA, Europe, the Nordic countries and the Arab world have all helped to prevent parochialism from creeping into her work.

    The Department of Social Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, funded a sabbatical semester for Linda and the School of Health in Social Science, University of Edinburgh, co-hosted Linda's sabbatical time at CRFR. While there, Isobel MacPherson ably covered her teaching and along with colleagues in social sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University took up any slack. We would like to thank the Department of Social Sciences for support throughout the production of the book.

    A book is a team effort. Many of those engaged in this process are not fully aware of their membership of the said team and the academic, practical and everyday support they provided. We would like to thank Allan Alstead, Ella Anderson, Rocco Conforti, Liz Jagger, Marjut Jyrkinen, Adrian Kidd, Lydia Lewis, Nancy Lombard, Tim May, Gavin Moreton and the many colleagues, friends and family members who supported us while completing this book. You can rest easy now; we are done! Until the next time …

    Last, but not least, a heartfelt thanks to Katherine Haw and Jai Seaman of Sage, who kept us going through thick and thin. Their energy and support helped us to continue when the whole task seemed a chore and kept us focused on the final output of this book.

    All errors remain those of the authors but there would have been many more without the input of the colleagues and friends noted above.

    List of Acronym

    AAHMIAfrican American Healthy Marriage Initiative
    AIDSacquired immune deficiency syndrome
    ARTassisted reproductive technology
    ESRCEconomic and Social Research Council
    ESSEuropean Social Survey
    EUEuropean Union
    GDPgross domestic product
    GUSGrowing up in Scotland
    HIVhuman immunodeficiency virus
    ILOInternational Labour Organization
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    LATliving apart together
    LGBTlesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender
    MDGMillennium Development Goals, UN
    MMRmaternal mortality rate
    NGOnon-governmental organization
    ODIOverseas Development Institute
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    TSOLtotal social organization of labour
    UNUnited Nations
    UNHRCUnited Nations Human Rights Commission
    WBWorld Bank
    WHOWorld Health Organization

    How to Use this Book

    We have written a book with content and in a format we hope will be amenable to readers new to the topic. To ease the reader's progress through the book we have used visual aids as well as an accessible writing style.

    Illustrations of the subjects and concepts introduced in the main body of the text and material to which we want to give prominence, so that it is less easily glanced over in the reading, are pulled out into several types of boxes.

    Where themes are revisited elsewhere in the book we have made interconnections explicit using ‘signposting arrows’ as illustrated below.

    When we think the reader could benefit from pausing and reflecting on the material under discussion we have inserted a ‘stop and think’ question mark:

    A summary is provided at the end of each chapter with a short section titled ‘Explore Further’, which offers recommendations for further reading and the links to relevant websites.

    In addition, the glossary at the end of the book gives brief definitions of all the key terms and ideas.

    We have consciously avoided a ‘formulaic’ approach, the presentation of a compendium of facts or a generalized commentary that tends towards the simplification of social phenomena, and does not require critical thinking on the part of the reader.

    Paradoxically the familiarity with the subject that we have been trying to foster can challenge this aspiration because our very experiences of families and relationships can make these social phenomena as an academic subject appear ‘commonsense’ and straightforward and can lead to them being interpreted and discussed in simplistic ways.

    We have sought at all points to draw the reader into the subject in ways which stimulate ideas and internal debate, employing facts and commentary to serve that purpose.

  • Glossary

    Abuse: Physical, sexual and verbal acts with a high probability of causing long-term harm to the recipient, who may be a child or a partner.

    Affinal relationship (or affinity): Refers to people who are related by marriage (or legally recognized partnership) ties. A relative by marriage is an affine. There are three types of affinity. Direct affinity exists when a couple are married or in a legally recognized relationship. Secondary affinity exists between a spouse and the other spouse's relatives by marriage, and collateral affinity is between a spouse and the relatives of the other spouse's relatives.

    Bilateral descent: The kinship organizing system in societies where rights and obligations are based on and recognized as existing between relations on the mother's and father's side of the family (in contrast to unilineal descent systems). Bilateral kinship systems are basic to Western culture but from a global perspective are comparatively rare.

    Birth rate: Typically expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 women of child-bearing age.

    Breadwinner: Any person in the family who earns some or all of the household income on a regular basis.

    Bride wealth: A payment in goods or property, or a combination of both, made to the bride's family by the husband's family.

    Cohabitation: Living together in a sexual and economic relationship without having undergone a wedding ceremony or a registered marriage.

    Cohort: All those persons who were born within a highly limited span of years and who, therefore, from birth to death experience the same national events, moods, and trends at similar ages.

    Collateral kinship: Refers to a relative descended from the same biological pool but in a different line on the family tree, for example one's uncle (father's brother, mother's brother, father's/mother's sister's husband) or nephew (sister's son, brother's son, wife's brother's son, wife's sister's son, husband's sister's son).

    Community: A form of social organization that gives people a sense of shared interest in and belonging in some form to a larger group either geographically or as an identity.

    Conjugal relationship: A heterosexual partnership traditionally established through legal marriage, but in many societies cohabitation can now offer a basis to kinship that has some similarities. The conjugal family of parents and their dependent children is often referred to now as a nuclear family.

    Consanguineous relationship(or consanguinity): Holds where people are biologically or blood related. A consanguine is a relative by birth in contrast to in-laws related by marriage ('affines') and step-relatives. A consanguineal family consists of a parent, his or her children, and other people usually related by blood.

    Crude divorce rate: The number of registered divorces in a given year per 1,000 of the population.

    Crude marriage rate: The number of marriages registered during the calendar year per 1,000 of the population.

    Demographic changes: Key changes to the population which impact on the family. For example, changes can include delayed pregnancy and marriage, a declining or burgeoning fertility rate and the ageing of the population.

    Demography: The social scientific study of human populations, which is particularly concerned with births and deaths, marriages/cohabitation and divorce/separation.

    Dependent children: A dependant is someone defined as a child who is sustained by another person, such as his or her parents or guardians.

    Development: The degree of industrialization, health, welfare and education of a nation. Development measures also consider the life expectancy of a nation's citizens and the extent to which they have clean (drinkable) water and an adequate income.

    Disability: A physical or mental inability to do something that most other people would consider normal, or an impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

    Divorce: The formal legal termination of a marriage that has been legally constituted.

    Dowry: Goods or property, or a combination of both, that the bride brings with her, from her family, into the new family she forms on marriage.

    Dual-income families: Both parents are involved in the labour market, as opposed to one assuming childcare and other domestic roles to the exclusion of paid work (typically the mother) and the other earning all of the household income (typically the father).

    Egalitarian: Another word for equality. When used with reference to the family it implies symmetry in roles, status and division of labour for both members of the conjugal couple.

    Empirical: The objective measuring and testing of social phenomena leading to the production of statistical and other data.

    Endogamy: Marriage between people of the same social category or group and, conversely, the prohibition or strong discouragement of marriage or sexual relations outside one's social group.

    Ethnicity: This is a term used to describe a category for describing collective identities. Ethnic groups share a distinct set of beliefs and cultures based on historical or geographical origins.

    Exogamy: Marriage between people from different social categories or groups, whether defined by religion, caste or locality.

    ‘Families we live with’: Term associated with John Gillis (2004: 989) to describe our daily and actual experiences of family life, in contrast to ‘families we live by’, which refers to ideals we hold for our family life, however unrealized these might be.

    Family: A family is generally based on marriage, intimate partnerships, biological descent, and adoption. It is a small group of people who share a distinct sense of identity and responsibility for each other. Commitment to family members generally outweighs commitments to others.

    Family, beanpole: In many minority world societies, where people live longer but have fewer children (so each generation has fewer siblings), and family trees of living relatives are becoming longer and thinner, sometimes extending to four generations.

    Family, blended: Similar to but not the same as a step-family – a couple family that contains two or more children, at least one of whom is the natural child of both members of the couple, and at least one is the stepchild of either of the couple.

    Family breakdown: When one or more members of the family, generally adults, leave the family relationship and also often the family home.

    Family cohesion: Individual activities, and policies and practices that sustain and support members of families to stay together and support each other.

    Family, intact: A couple family containing at least one child who is the biological or adopted child of both members of the couple, and no child who is the stepchild of either member of the couple. (See alsofamily, blended and family, step).

    Family, matrifocal: A nuclear family without an adult male functioning as a husband/father, who may be missing due to death, separation from the mother, divorce, abandonment or because of the need to migrate to find employment. The mother raises her children more or less alone and subsequently has the major role in their socialization (such families are also referred to as ‘matricentric’).

    Family, nuclear and extended: A family is a group of people sharing close personal relationships that endure across generations and link people in the past, present and future. A household of two generations, generally parents and children is commonly referred to as the nuclear family. An extended family incorporates three or more generations vertically, grandparents, grandchildren and great-grandparents and children, and horizontally, aunts and uncles.

    Family of choice: A phrase used to describe a family structure created often but not exclusively by non-heterosexuals, which emphasizes community and mutual support through loving and caring relationships rather than biological connectedness.

    Family of origin: The family into which an individual was born. Sometimes also called one's family of orientation, although if the birth family breaks down through the end of the parents' couple relationship, or the child is given up for adoption, the new family of which the individual is part becomes the family of orientation.

    Family of procreation: The family in which a person has his or her own children, although some family units are formed by couples where there is no intention to raise children either because of voluntary childlessness, infertility or because the family unit is based on a same-sex relationship.

    Family policy: Set of policies geared towards supporting or strengthening the functions families carry out. These are, according to the UN Programme on the Family (2009), reproduction, care, emotional support and intergenerational solidarity (the close interpersonal ties seen across two or more generations within families, characterized by interdependence and mutual support).

    Family practices: Term developed by David Morgan (1996: 190) which he defined thus: ‘practices often little fragments of daily life which are part of the normal taken-for-granted existence of practitioners. Their significance derives from their location in wider systems of meaning.’

    Family, processes: The functions carried out by family members, or the dynamics of the relationships in the family structure.

    Family, reconstituted: Families where one or both partners has separated or divorced and has formed a new relationship with a second partner, taking with them some or all of their children. (See alsofamilies, step.)

    Family, stem: Narrow nuclear family, descended over generations. Similar to family, beanpole.

