Understanding Art: A Guide for Teachers


Martin Wenham

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    For Freddy

    with love, as always

    About the Author

    Martin Wenham is a practising artist who until 1998 was a Lecturer in Primary Education at the University of Leicester, specializing in science and art. Much of his work is centred on lettering and language, using shape, space and colour to express and communicate meaning. He works in a variety of media and exhibits widely, most recently in a solo exhibition, Language Visible, at the Goldmark Gallery, Uppingham, Rutland.


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    List of Figures

    • 1.1 A teacher's idea of art 1
    • 1.2 Relating the visual elements 3
    • 2.1 Point and shape 8
    • 2.2 Point with printing-sticks and pens 8
    • 2.3 Point with sprayed paint 9
    • 3.1 Comparing mark-making materials 15
    • 3.2 Line asa record of movement 17
    • 3.3 Line as a record of gesture 18
    • 3.4 Cuts and tears as lines 19
    • 3.5 Branching 21
    • 3.6 Waves 21
    • 3.7 Spirals and loops 22
    • 3.8 Developing groups of lines: contrast and progression 23
    • 3.9 Tŷ Coeden (Tree-house) by Hefin, age 8 25
    • 4.1 Making and matching tone 30
    • 4.2 Contrast and visibility 31
    • 4.3 Gradation, texture and contrast 31
    • 4.4 Mixing greys: the Weber-Fechner effect 33
    • 4.5 Contrast and the perception of tone 34
    • 4.6 Boundaries and contrasts in tone (photograph by Henry Carsch) 35
    • 5.1 Mixing secondary hues 43
    • 8.1 Seeing shapes 72
    • 8.2 Making shapes with marks 73
    • 8.3 Drawing shapes 74
    • 8.4 Cutting shapes 75
    • 8.5 Soft-edged and torn shapes 76
    • 8.6 Shapes in proximity 78
    • 8.7 Shapes overlapping and intersecting 79
    • 8.8 Shapes, energy and movement 81
    • 8.9 Cutting into shapes 83
    • 8.10 Letters as shapes 84
    • 8.11 Shapes from everyday life 85
    • 9.1 Objective and illusory space 90
    • 9.2 Interaction between figure and ground 91
    • 9.3 Alternation and balance in figure and ground 94
    • 9.4 Space invasions 95
    • 9.5 Depth cues and illusory space (photograph by Henry Carsch) 96
    • 9.6 A variety of depth cues 97
    • 9.7 Single-point perspective 98
    • 10.1 Forms in space 105
    • 10.2 Object or image? 107
    • 10.3 Making a form by folding and joining 112
    • 10.4 Simple forms made by bending and joining 113
    • 10.5 Basic forms made by assembly 113
    • 10.6 Making a form by rotating shapes 114
    • 10.7 Making a form by stacking 115
    • 11.1 The texture of paper 123
    • 11.2 Visual textures made by rubbing 123
    • 11.3 Textures produced by printing 124
    • 11.4 Textures painted with a bristle brush 125
    • 11.5 Textures drawn with a fibre-tipped pen 125
    • 12.1 Randomness into pattern 131
    • 12.2 Patterns in point and line 133
    • 12.3 Rotating patterns 134
    • 12.4 Linear patterns from the environment 136
    • 12.5 Linear patterns based on a simple motif 137
    • 12.6 Patterned friezes based on lines 138
    • 12.7 Surface patterns from cut paper shapes 139
    • 12.8 Simple block prints 140
    • 12.9 Simple string prints 141
    • 12.10 Brush-painted pattern 42
    • 12.11 Grids based on quadrangles 143
    • 12.12 Grids based on equal-sided triangles 144
    • 12.13 Curved-line tessellations 145
    • 12.14 Grids based on two shapes 146
    List of Colour Figures

    Between pp.00 and 00.

    • 1 Three-primary colour-wheel
    • 2 Six-primary colour-wheel
    • 3 Pairing up primary hues
    • 4 Tints, shades and values
    • 5 Successive colour contrast and irradiation
    • 6 Simultaneous colour contrasts
    • 7 Contrasts of value between colour and background
    • 8 Colour groupings
    • 9aMixing cool colours (Max, age 6)
    • 9bHot colour pattern (Isabella, age 6)
    • 10aSeaside collage (Mollie, age 7)
    • 10bAt the seaside I saw … (Hannah, age 7)
    • 11aPeaceful (James, age 9)
    • 11bAngry (Zoë, age 9)
    • 12aFruits (Bethan, age 8)
    • 12bSleepy (Robin, age 9)


    The aim of this book is to help teachers to start developing effective teaching and learning in art through first-hand exploration of visual elements such as line, colour and shape. In the practice of art, which includes teaching and learning, the visual elements are combined and used to create a visual language, which we ‘read’ when we look at artwork such as paintings, drawings and sculpture. An understanding of these visual elements can be gained only through first-hand experience and is part of the knowledge-base which underpins all effective art. This book has been written to help teachers and students, especially those with no background knowledge or specialist training in art and design, to learn about the visual elements, and to help children learn about them, through investigation, experiment and observation.

    Apart from Chapter 1, most of the chapters have the same basic layout, though this varies in detail. The first section develops the idea of the visual element, or the aspect of it under discussion, and shows how it is related to others. The middle part, which in some chapters is in more than one section, discusses the properties and potential of the visual element, and practical activities through which these can be investigated. The final section shows, by reference to particular works of art and craft, how the visual element has been used