    Family, step: A term often used interchangeably with reconstituted families. A step-family is a family in which one or both members of the couple have children from a previous relationship.

    Family strategies: Term used to refer to how families create and shape their responses to change.

    Family structures: This term is used to describe how families are composed or how families are formed.

    Family, traditional: Heterosexual couple, married, living with their children in a cohesive and stable family unit.

    Family, transnational: A family in which members live in different countries and possibly continents.

    Fertility rate: Typically expressed as the number of live births per 1,000 women of childbearing age.

    Fictive kinship: Practice of referring to close family friends using terms associated with family membership such as aunts or uncles, sisters or brothers.

    Formal care: Care that is regulated by statutory bodies and generally takes place from the recipient's home. The main types of formal care include before and/or after school care, long day care, family day care, occasional care and preschool. It also involves all types of residential care establishments (both public and private) and children placed in formal fostering or under guardianship.

    Functionalism: Perspective that dominated sociological thinking until the 1960s which stressed the importance of the ‘functional fit’ of the institutions that make up society (particularly the family) and held that social events are best explained in terms of the functions they perform – that is, the contributions they make to the continuity of a society. Functionalists viewed society as a complex system whose various parts work in a relationship to each other in a way that needs to be understood.

    Functions: The purpose of an aspect or unit of society (such as the family) or the activity it carries out which meets individual or wider social needs. The family as a basic social unit performs essential functions for its members (such as socialization and physical care) and for society by reproducing the next generation and thus ensuring continuity.

    Gender: Social expectations surrounding appropriate behaviour for the members of each sex. Gender is often wrongly used to refer to physical differences between men and women (which should correctly be attributed to sex). Gender refers to socially determined traits of what it means to be masculine and feminine. The study of gender relations has become one of the most important areas of sociology in recent years.

    Global care chains: A term developed by Hochschild (2003b) to refer to the links between people across the globe which are based upon paid and unpaid care work. The so-called outsourcing of care and domestic work takes place on national and transnational scales and involves the movement of workers – most often women many of whom leave behind dependants – who migrate from rural to urban, cross border (e.g. Mexico to California) or cross continents (Philippines to USA). Some economies are dependent upon the return of resources from these migrant workers.

    Globalization: Term applied to the process of increasing global interconnectedness and growing interdependence between different peoples, regions and countries in the world as social and economic relationships reach across the world.

    Heteronormative: The cultural bias favouring opposite-sex relationships and opposing same-sex relationships of a sexual nature. To the extent the former are viewed as normal and the latter are not, lesbian and gay relationships are subject to a heteronormative bias.

    Heterosexual: Social and sexual behaviour, practices, and identity based on a primary preference or desire for the opposite sex.

    Homosexual: Social and sexual practices describing sexual attraction towards, and responsiveness to, members of the same sex.

    Household: A group of two or more related or unrelated people who usually reside in the same dwelling and who make common provision for food or other essentials for living; or a person living in a dwelling who makes provision for his or her own food and other essentials for living without combining with any other person.

    Household strategies: Term used to describe how members of a household create and shape their responses to everyday activities and change.

    Hypothesis: An idea, or an educated guess, about a given state of affairs or a relationship between two different variables. A hypothesis is proposed to form the basis for research or empirical testing in order to prove or disprove what it states.

    Ideology: A shared system of beliefs and values defining and justifying a particular way of life as opposed to other ways of living. As these ideas are talked about and become incorporated into debates, policies and activities, over time they become accepted as providing a dominant view. Many argue that ideologies are used as a screen to inequalities and structures that create and justify unequal relationships. Ideologies present differences and inequalities as inevitable and universal.

    Individualism: Broadly speaking this refers to any set of ideas emphasizing the primary importance of the individual and the individual's interests and the value attached to individual freedom and individual choice. The philosophy of individualism is frequently contrasted with collectivism, where the collective rather than the individual good is paramount. Some thinkers express concern that individualism has become excessive to the detriment of strong and stable families.

    Industrialization: Industrialization, one of the main sets of processes influencing the social world over the past two centuries, is said to take place when a culture or a region becomes more economically dependent on factory/manufacturing employment and large-scale production than on farming. It is paralleled by the process of urbanization. The tiny proportion of the population working in agriculture presents a major contrast with pre-industrial countries.

    Infant mortality rate: Typically expressed as the number of deaths of infants in their first year of life per 1,000 population.

    Informal care: Regular and sustained care and assistance provided by a person, such as a family member, friend or neighbour to the person requiring support, usually on an unpaid basis.

    Interview: A research method that involves asking people questions, often on a one-to-one basis. The process of interviewing can be structured where all the questions are written down in advance, or unstructured, where the interview is like a conversation.

    Lifecourse: The series of social and family-oriented positions through which a person moves during the course of his or her life. This can be highly individualized in societies where it has become less common to follow a standard pattern or lifecycle, in which a sequence of stages are followed in a particular order.

    ‘Local extended family’: Families with much contact with extended kin facilitated and reinforced by the nearness or geographical proximity of such kin.

    Lone person: A single person who makes provision for him or herself without combining with any other person to form part of a multi-person household. The lone person may live in a dwelling alone or share a dwelling with another individual or family.

    Longitudinal study: A study that follows a cohort of people through a number of years of their lives, thus tracking changes in their lives and the effects of early events on later life.

    Majority world: What has often been called the ‘Third World’ is the majority world with most of the global population and landmass (Punch, 2003). (See also Minority world)

    Marriage, arranged: When the marital partner is not chosen by the prospective bride or groom (as in what is often referred to as a ‘love’ marriage) but by others, usually their parents, although the right to veto or to choose partners with parental agreement is now common.

    Marriage, forced: When individuals are made to marry someone against their will usually under threat of violent and/or abusive consequences or social shunning if they refuse to comply.

    Marriage or marital status: An individual's position in a set of social categories defined in relation to marriage. Such statuses include single (never married), cohabiting (living together without being married), married, separated (from a marriage or other partner), divorced (where the marriage has been legally ended) and widowed (having experienced the death of a marriage partner).

    Marxism: Theoretical perspective linked to the writings of Karl Marx that places a major emphasis upon the conflict that exists between social classes, categories of people divided according to their type of labour and ownership of wealth. In the capitalist system the people who own the means of economic production exploit the people who work for them for wages. Families are also exploited by capitalism as they undertake the reproduction of future workers and sustain current and former workers. (See also Majority world)

    Matrilineal descent: The kinship organizing system which traces ancestral descent through the mother's (maternal) line. One of two types of unilineal descent.

    Minority world: A term used to describe more affluent societies, including those of North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and parts of Latin America, which are in the statistical minority of the world. (See also Majority world)

    Monogamy: A form of marriage involving two people. Serial monogamy is becoming a common feature of some societies due to separation and divorce and subsequent re-partnering/remarriage.

    Neolocal residence: A living arrangement in which a newly formed couple, married or otherwise, establishes a residence independent of both families of origin. In societies where the couple are expected to live with or very near to the wife's or husband's kin this is known as matrilocal and patrilocal residence, respectively.

    Norms (or normative guidelines): Rules of behaviour which reflect a culture's values and expectations, either prescribing a given type of behaviour, or forbidding it. Norms are always reinforced by sanctions of one kind or another, varying from informal disapproval to physical punishment or even execution.

    One-parent family: A family led by a single parent with at least one dependent or non-dependent child (regardless of age) who is also usually resident in the same household. A one-parent family may include any number of other dependent children, non-dependent children and other related individuals. Also known as lone-parent family or single-parent family. (See alsoFamily and Family, matrifocal.)

    Patriarchy: The processes of male domination.

    Patrilineal descent: The kinship organizing system which traces ancestral descent through the father's (paternal) line. One of two types of unilineal descent.

    Politics: The term politics is generally applied to behaviour within civil governments. Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. Politics is also evident in other group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions.

    Policy: A policy is typically described as a deliberate plan of action to guide decisions and achieve (a) rational outcome(s).

    Polyandry: A form of marriage involving simultaneous and socially accepted relations between one woman and two or more men.

    Polygamy: A type of marriage involving three or more people.

    Polygyny: A form of marriage involving simultaneous and socially accepted relations between one man and two or more women.

    Population centre: An area where people are concentrated, such as towns or cities.

    Positivism: The term used for knowledge that is thought to be disciplined, empirical, and scientific. Knowledge that emerges from research based upon positivism is considered to be free from bias that can emerge from organizations and beliefs, for example, political parties and governments, religious groups and or communities.

    Post-industrial society: A term to describe the move from economic activity based on the production of goods through manufacturing and heavy industry, to services and knowledge/information businesses.

    Pre-modern period: Broad term that refers to agricultural and usually pre-literate societies before they have undergone a period of modernity (industrialization and urbanization).

    Principle of stratified diffusion: Term associated with Willmott and Young to describe how traits and characteristics of higher social classes become copied by lower social classes over time.

    Purposive sampling: This process is the selection of a particular group of people on purpose. Popular with qualitative research, the variables according to which the sample is chosen are driven by the research questions.

    Qualitative: This refers to research that is concerned with meaning and emotions.

    Qualitative method: This involves the collection of meanings, collected from interviews, diaries, letters and observation. It is usually richer and more detailed than quantitative data, but difficult to determine how representative it is as there is a danger of subjectivity and samples tend to be small.

    Quantifiable: Where findings from research can be measured in statistical form.

    Quantitative: This refers to research concerned with numerical and statistical data.

    Quantitative method: This involves the collection of numerical data, collected from questionnaires and observation. It generates data that can be manipulated mathematically and statistically. Information generated provides characteristics and trends but will offer limited understanding as to why people act as they do or how they feel about experiences and issues.

    Race: The term used to describe the social construction of categories based on observable physical and cultural characteristics. The use of this term is often predicated on supposed biological differences which are thought to lead to social differences.

    Random sample: This is a group of people chosen on the basis that everyone in a given population has an equal chance of being selected.

    Reductionism: Practice of treating everyone within a social group as having similar characteristics.

    Reflexivity: Reflexivity includes both a subjective process of self-consciousness inquiry and the study of social behaviour with reference to theories about social relationships. In sociology it usually refers to the capacity of an individual to recognize their place in social structures and the impact of that on their interpretation and analysis of data and theories.

    Relative poverty: Lacking the things that others in your culture expect to be able to afford.

    Representativeness: The extent to which a small group can be said to reflect the social characteristics of a larger group from which it is drawn.

    Research strategy: The methodological approach to undertaking research.

    Rite of passage: A ceremony or significant event marking a milestone in the lifecycle, such as coming of age, graduation, marriage, leaving school.

    Ritual: Specific behaviour that has significant meaning.

    Same sex: Members of a single sex; often used to describe the partnership of homosexual men or women.

    Social: Broad term relating to people and their interaction and engagement with each other

    Social cohesion: When there is a strong bonding and sense of belonging within a group of people or society.

    Social control: The way in which people's behaviour is affected by the social rules of the cultures in which they live.

    Social policy: The guidelines and interventions for the changing, maintenance or creation of living conditions that are conducive to human welfare. Social policies focus on social issues.

    Social trend: Term is used to describe an observable pattern occurring within a social context.

    Stereotype: A commonly held, public belief about specific social groups, or types of individual.

    Stratification, economic: Marxist idea that society is divided in economic terms, based on relationship to the means of production.

    Structure, formal: External influences that have established rules and policies, such as government, legal system, etc.

    Structure, informal: External influences that are fluid and flexible in their impact, such as peer group, subcultures, etc.

    Subculture: A small group of people with different norms and values from mainstream society.

    Subsistence: A form of living in poverty where only basic necessities are consumed.

    Survey: A study technique involving research of a large number of people.

    Survey design: The methodological construction used in undertaking a survey.

    Texting: The exchange of brief written messages between mobile phones over cellular networks.

    Theory: A set of ideas, offering an explanation, usually based on reasoned evidence.

    Tradition: Social behaviour that celebrates certain norms and values associated with the past.

    Tweeting: Twitter is a social networking and micro-blogging service that enables its users to send and read messages known as tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the author's profile page and delivered to the author's subscribers, who are known as followers.

    Unilineal descent: Where social group formation and membership recognizes and is based on relations on either the mother's side or the father's side but not both.


    Administration for Children and Families (2010) The healthy marriage initiative, available at http://www.acf.hhs.gov/healthymarriage/about/hispanic_hhmi.htm (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Aghajanian, A. (1986) ‘Some notes on divorce in Iran’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 48 (4): 749–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352567
    Allan, G. (1985) Family Life. Domstic Roles and Social Organisation. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
    Allan, G. and Crow, G. (2001) Families, Households and Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Allan, G.A., Hawker, S. and Crow, G. (2011) Stepfamilies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230308671
    Almond, B. (2006) The Fragmenting Family. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Amato, P.R. and Previti, D. (2003) ‘People's reasons for divorcing: gender, social class, the life course, and adjustment’, Journal of Family Issues, 24(5): 602–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X03024005002
    American Heritage Dictionary (2000) Dictionary of the English Language. Orlando: Houghton Mifflin Company, available at http://www.thefreedictionary.com/politics (accessed 9 April 2011).
    American Psychological Association (2009) ‘Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls’, available at http://www.apa.org/pi/wpo/sexualization.html (accessed 5 June 2011).
    Amnesty International (2010) Deadly delivery: the maternal health care crisis in the USA. London: Amnesty International Publications 2010.
    Anderson, M. (1980) Approaches to the History of the Western Family 1500–1914. Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
    Antonucci, T.C., Arjouch, K.J. and Janevic, M.R. (2003) ‘The effect of social relations with children on the education-health link in men and women aged 40 and over’, Social Science and Medicine, 56(5): 949–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2802%2900099-0
    Aos, S., Lieb, R., Mayfield, J., Miller, M. and Pennucci, A. (2004) Benefits and Costs of Prevention and Early Intervention Programs for Youth. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.
    Appleton, L. and Byrne, P. (2003) ‘Mapping relations between family policy actors’, Social Policy and Society, 2(3): 211–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1474746403001325
    Appleton, L. and Hantrais, L. (Eds) (2000) Conceptualizing and Measuring Families and Family Policies. Loughborough: European Research Centre, University of Loughborough.
    Apter, T. (2009) What Do You Want from Me? Learning to Get Along with In-Laws. New York, NY: Norton.
    Arber, S., Hislop, J., Bote, M. and Meadows, R. (2007) ‘Gender roles and women's sleep in mid and later life: a quantitative approach’, Sociological Research Online, 12 (5), available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/12/5/3.html (accessed 5 June 2011).
    Arts, W. and Gelissen, J. (2002) ‘Three worlds of welfare capitalism or more? A state-of-the art report’, Journal of European Social Policy, 12(2): 137–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0952872002012002114
    Bailyn, L. (2003) ‘Academic careers and gender equity: lessons learned from MIT’, Gender, Work and Organization, 10(2): 137–53.
    Bainham, A. (2008) ‘Arguments about Parentage’, Cambridge Law Journal, 67 (2): 322–51.
    Baker, M. (2011) Choices and Constraints in Family Life,
    2nd edn.
    Don Mills: Oxford University Press Canada.
    Baldassar, L. (2007) ‘Transnational families and aged care: the mobility of care and the migrancy of ageing’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(2): 275–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691830601154252
    Banjee, B. (2007) Corporate Social Responsibility: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. http://dx.doi.org/10.4337/9781847208552
    Barefoot, J.C., Gronbaek, M., Jensen, G., Schnohr, P. and Prescott, E. (2005) ‘Social network diversity and risks of ischemic heart disease and total mortality: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study’, American Journal of Epidemiology, 161(10): 960–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwi128
    Barnes, M., Chanfreau, J. and Tomaszewski, W. (2010) Growing up in Scotland: The Circumstances of Persistently Poor Children. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.
    Bauman, Z. (2003) Liquid Love: On the Fidelity of Human Bonds. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bauman, Z. (2005) Liquid Life. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Baydar, N. and Brooks-Gunn, J. (1998) ‘Profiles of grandmothers who help care for their grandchildren in the United States’, Family Relations, 47(4): 385–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585269
    Beck, U. (2000) The Brave New World of Work. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Beck, U. and Beck-Gernsheim, E. (1995) The Normal Chaos of Love. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Becker, G.S. (1993) A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Bengtson, V.L., Acock, A.C., Allen, K.R. and Dilworth-Anderson, P. (Eds) (2004) Sourcebook of Family Theory and Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781412990172
    Benn, M. (1998) Madonna and Child: Towards the New Politics of Motherhood. London: Jonathan Cape.
    Bennholdt-Thomsen, V. and Mies, M. (1999) The Subsistence Perspective: Beyond the Globalized Economy. London: Zed Books (1st edn 1972).
    Benson, H. and Callan, S. (Eds) (2009) What Works in Relationship Education?: Lessons from Academics and Service Deliverers in the United States and Europe. Doha: Doha International Institute for Family Studies and Development.
    Bernard, J. (1982) The Future of Marriage,
    2nd edn.
    New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Bernardes, J. (1985) ‘Family ideology: identification and exploration’, Sociological Review, 33(2): 275–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1985.tb00806.x
    Bernardes, J. (1997) Family Studies: An Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Bernhardt, E. (2004) ‘Cohabitation or marriage? Preferred living arrangements in Sweden’, European Observatory on Social Situation, Demography and Family Paper 04/2004, available at http://www.oif.ac.at/sdf/sdf04-04-bernhardt.pdf (accessed 16 January 2011).
    Berrington, A., Stone, J. and Falkingham, J. (2009) ‘The changing living arrangements of young adults in the UK’, Population Trends, 138: 27–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/pt.2009.45
    Bhambra, G. (2007) Rethinking Modernity: Postcolonialism and the Sociological Imagination. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230206410
    Bibi, S., Cockburn, J., Fofana, I. and Tiberti, L. (2010) Impacts of the Global Crisis and Policy Responses on Child Well-Being: A Macro-Micro Simulation Framework. Italy: UNICEF, Innocenti Working Paper No. 2010–06.
    Birkett, D., Johnson, D., Thompson, J. and Oberg, D. (2004) ‘Reaching low-income families: focus group results provide direction for a behavioral approach to WIC services’, Journal of the American Dietetics Association, 104: 1277–80.
    Bittiman, M., Rice, J. and Wajcman, J. (2004) ‘Appliances and their impact: ownership of domestic technology and time spent on household work’, British Journal of Sociology, 55(3): 401–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2004.00026.x
    Blaikie, A. (1998) ‘Scottish illegitimacy: social adjustment or moral economy?’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 29: 221–41.
    Bloch, M. (1953) The Historian's Craft. New York: Vintage.
    Bogenschneider, K. (2000) ‘Has family policy come of age? A decade review of the state of U.S. Family Policy in the 1990s’, Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62(4): 1136–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.01136.x
    Boss, P., Doherty, W.J., LaRossa, R. and Schumm, W.R. (2008) Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach. New York: Plenum.
    Bott, E. (1968) Family and Social Network. London: Tavistock.
    Bourdieu, P. (1996) ‘On the family as a realised category’, Theory, Culture and Society, 13(3): 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327696013003002
    Bowlby, S., McKie, L., Gregory, S. and MacPherson, I. (2010) Interdependency and Care Over the Lifecourse. London: Routledge.
    Brannen, J. (2003) ‘The age of the beanpole family’, Sociology Review, 13(1): 6–10.
    Brannen, J. and Moss, P. (1992) ‘Dual earner households after maternity leave in the U.K’, in S.Lewis, D.Izraeli, and H.Hootsmans (Eds), Dual Earner Households: International Perspectives. London: Sage.
    Bryman, A. (2008) Social Research Methods,
    3rd edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press (1st edn 2001).
    Bumpass, L.L., Martin, T.C. and Sweet, J.A. (1991) ‘The impact of family background and early marital factors on marital disruption’, Journal of Family Issues, 12: 22–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251391012001003
    Burgess, A. (1998) Fatherhood Reclaimed: The Making of the Modern Father. London: Vermilion.
    Burgess, E.W. and Locke, H.J. (1945) The Family: From Institution to Companionship. New York: American Books.
    Buss, D.M. and Barnes, M. (1986) ‘Preferences in human mate selection’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3): 559–70.
    Butler, J. (1990) Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. London: Routledge.
    Centre for Social Justice (2008) Fathers not Included: A Response to the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Bill. (Interim Report from the Family Law Review). London: Centre for Social Justice.
    Centre for Social Justice (2009) European Family Law: Faster Divorce and Foreign Law (Interim Report from the Family Law Review). London: Centre for Social Justice.
    Centre for Social Justice (2010) The Forgotten Age: Understanding poverty and social exclusion in later life (Interim Report from the Older Age Working Group). London: Centre for Social Justice.
    CESifo (2008) ‘Bismarck versus Beveridge: Social Insurance Systems in Europe’, CESifo DICE Report, No. 4/2008, available at http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DICE_Content/SOCIAL_POLICY/Basic_Protection/SP060_GUARANTEEING_SUFFICIENT_RESSOURCES/bsimarck-beveridge-dicereport408-db6.pdf (accessed 16 January 2011).
    Chapa, J., Hayes-Bautista, D. and Schink, W. (1988) The Burden of Support: Young Latinos in an Aging Society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Charles, N. (2000) Feminism, the State and Social Policy. London: Macmillan.
    Charles, N. and Kerr, M. (1988) Women, Food and Families. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Cheal, D. (1991) Family and the State of Theory. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
    Cheal, D. (2002) Sociology of Family Life. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Chen, X. and He, Y. (2005) ‘The family in mainland China: structure, organization, and significance for child development’, in J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Gielen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Cherlin, A.J. (2004) ‘The deinstitutionalization of American marriage’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 66 (4): 848–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00058.x
    Cheung, C., Kwan, A. and Ng, S. (2006) ‘Impacts of filial piety on preference for kinship versus public care’, Journal of Community Psychology, 34(5): 617–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20118
    Clark, A. and Moss, P. (2005) Listening to Children. The Mosaic Approach. London: National Children's Bureau and Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Clark-Nichols, P. and Gray-Little, B. (1991) ‘Effect of economic resources on marital quality in black married couples’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 53(3): 645–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352740
    Clifford, C. (2010) ‘Rebuilding the Lives of Child Soldiers in Sri Lanka’, report available at http://children.foreignpolicyblogs.com/2009/07/20/rebuilding-the-lives-of-child-soldiers-in-sri-lanka/ (accessed27 June 2010).
    Coleman, P.G., Ivani-Chalian, C. and Robinson, M. (1999) ‘Self and identity in advanced old age: validation of theory through longitudinal case analysis’, Journal of Personality, 67(5): 819–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.00074
    Coltrane, A. (1998) Gender and Families. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge.
    Connell, R. (1987) Gender and Power: Society, the Person and Sexual Politics. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Connell, R. (2009) Gender. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Consortium of Family Organizations (1990) ‘What is a family policy perspective and why is it needed?’Family Policy Report, 1: 1–6.
    Coontz, S. (1992) The Way We Never Were. New York: Basic Books.
    Coontz, S. (2004) ‘The world historical transformation of marriage’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4): 974–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00067.x
    Coontz, S. (2005) Marriage, a History: From Obedience to Intimacy, or How Love Conquered Marriage. New York: Viking.
    Cowan, C.P. and Cowan, P.A. (1992) When Partners Become Parents: The Big Life Change for Couples. New York: Basic Books. Republished by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Fall, 1999.
    Cowan, C.P. and Cowan, P.A. (1995) ‘Interventions to ease the transition to parenthood: Why they are needed and what they can do’, Family Relations, 44: 412–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584997
    Cowan, P. and Cowan, C.P. (2008) ‘Diverging family policies to promote children's well-being in the UK and US: some relevant data from family research and intervention studies’, Journal of Children's Services, 3(4): 4–16.
    Crompton, R. (2001) ‘Gender, comparative research and biographical matching’, European Societies, 3(2): 167–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690120054311
    Crompton, R. (2006) Employment and the Family: The Reconfiguration of Work and Family Life in Contemporary Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511488962
    Cunningham-Burley, S. and Jamieson, L. (Eds) (2003) Families and the State: Changing Relationships. Basingstoke: Palgrave. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230522831
    Curthoys, A. (1993) ‘Identity crisis: colonialism, nation and gender in Australian history’, Gender and History, 5(2): 165–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0424.1993.tb00170.x
    Cusworth, L. (2009) ‘The Impact of Parental Employment (Studies in Cash and Care)’. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    D'Abbs, P. (1991) Who Helps? Support Networks and Social Policy in Australia. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
    Daniel, P. and Ivatts, J. (1998) Children and Social Policy. London: Macmillan.
    Davidoff, L. and Hall, C. (1987) Family Fortunes. London: Hutchinson.
    Davis, K. (1991) ‘Critical sociology and gender relations’, in K.Davis, M.Leijenaar and J.Oldersma (Eds), The Gender of Power. London: Sage.
    de Botton, A. (2010) The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work. London: Penguin.
    de Tocqueville, A. (1945) Democracy in America, Vol. 2. New York, NY: Vintage Books.
    Delamont, S. (2001) Changing Women, Unchanged Men: Sociological Perspectives on Gender in a Post-Industrial Society. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Delphy, C. (1977) The Main Enemy. London: Women's Research and Resources Centre.
    Demeny, P. and McNicoll, G. (Eds) Encyclopedia of Population (2003) New York: Macmillan Reference USA, pp. 939–40.
    Dench, G. (2000) Grandmothers of the Revolution. London: Hera Trust.
    Department for Children, Schools and Families (2010) Support for All: The Families and Relationships Green Paper. London: The Stationery Office.
    Department of Work and Pensions (2010) ‘Extra help for families in poverty’ (Press Release 23 March 2010) available at http://www.dwp.gov.uk/previous-administration-news/press-releases/2010/march-2010/dwp052-10-230310.shtml (accessed 12 June 2011).
    Departments of State and Official Bodies (1915) Report on the Administration of the National Relief Fund up to 31st March 1915, Cd 7756, Parliamentary Papers, 1914–16, p.5. London: HMSO.
    Dermott, E. and Seymour, J. (2011) Displaying Families: A New Concept for the Sociology of Family Life. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230314306
    Dragon, W. and Duck, S. (Eds) (2005) Understanding Research in Personal Relationships: A Text with Readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Draper, D. (2009) Couple Penalty 2008/09. London: Care.
    Duck, S. (2007) Human Relationships,
    4th edn.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage (1st edn 1986). http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214336
    Durkheim, E. (1897) Suicide: A Study in Sociology. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952.
    Eagleton, T. (2003) After Theory. London: Allen Lane.
    Economist (2010) ‘Gendercide. The worldwide war on baby girls’, The Economist, 6 March, pp. 72–5.
    Edgell, S. (2006) The Sociology of Work: Continuity and Change in Paid and Unpaid Work. London: Sage.
    Edin, K. and Kefalas, M.J. (2005) Promises I Can Keep: Why Poor Women Put Motherhood Before Marriage. Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Elliott, A. (2009) Contemporary Social Theory. An Introduction. London: Routledge.
    Elson, D. (2006) ‘Women's rights’ and engendering development', in E.Kuiper and D.Barker (Eds), Feminist Perspectives on Gender and the World Bank. London: Routledge.
    Eng, D. (2010) The Feeling of Kinship: Queer Liberalism and the Racialization of Intimacy. Durham: Duke University Press.
    Engels, F. (1845) The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. London: Harmondsworth Penguin, 1987.
    Equality and Human Rights Commission (2010) How fair is Britain? Equality, Human Rights and Good Relations in 2010. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (1990) The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity.
    Esping-Andersen, G. (Ed.) (2002) Why We Need a New Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/0199256438.001.0001
    Esping-Andersen, G. (2009) Incomplete Revolution: Adapting Welfare States to Women? New Roles. Oxford: Polity Press.
    European Commission (1997) Promoting the Role of Voluntary Organizations and Foundations in Europe, COM/97/0241 final. Brussels: European Commission.
    European Commission (2009) EU Campaign on Gender Pay Gap. Brussels: EUROPA.eu. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/09/91&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 24 June 2011).
    Eurostat (2007) Marriage and Divorce Statistics. Brussels: Eurostat.
    Eurostat (2008) Eurostat Data on the Gender Pay Gap. Brussels: EU. Available at http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=tableandinit=1andplugin=1andlanguage=enandpcode=tsiem040, (accessed 26 June 2010).
    Eurostat (2010) Marriage and Divorce Statistics. Brussels: Eurostat.
    Fawcett Society (2010) The Facts. London: Fawcett Society. Available at http://www.fawcettsociety.org.uk/index.asp?PageID=981 (accessed 30 December 2010).
    Farrington, D.P. and Welsh, B.C. (2007) Saving Children from a Life of Crime: Early Risk Factors and Effective Interventions. New York: Oxford University Press.
    The Fatherhood Institute (2010) The Fatherhood Report 2010–11. The Fairness in Families Index. Abergavenny: The Fatherhood Institute.
    Ferge, S. (1997) ‘The changed welfare paradigm: The “individualisation of the social”’, Social Policy and Administration, 31(1): 20–44.
    Ferraro, G. (2006) Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective. Andover: Cengage Learning.
    Fevre, R. and Bancroft, A. (2010) Dead White Men and Other Important People: Sociology's Big Ideas. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Finch, J. (1987) ‘Family obligations and the life course’, in A.Bryman et al. (eds), Rethinking the Life Cycle. London: Macmillan.
    Finch, J. (1989) Family Obligations and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity.
    Finch, J. (2007) ‘Displaying families’, Sociology, 41: 65–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038507072284
    Finch, J. and Mason, J. (1993) Negotiating Family Responsibilities. London: Routledge.
    Fine, B. (1992) Women, Employment and the Capitalist Family. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203308615
    Forrester, D. (2010) ‘Hidden harm: Working with serious parental drug misuse’, in J.Barlow (Ed.), Substance Misuse. The Implications of Research, Policy and Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Fortes, M. (1983) ‘Rules and the Emergence of Society’, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland Occasional Paper No. 39. London: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.
    Foucault, M. (1971) The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
    Fukuyama, F. (1999) The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order. New York: Free Press.
    Fulcher, S. and Scott, S. (2011) Sociology,
    4th edn.
    Oxford: Oxford University Press (1st edn 1999).
    Fuller-Thomson, E., Minkler, M. and Driver, D. (1997) ‘A profile of grandparents raising grandchildren in the United States’, Gerontologist, 37(3): 406–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/37.3.406
    Future Foundation (2003) My UK – Redefining Regions: Exploring Regional and Local Identity. London: The Newspaper Society.
    G8 Muskova Initiative on Maternal, Newborn and Under-Five Child Health (2010), 199.
    Gaba-Afouda, L. (2004) Gender Equality in Education in Benin: Summary of Topic, UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation, 2004/ED/EFA/MRT/PI/22, available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001467/146769e.pdf (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Gabb, J. (2008) Researching Intimacy in Families. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230227668
    Gaines, S.O.Jr. and Ickes, W. (2000) ‘Perspectives on interracial relationships’, in W.Ickes, and S.Duck (Eds), The Social Psychology of Personal Relationships. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
    Gauthier, A.H. (1999) ‘Historical trends in state support for families in Europe (post-1945)’, Children and Youth Services Review, 21(11/12): 937–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409%2899%2900062-6
    General Register Office for Scotland (2008) Increase in Number of Households in Scotland. Edinburgh: Scottish Government. http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/press/news2008/increase-in-number-of-households-in-scotland.html (accessed 22 June 2011).
    General Secretariat for Development Planning (2010) Qatar National Vision 2030. Qatar: Doha Institute for Family Studies and Development, available at http://www.gsdp.gov.qa/portal/page/portal/GSDP_Vision_Root/GSDP_EN/What%20We%20Do/QNV_2030 (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Gergen, K. (1994) Realities and Relationships: Soundings in Social Construction. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
    Gershuny, J. (1978) After Industrial Society: The Emerging Self-Service Economy. London: Macmillan.
    Gershuny, J. (2000) Changing Times: Work and Leisure in Post-industrial Societies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Giddens, A. (1986) The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, A. (1992) The Transformation of Intimacy: Sexuality, Love and Eroticism in Modern Societies. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Giddens, A. (1998) The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Gillies, V. (2003) Family and Intimate Relationships: A Review of the Sociological Research. London: Families and Social Capital ESRC Research group, South Bank University.
    Gillis, J. (1996) A World of Their Own Making: A History of Myth and Ritual in Family Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gillis, J. (2004) ‘Marriages of the mind’, Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(4): 988–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-2445.2004.00069.x
    Gittins, D. (1993) The Family in Question: Changing Households and Familiar Ideologies. London: Macmillan.
    Gittins, D. (1997) The Child in Question. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Glaser, K., Montserrat, E.R., Waginger, U., Price, D., Stuchbury, R. and Tinke, A. (2010) Grandparenting in Europe. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
    Global Policy Forum (2008) Trends in Global Gross Domestic Product. New York: Global Policy Forum, available at http://www.globalpolicy.org/ (accessed 27 June 2010).
    Glucksmann, M. (2005) ‘Shifting boundaries and interconnections: Extending the “total social organisation of labour”’, The Sociological Review, 53(2): 19–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.2005.00570.x
    Golombok, S. (2007) ‘Research on lesbian and gay parenting: An historical perspective across 30 years’, in F.Tasker and J.Bigner (Eds), Gay and Lesbian Parenting: New Directions. New York: Haworth Press.
    González, L. and Viitanen, T.K. (2009) ‘The effect of divorce laws on divorce rates in Europe’, European Economic Review, 53(2): 127–38.
    Goodman, A. and Greaves, E. (2010) Cohabitation, Marriage and Child Outcomes, IFS Commentary C114, Institute of Fiscal Studies.
    Gough, I., Wood, G., Barrientos, A., Bevan, P., DavisP. and Room, G. (2004) Insecurity and Welfare Regimes in Asia, Africa, and Latin America: Social policy in development contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511720239
    Graefe, D.R. and Lichter, D.T. (2008) ‘Marriage patterns among unwed mothers: Before and afterPRWORA’, Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 27(3): 479–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pam.20352
    Grandin, G. (2010) Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten Jungle City. London: Icon Books.
    Green, H., McGinnity, A., Meltzer, H., Ford, T. and Goodman, R. (2005) Mental Health of Children and Young People 2004. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Greenstein, T. (2006) Methods of Family Research. New York: Sage. (1st edn 2001).
    Grint, K. (2005) The Sociology of Work: An Introduction,
    3rd edn.
    Cambridge: Polity Press. (1st edn 1991).
    Gupta, N.D., Smith, N. and Verner, M. (2006) Child Care and Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries: A Model to Aspire to?Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Discussion Paper No. 2014. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor.
    Gutteridge, R. (2003) Enduring Relationships: The Evolution of Long-lasting Marriage. Uunpublished PhD thesis, University of Keele, Keele.
    Hagestad, G.O. and Smyer, M.A. (1982) ‘Dissolving long-term relationships: Patterns of divorcing in middle age’, in S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal Relationships 4: Dissolving Personal Relationships. London: Academic Press.
    Hague Conference (1980) Convention on the Civil Aspects of Child Abductors. Available at http://hcch.e-vision.nl/upload/conventions/txt28en.pdf (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Hakim, C. (2000) Work-Lifestyle Choices in the 21st Century: Preference Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Hall, R., Ogden, P.E. and Hill, C. (1997) ‘The pattern and structure of one-person households in England and Wales and France’, International Journal of Population Geography, 3(2): 161–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1220%28199706%293:2%3C161::AID-IJPG64%3E3.0.CO;2-2
    Hank, K. and Buber, I. (2009) ‘Grandparents caring for their grandchildren: findings from the 2004 Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe’, Journal of Family Issues, 30(1): 53–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X08322627
    Hansen, K.V. (2005) Not-so-nuclear Families: Class, Gender and Networks of Care. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
    Hantrais, L. (2004) Family Policy Matters: Responding to Family Change in Europe. Bristol: The Policy Press.
    Hantrais, L. (2007) Social Policy in the European Union,
    3rd edn.
    Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan andSt Martin's Press (1st edn 1995).
    Harding, P. and Jenkins, R. (1989) The Myth of the Hidden Economy: Towards a New Understanding of Informal Economic Activity. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Hareven, T. (1994) ‘Recent research on the history of the family’, in M.Drake (Ed.), Time, Family and Community: Perspectives on Family and Community History. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Hareven, T. (2000) Families, History and Social Change. Life-course and Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Harley, S. (Ed.) (2007) Women's Labor in the Global Economy. Speaking in Multiple Voices. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Harris, J. (2000) ‘The welfare of the child’, Health Care Analysis, 8: 27–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009430326447
    Hartman, M. (2004) The Household and the Making of History: A Subversive View of the Western Past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511818134
    Haskey, J. (2005) ‘Living arrangements in contemporary Britain: Having a partner who usually lives elsewhere and living apart together (LAT)’, Population Trends, 122: 35–45.
    Hearn, J. and Pringle, K. (2009) ‘European Perspectives on Men and Masculinities: National and Transnational Approaches’. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Helskog, G. (2009) ‘The Norwegian State: a relationship educator’, in H.Benson and S.Callan (Eds), What Works in Relationship Education? Lessons from Academics and Service Deliverers in the United States and Europe. Qatar: Doha International Institute for Family Studies and Development.
    Hemmings, P. (2007) ‘Family policy in Hungary: How to improve the reconciliation between work and family?’, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/144761862161
    Henning, C. and Lieberg, M. (1996) ‘Strong ties or weak ties? Neighbourhood networks in a new perspective’, Scandinavian Housing and Planning Research, 13(3): 3–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02815739608730394
    Hennon, C. and Wilson, S. (2008) Families in a Global Context. London: Rouledge.
    Henry, J.A. (2010) ‘Protecting our fledgling families: a case for relationship-focused family life education programs’, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 35(3): 373–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.69246
    Hiilamo, H. and Kangas, O.E. (2006) Trap for Women or Freedom to Choose? Political Frames in the Making of Child Home Care Allowance in Finland and Sweden, Department of Social Policy 15/2006. Turku: University of Turku.
    Hilder, P. (2005) ‘Neighbourhoods: from hamlets to living together?’, in A.Buonfino and G.Mulgan (Eds), Porcupines in Winter. London: Young Foundation.
    Hill, R. (1984) ‘Family studies and home economics: towards a theoretical orientation’, Canadian Home Economics Journal, 34: 9–14.
    Hirsch, J.S. (2007) ‘“Love makes a family”: globalization, companionate marriage, and the modenization of gender inequality’, in M.B.Padilla, J.S.Hirsch, M.Munoz-Laboy, R.Sember and R.G.Parker (Eds), Love and Globalization: Transformations of Intimacy in the Contemporary World. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
    Hochschild, A. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Hochschild, A. (1997) The Time Bind: When Work Becomes Home and Home Becomes Work. New York: Metropolitan Books, Henry Holt and Co.
    Hochschild, A. (2003a) The Commercialization of Intimate Life: Notes from Home and Work. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Hochschild, A. (2003b) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (
    1st edn 1983
    Hochschild, A. (2003c) ‘Love and gold’, in B.Ehrenreich, and A.Hochschild (Eds), Global Woman: Nannies, Maids and Sex Workers in the New Economy. London: Granta.
    Hochschild, A. and Machung, A. (2003) The Second Shift,
    2nd edn.
    New York: Penguin (1st edn 2000).
    Hooks, B.. (1984) Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center. Boston: South End.
    Huang, W.J. (2005) ‘An Asian perspective on relationship and marriage education’, Family Process, 44(2): 161–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2005.00051.x
    Hudson, J. and Lowe, S. (2009) Understanding the Policy Process: Analysing Welfare Policy and Practice. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Hughes, J. (1990) The Philosophy of Social Research. Harlow: Longman (
    1st edn 1980
    Hunt, S. (Ed.) (2010) Family Trends Since 1950. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Huriwai, T., Robertson, P.J., Armstrong, D., Kingi, T.P. and Huata, P. (2001) ‘Whanaungatanga – a process in the treatment of Maori with alcohol- and drug-use related problems’, Substance Use and Misuse, 36(8): 1033–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-100104488
    Hurst, C. (2004) Social Inequality: Forms, Causes and Consequence. Boston: Pearson.
    Hutter, M. (1998) The Changing Family: Comparative Perspectives,
    3rd edn.
    New York: Macmillan (1st edn. 1981).
    International Labour Organization (2011) Decent Work Agenda. Geneva: International Labour Organization. http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/decent-work-agenda/lang-en/index.htm (accessed 24June 2011).
    Institute for Family Policies (2008) Report on the Evolution of the Family in Europe 2008. Madrid: IPF.
    Jackson, E. (2002) ‘Conception and the relevance of the Welfare Principle’, Modern Law Review, 65(2): 176–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-2230.00374
    Jackson, S. and Scott, S. (2001) Gender: A Sociological Reader. London: Routledge.
    Jamieson, L. (1987) ‘Theories of family development and the experience of being brought up’, Sociology, 21(4): 591–607. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038587021004007
    Jamieson, L. (1998) Intimacy. Cambridge: Polity.
    Jamieson, L. (1999) ‘Intimacy transformed? A critical look at the “pure relationship”’, Sociology, 33(3): 477–94.
    Jamieson, L. (2010a) ‘Issues facing today's families’, paper delivered at Centre for Research on Families and Relationships Conference, 10 Februray 2010. ‘Families Today: Where are we now?Edinburgh: Centre for Research on Families and Relationships.
    Jamieson, L. (2010b) ‘Changing families and relationships in a changing world’, keynote paper presented at the International Conference, 16–18 June 2010. Centre for Research on Families and Relationships. Edinburgh: Centre for Research on Families and Relationships.
    Jamieson, L., Morgan, D., Crow, G. and Allan, G. (2006) ‘Friends, neighbours and distant partners: extending or decentring family relationships?’, Sociological Research Online, 11 (3), available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/11/3/jamieson.html (accessed 15 January 2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.5153/sro.1421
    Jamieson, L. and Simpson, R. (2010) Living on Your Own: Social Integration, Quality of Life and Aspirations for the Future. Edinburgh: Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, University of Edinburgh. Briefing 47.
    Jamieson, L. and Toynbee, C. (1990) ‘Shifting patterns of parental control’, in H.Corr and L.Jamieson (Eds), Politics of Everyday Life. London: Macmillan.
    Jamieson, L., Wasoff, F. and Simpson, R. (2009) ‘Solo-living, demographic and family change: the need to know more about men’, Sociological Research Online, 14 (2/3), available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/14/2/5.html (accessed 15 January 2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.5153/sro.1888
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2008) Report on the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic, available at http://data.unaids.org/pub/GlobalReport/2008/JC1511_GR08_ExecutiveSummary_en.pdf (accessed 27 June 2010).
    Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (2010) UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS epidemic 2010, available at http://www.unaids.org/globalreport/Global_report.htm (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Jones, G. (2002) The Youth Divide: Diverging Paths into Adulthood. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Jordan, B., Redley, M. and James, S. (1994) Putting the Family First: Identities, Decisions and Citizenship. London: UCL Press.
    Kamerman, S.B. and Kahn, A.J. (1978) ‘Families and the idea of family policy’, in S.B.Kamerman and A.J.Kahn (Eds), Family Policy: Government and Families in Fourteen Countries. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kara, S. (2009) Sex Trafficking: Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kellerhals, J. (2010) ‘Changes in family life – issues for public policy’, keynote address at Family Platform Conference, 28 July 2010, available at http://www.familyplatform.eu/en/home/news/critical-review-conference-lisbon (accessed 30 December 2010).
    Kerfoot, D. (2002) ‘Managing the “Professional Man”’, in M.Dent and S.Whitehead (Eds), Managing Professional Identities: Knowledge, Performativity and the ‘New Professional’. London: Routledge.
    Kiernan, K. (2003) Cohabitation and Divorce Across Nations and Generations, CASE Paper No. 65. London: London School of Economics.
    Kiernan, K. and Estaugh, V. (1993) Cohabitation. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Kilmer, R., Gil-Rivas, V., Tededchi, R. and Calhoun, L. (Eds) (2009) Helping Families and Communities Recover from Disaster: Lessons Learned from Hurricane Katrina and Its Aftermath (Specific Approaches and Populations). Washington: American Psychological Association.
    Kimmel, M., Hearn, J. and Connell, R. (Eds) (2004) Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233833
    Kraybill, D. (Ed.) (2003) The Amish and the State. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Kreyenfeld, M., Konietzka, D. and Hornung, A. (2009) ‘Family diversity in France, the Russian Federation, and East and West Germany: overview on living arrangements and living conditions’, in United
    Nations Commission for Europe, How Generations and Gender Shape Demographic Change: Towards Policies Based on Better Knowledge. New York/Geneva: United Nations.
    Lan, P.C. (2006) Global Cinderellas: Migrant Domestics and Newly Rich Employers in Taiwan. Durham: Duke University Press.
    Laslett, P. (1965) The World We Have Lost: England Before the Industrial Age. London: Methuen.
    Laslett, P. (2005) The World We Have Lost: Further Explored,
    4th edn.
    London: Routledge (1st edn 1965).
    Laswell, H. (1935) Politics: Who Gets What, When, How. London: McGraw-Hill.
    Laungani, P. (2005) ‘Changing patterns of family life in India’, in J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Gielen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Layard, R., Nickell, S. and Jackman, R. (2005) Unemployment: Macroeconomic Performance and the Labour Market. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199279166.001.0001
    Leeder, E. (2004) The Family in Global Perspective: A Gendered Journey. New York: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231679
    Lengermann, P. and Niebrugge-Brantley, J. (2000) ‘Contemporary feminist theory’, in G.Ritzer (Ed.), Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Letablier, M.-T., Pennec, S. and Büttner, O. (2003) ‘An overview of changing family patterns in Europe’, in M.-T.Letablier and S.Pennec (Eds), Changing Family Structure in Europe: New Challenges for Public Policy. Cross-National Research Papers, Sixth Series, Improving Policy Responses and Outcomes to Socio-Economic Challenges: Changing Family Structures, Policy and Practice. Loughborough: European Research Centre, Loughborough University.
    Letkemann, P. (2002) ‘Unemployed professionals, stigma management and derived stigmata’, Work, Employment and Society, 16(3): 511–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095001702762217461
    Levin, I. (2004) ‘Living Apart Together: a new family form’, Current Sociology, 52(2): 223–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392104041809
    Lewis, S., Brannen, J. and Nilsen, A. (2009) Work, Families and Organisations in Transition. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Lindblom, C. (1959) ‘The science of “muddling through”’, Public Administration Review, 19(2): 79–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/973677
    Linton, R. (1936) The Study of Man: An Introduction. New York: Appleton Century Crofts, Inc.
    Livingstone, S. and Bovill, M. (2001) Families, Schools and the Internet. London: Media@LSE, London School of Economics.
    Lopata, H.Z. (1972) ‘Role changes in widowhood: a world perspective’, in D.O.Cowgill, and L.D.Holmes (Eds), Ageing and Modernisation. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
    Love, C. (1999) ‘Family group conferencing: cultural origins, sharing, and appropriation: a Maori reflection’, in G.Burford and J.Hudson (Eds), Family Group Conferencing: New Directions in Community-centred Child and Family Practice. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Low, B.S. (2005) ‘Families: an evolutionary anthropological perspective’, in J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Gielen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Luxton, M. (1980) More than a Labor of Love: Three Generations of Women? Work in the Home. Toronto: Women's Press.
    Luxton, M. and Gorman, J. (2001) Getting by in Hard Times: Gendered Labour at Home and on the Job. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    MacLean, A., Harden, J. and Backett-Milburn, K. (2010) ‘Financial trajectories: how parents and children discussed the impact of the recession, 21st century society’, Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences, 5(2): 159–70.
    Macpherson, C.B. (1962) The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism: From Hobbes to Locke. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Malone-Colon, L. (2007) ‘Responding to the Black Marriage Crisis’, Center for Marriage and Families Research Brief, No. 6, June 2007, available at http://familyscholars.org/ (accessed 16 January 2011).
    Mansfield, P. and Collard, J. (1988) The Beginning of the Rest of Your Life?Basingstoke: Macmillan Press.
    Marquardt, E. (2006) The Revolution in Parenthood: The Emerging Global Clash Between Adult Rights and Children's Needs. New York: Institute for American Values.
    Marsh, P. and Brennan, E. (2008) ‘Family Support Policy: An International Perspective’, in J.M.Rosenzweig and E.M.Brennan (Eds), Work, Life and the Mental Health System of Care: A Guide for Professionals Supporting Families of Children with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
    Martin, G.T. (1997) ‘The agenda for family policy in the United States’, in T.Arendell (Ed.), Contemporary Parenting: Challenges and Issues. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Marx, K. and McLellan, D. (2008) Capital: An Abridged Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mason, G. (2002) The Spectacle of Violence: Homophobia, Gender, and Knowledge. London: Routledge.
    Maxwell, J. (1996) ‘Social dimensions of economic growth’, Eric John Hanson Memorial Lecture Series, Vol. 8. Alberta: University of Alberta.
    McKie, L. and Cunningham-Burley, S. (Eds) (2005) Families in Society: Boundaries and Relationships. Bristol: Policy Press.
    McKie, L., Gregory, S. and Bowlby, S. (2002) ‘Shadow times: the temporal and spatial frameworks and experiences of caring and working’, Sociology, 36(4): 897–924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803850203600406
    Meekers, D. (1994) ‘Combining ethnographic and survey methods: a study of the nuptiality patterns of the Shona of Zimbabwe’, Journal of Comparative Studies, 25(3): 313–28.
    Mies, M. (1999) Patriarchy and Accumulation On A World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour. London: Zed Books (
    1st edn. 1998
    Milardo, R.M. (1992) ‘Comparative methods for delineating social networks’, Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9(3): 447–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407592093007
    Millar, J. and Warman, A. (1996) Family Obligations in Europe. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Mills, C.W. (1959) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Ministry of Civil Affairs (2009) Gazette on Civil Affairs. Beijing: Ministry of Civil Affairs.
    Moen, P. and Schorr, A.L. (1987) ‘Families and social policy’, in M.B.Sussman and S.K.Steinmetz (Eds), Handbook of Marriage and the Family. New York: Plenum.
    Morgan, D. (1975) Social Theory and the Family. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Morgan, D. (1996) Family Connections: An Introduction to family Studies. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Morris, L. (1997) ‘Economic change and domestic life’, in R.K.Brown (Ed), The Changing Shape of Work. London: Macmillan.
    Munro, A., Manthei, B. and Small, J. (1989) Counselling: the Skills of Problem-solving. London: Routledge.
    Murdock, G. (1945) ‘The common denominator of cultures’, in R.Linton (Ed.), The Science of Man in the World Crisis. New York: Columbia.
    Murdock, G.P. (1981) Atlas of World Cultures. Pittsburgh: Pittsburgh University Press.
    Murray, C. (2006) In Our Hands: A Plan to Replace the Welfare State. Washington: The American Enterprise Institute.
    Naito, T. and Gielen, U. (2005) ‘The changing Japanese family: a psychological portrait’, in: J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Geilen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Naldini, M. and Saraceno, C. (2008) ‘Social and family policies in Italy: not totally frozen but far from structural reforms’, Social Policy and Administration, 42(7): 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.2008.00635.x
    Neuliep, J.W. (2008) Intercultural Communication: A Contextual Approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Newcastle City Council (2009) Avoiding Gang Culture: Full Scrutiny Report, available at http://www.newcastle.gov.uk/wwwfileroot/cxo/scrutiny/AvoidingGanCulturefullscrutinyreport.pdf (accessed 11 September 2010).
    Nixon, P., Burford, G. and Quinn, A. with Edelbaum, J. (2005) A Survey of International Practices, Policy and Research on Family Group Conferencing and Related Practices. Englewood: American Humane Association.
    Oakley, A. (1974) The Sociology of Housework. London: Martin Robertson.
    Office for National Statistics (2009a) Population Trends 138. Available at http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_population/Pop-trends-winter09.pdf (accessed 5 June 2011).
    Office for National Statistics (2009b) Statistical Bulletin: National Population Projections, 2008-Based. Newport: Office for National Statistics.
    Office for National Statistics (2010) Households: UK National Statistics. Newport: Office for National Statistics.
    Olson, D.H., Russell, C.S. and Sprengkle, D.H. (1984) ‘Circumplex model of marital and family systems: VI theoretical update’, in: D.H.Olson and P.M.Miller (Eds), Family Studies Review Yearbook, Vol. 2. New Delhi: Sage.
    Ooms, T. (1990) ‘Families and government: Implementing a family perspective in public policy’, Social Thought, 16(2): 61–78.
    Ooms, T. (2002) ‘Strengthening couples and marriage in low-income communities’, in A.Hawkins, L.D.Wardle and D.O.Coolidge (Eds), Revitalising the Institution of Marriage for the Twenty-First Century. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009a) Korea Policy Centre, Society at a Glance Asia/Pacific Edition, available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/27/13/43465580.pdf (accessed 11September 2010).
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2009b) Doing Better for Children. Paris: OECD Publishing.
    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010) OECD Family Database. OECD, Social Policy Division – Directorate of Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/52/27/41920080.pdf (accessed 11 September 2010).
    Ovcharova, L. and Prokofieva, I. (2000) ‘Poverty and interfamily solidarity in Russia in the transition period’, Public Opinion Monitoring. VTSIOM, 4: 29.
    Padilla, M.B., Hirsch, J.S., Munoz-Laboy, M., Sember, R. and Parker, R.G. (Eds) (2007) Love and Globalization: Transformations of Intimacy in the Contemporary World. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
    Pahl, R. (1988) ‘Some remarks on informal work, social polarization and the social structure’, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 12(2): 247–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2427.1988.tb00452.x
    Pahl, R. (2000) On Friendship. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Pahl, R. and Wallace, C. (1985) ‘Household work strategies in an economic recession’, in: N.Redclift and E.Mingione (Eds), Beyond Employment: Household, Gender and Subsistence. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Pahl, R. and Spencer, L. (2003) ‘Personal Communities: Not Simply Families of “Fate” or “Choice’,” ISER WorkingPapers, No. 2003–4.
    Papini, D., Datan, N. and McCluskey-Fawcett, K. (1988) ‘An observational study of affective and assertive family interactions during adolescence’, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 17(6): 477–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01537826
    Parentline Plus (2010) When Family Life Hurts: Family Experience of Aggression in Children, available at http://www.parentlineplus.org.uk/files/public/sharedfiles/PplusAggressionOctFinalGL.pdf (accessed 27December 2010).
    Parkinson, P. (2006) ‘Keeping in contact: The role of family relationship centres in Australia’, Child and Family Law Quarterly, 18(2): 157–74.
    Parliamentary Office for Science and Technology (2003) ‘Sex Selection’, Postnote, July 2003 No. 198, available at http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn198.pdf (accessed 27 December 2010).
    Parrenas, R. (2005) Children of Global Migration. Transnational Families and Gendered Woes. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Parsons, T. (1953) ‘A revised analytical approach to the theory of social stratification’, in R.Bendix and S.Lipset (Eds), Class, Status, and Power: A Reader in Social Stratification. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Pastorino, E.E. and Doyle-Portillo, S.M. (2008) What Is Psychology?Andover: Cengage Learning.
    Patterson, C.J. and Friel, L.V. (2000) ‘Sexual orientation and fertility’, in: G.Bentley and N.Mascie-Taylor (Eds), Infertility in the Modern World: Biosocial Perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Peters, T. (2004) Re-imagine! Business Excellence in a Disruptive Age. London: Dorling Kindersley.
    Phillips, P. (2006) Censored 2007: The Top 25 Censored Stories. New York: Seven Stories Press.
    Phoenix, A. and Husain, F. (2007) Parenting and Ethnicity. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
    Plummer, K. (1995) Telling Sexual Stories: Power, Change and Social Worlds. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203425268
    Prior, P. and Hayes, B. (2003) ‘The relationship between marital status and health: an empirical investigation of differences in bed occupancy within health and social care facilities in Britain, 1921–1991’, Journal of Family Issues, 24(1): 124–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X02238523
    Probert, R. (2009) Cretney and Probert's Family Law. London: Sweet and Maxwell (1st edn titled Elements of Family Law 1987).
    Probert, R. and Callan, S. (2011) History and Family Policy: Examining the Evidence. London: Centre for Social Justice.
    Prodi, R. and Kinnock, N. (2000) ‘The Commission and non-governmental organizations: building a stronger partnership’, European Commission discussion paper. Brussels: European Commission.
    Prout, A. (1999) The Body, Childhood and Society. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Punch, S. (2002) ‘Research with children. The same or different from research with adults?Childhood, 9(3): 321–41.
    Punch, S. (2003) ‘Childhoods in the majority world: miniature adults or tribal children?’, Sociology, 37(2): 277–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038503037002004
    Quah, S. (2009) Families in Asia. Home and Kin. London: Routledge.
    Quinton, D. (2004) Supporting Parents: Messages from Research. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Ransome, P. (1999) Sociology and the Future of Work: Contemporary Discourses and Debates. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Rapoport, R., Bailyn, L., Fletcher, J.K. and Pruitt, B.H. (2002) Beyond Work-Family Balance: Advancing Gender Equity and Workplace Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Reeves, R. (2001) Happy Mondays: Putting the Pleasure Back into Work. Harlow: Pearson Education.
    Reeves, R. (2002) Dad's Army: The Case for Father-friendly Workplaces. London: The Work Foundation.
    Reibstein, J. (2006) The Best Kept Secret: Men and Women's Stories of Lasting Love. London: Bloomsbury.
    Reidel, L. (2008) ‘Religious opposition to same-sex marriage in Canada: limits to multiculturalism’, Human Rights Review, 10(2): 61–81.
    Reyes, M.M. (2008) Migration and Filipino Children Left-Behind: A Literature Review. Quezon Heights, Philippines: Miriam College.
    Ribbens McCarthy, J. and Edwards, R. (2010a) Key Concepts in Family Studies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446250990
    Ribbens McCarthy, J. and Edwards, R. (2010b) ‘Writing the field: key concepts in family studies’, paper presented at the International Conference of the Centre for Research on Families and Relationships, 16–18 June 2010, Edinburgh.
    Rimashevskaya, N., Vannoi, D. and Malysheva, M. (1999) A Window to Russian Private Life: Spousal Couples in 1999. Moscow: Academia Press.
    Riphenburg, C. (1997) ‘Women, status and cultural expression: changing gender relations and structural adjustment in Zimbabwe’, Africa Today, 44(1): 33–50.
    Ritzen, J. (2000) ‘Social Cohesion, Public Policy and Economic Growth: Implications for OECD Countries’, paper presented to OECD/HRDC International Symposium on the Contribution of Human and Social Capital to Sustained Economic Growth and Well-Being, Quebec City, available at http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/25/2/1825690.pdf (accessed 14 January 2011).
    Robertson, A. (1988) ‘Welfare state and welfare society’, Social Policy and Administration, 22: 222–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9515.1988.tb00305.x
    Rodger, J.J. (2003) ‘Family life, moral regulation and the state: social steering and the personal sphere’, in S.Cunningham-Burley and L.Jamieson (Eds), Families and the State: Changing Relationships. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
    Roopnarine, J.L. and Gielen, U.P. (2005) ‘Families in global perspective: an introduction’, in J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Gielen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Rosenberg, L. and Bloom, D. (2004) World Population Prospects 2004. New York: United Nations.
    Roseneil, S. (2005) ‘Living and loving beyond the boundaries of the heteronorm: personal relationships in the 21st century’, in L.McKie, S.Cunningham-Burley and J.McKendrick (Eds), Families in Society: Boundaries and Relationships. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Roseneil, S. (2006) ‘In not living with a partner: unpicking coupledom and cohabitation’, Sociological Research Online, 11 (3), available at http://www.socresonline.org.uk/11/3/roseneil.html (accessed 6September 2010). http://dx.doi.org/10.5153/sro.1413
    Rowlingson, K. (2001) ‘The social, demographic and economic profile of lone parents’, in J.Millar and K.Rowlingson (Eds), Lone Parents, Employment and Social Policy: Cross-national Comparisons. Bristol: Policy Press.
    Rowthorn, R. and Webster, D. (2006) ‘Male Worklessness and the Rise of Lone Parenthood in Britain’, Oxford Centre for Population Research, Working Paper No. 31.
    Ruggie, M. (1984) The State and Working Women. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Sainsbury, D. (1996) Gender, Equality and Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511520921
    Sassen, S. (2000) ‘Women's burden: counter-geographies of globalization and the feminization of survival’, Journal of International Affairs, 53, 2: 504–24.
    Schneider, D. (1968) American Kinship: A Cultural Account. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schooler, D. and Ward, L.M. (2006) ‘Average Joes: men's relationships with media, real bodies and sexuality’, Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 7(1): 27–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.7.1.27
    Sevenhuijsen, S. (1998) Citizenship and the Ethics of Care: Feminist Consideration on Justice, Morality and Politics. London: Routledge.
    Shaw, G.B. (2007) Getting Married. Fairfield: First World Publishing.
    Silva, E. (2010) Technology, Culture, Family: Influences on Home Life. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230297029
    Silverstein, L.B. and Auerbach, C.F. (2005) ‘(Post) Modern Families’, in J.L.Roopnarine and U.P.Gielen (Eds), Families in Global Perspective. Boston: Pearson.
    Simmel, G. (1950) The Sociology of Georg Simmel (compiled and translated by KurtWolff). Glencoe, IL: Free Press.
    Singapore Department of Statistics (2006) Annual Review. Singapore: Department of Statistics.
    Smart, C. (1984) The Ties that Bind: Law, Marriage and the Reproduction of Patriarchal Relations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Smart, C. (2007) Personal Life: New Directions in Sociological Thinking. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Smart, C. and Neale, B. (1999) Family Fragments?Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Smart, C. and Stevens, P. (2000) Cohabitation Breakdown. London: Family Policy Studies Centre.
    Smart, C. and Shipman, B. (2004) ‘Visions in Monochrome: families, marriage and the individualization thesis’, British Journal of Sociology, 55(4): 491–509. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2004.00034.x
    Solesbury, W. (2001) Evidence Based Policy: Whence it Came and Where it's Going, ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice Working Paper No. 1.
    Somerville, M. (2004) ‘What about the children?’, in: D.Cere and D.Farrow (Eds), Divorcing Marriage. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
    Spicker, P. (2000) The Welfare State: A General Theory. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219959
    Stanley, S.M. (2002) ‘What is it with men and commitment, anyway?’, Keynote address to the 6th Annual Smart Marriages Conference, 9–16 July 2002, Washington D.C.
    Stanley, S.M. (2010) ‘What is it with men and commitment, anyway?’, Working paper to update Stanley (2002), available at http://www.prepinc.com/main/docs/scottscorner/Men_and_Commitment_Stanley_Update.pdf (accessed 10 November 2010).
    Stanley, S.M., Amato, P.R., Johnson, C.A. and Markman, H.J. (2006) ‘Premarital education, marital quality, and marital stability: Findings from a large, random, household survey’, Journal of Family Psychology, 20(1): 117–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.20.1.117
    Statistics Norway (2008) Statistical Yearbook 2008, Table 47 available at http://www.ssb.no/english/year-book/2008/tab/tab-047.html (accessed 12 June 2011).
    Steenhof, L. and Harmsen, C. (2002) Same-sex Couples in the Netherlands, Statistics Netherlands (Division of Social and Spatial Statistics, Department of Statistical Analysis), available at http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/74975167-2503-43A0-8821-66F88DA2B6B2/0/samesexcouples.pdf (accessed 11 September 2010).
    Stone, L. (1977) The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
    Stuckler, D. (2010) ‘Analysis: Budget crises, health, and social welfare programmes’, British Medical Journal, 340: c3311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c3311
    Sugimoto, Y. (2003) An Introduction to Japanese Society,
    2nd edn.
    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (1st edn 1987).
    Sullivan, O. (2006) Changing Gender Relations, Changing Families: Tracing the Pace of Change. New York: Rowman and Littlefield (Gender Lens Series).
    Sullivan, O. (2010) ‘Changing differences by educational attainment in fathers’ domestic labour and child care', Sociology, 44(4): 716–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510369351
    Taran, P.A. and Geronimi, E. (2003) ‘Globalization, labour and migration: protection is paramount’, in Perspectives on Labour Migration 3E. International Migration Programme, International Labour Office, Geneva, available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/download/pom/pom3e.pdf (accessed 27 June 2010).
    Taylor, R. (2004) ‘Extending conceptual boundaries: work, voluntary work and employment’, Work Employment and Society, 18 (1): 29–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017004040761
    Thane, P. (2010) Happy Families? History and Policy. London: British Academy Policy Centre.
    The Millennium Project (2011) Global Futures Studies and Research, available at http://www.millennium-project.org/millennium/demographicsregional.html (accessed 11 March 2011).
    Therborn, G. (2004) Between Sex and Power: Family in the World, 1900-2000. London: Routledge.
    Thompson, M.G. and Heller, K. (1990) ‘Facets of support related to well-being: Quantitative social isolation and perceived family support in a sample of elderly women’, Psychology and Aging, 5(4): 535–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.5.4.535
    Thompson, R. and Amato, P. (1999) ‘The postdivorce family: an introduction to the issues’, in: R.Thompson and P.Amato (Eds), The Postdivorce family. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452234038
    Times of India (2008) ‘Divorces for every 5 knots in Mumbai’, 25 January, available at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2_divorces_for_every_5_marriages_in_Mumbai/articleshow/2729438.cms (accessed11 September 2010).
    Tong, R. (2009) Feminist Thought. Boulder, CO: Westview (
    1st edn 1989
    Tough, P. (2009) Whatever it Takes. New York: First Mariner Books.
    Trades Union Congress (2009) Women and Recession. How will this Recession Affect Women?London: Trades Union Congress.
    Tyyska, V. (2000) ‘“Cohabitation” entry’, in C.Kramarae and D.Spender (Eds), Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Women's Issues and Knowledge, Vol. 1. London: Routledge.
    United Nations (1990) International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, available at http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cmw.htm (accessed 27 June 2010).
    United Nations (2004) United Nations General Assembley 59th session Agenda Item 94 A/59/592, available at http://www.undemocracy.com/A-59-592.pdf (accessed 11 September 2011).
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2009) Annual Number of Divorces and Crude Divorce Rates (2009), available at http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WMD2008/Data/UNPD_WMD_2008_DIVORCES.xls (accessed 27 December 2010).
    United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (2009) Parent Empowerment for Family Literacy Project (PEFaL) Report, available at http://www.unesco.org/uil/litbase/?menu=4andprogramme=53 (accessed 27 June 2010).
    United Nations International Children's Fund (2003) Press Release for International Women's Day, available at http://www.unicef.org/media/media_7594.html (accessed 28 December 2010).
    United Nations Programme on the Family (2009) Family Policy in a Changing World: Promoting Social Protection and Intergenerational Solidarity. Report of the Expert Group Meeting Doha, Qatar 14–16 April 2009, available at http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/family/meetings/egmreportdoha09.pdf (accessed 27June 2010).
    van Acker, E. (2009) ‘Service delivery of relationship support programs in Australia: implications for the “community sector”’, Politics and Policy, 37(6): 1307–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-1346.2009.00221.x
    Vanek, J. (1974) ‘Time spent on housework’, Scientific American, 237: 116–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1174-116
    Veblen, T. (1970) The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. London: Unwin.
    Voicu, M., Voicu, B. and Strapcova, K. (2007) ‘Housework and gender inequality in European countries’, European Sociological Review, 25(3): 365–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcn054
    Walby, S. (1990) Theorising Patriarchy. London: Wiley-Blackwell.
    Walker, J. (2006) ‘Supporting families in democratic societies: public concerns and private realities’, keynote paper at 53rd ICCFR International Conference ‘Families and Democracy: Compatibility, Incompatibility, Opportunity or Challenge?’, 7–19 June 2006, Lyon, France.
    Wallace, C. (2002) ‘Household strategies: their conceptual relevance and analytical scope in social research’, Sociology, 36(2): 275–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038502036002003
    Warde, A. (1990) ‘Household work strategies and forms of labour: conceptual and empirical issues’, Work, Employment and Society, 44(4): 495–515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0950017090004004002
    Weeks, J. (1991) Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths, and Modern Sexualities. London: Routledge.
    Weeks, J., Donovan, M. and Heaphy, B. (2001) Same Sex Intimacies: Families of Choice and Other Life Experiments. New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203167168
    Whitehead, S. (2002) Men and Masculinities. Oxford: Blackwell Press.
    Wilcox, W.B. (Ed.) (2010) The State of Our Unions: Marriage in America 2010. University of Virginia National Marriage Project/Institute for American Values. Charlottesville: University of Virginia.
    Williams, F. (2004) Rethinking Families. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
    Williams, M. and May, T. (1996) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Social Research. London: Routledge.
    Windebank, J. (2001) ‘Dual-earner couples in Britain and France: gender divisions of domestic labour and parenting work in different welfare states’, Work, Employment and Society, 15(2): 262–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09500170122118959
    Wolf, M. (2000) ‘Why this hatred of the market’, in: J.Lechner and J.Boli (Eds), The Globalisation Reader. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.
    World Bank (2008) Data on World Economies. Washington: World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org (accessed 22 June 2011).
    Woodward, K. and Woodward, S. (2009) Why Feminism Matters: Feminism Lost and Found. London: Palgrave Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9780230245242
    World Health Organization (2005) The World Health Report 2005: Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization (2007a) The World Health Report 2007 – A Safer Future: Global Public Health Security in the 21st Century. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization (2007b) Maternal Mortality in 2005: Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, and the World Bank. Geneva: WHO.
    Yi, Z. (2002) ‘A demographics analysis of family households in China, 1982–1995’, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 33(1): 15–34.
    Young, M. (1954) ‘The planners and the planned: the family’, Journal of Town Planning Institute, 60: 134–42.
    Young, M. and Wilmott, P. (1957) Family and Kinship in East London. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Zinn, M.B. and Eitzen, D.S. (1990) Diversity in Families. New York: Harper and Row.
    Zwingle, E. and McNally, J. (1999). A world together. National Geographic, 196(2): 6–33.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website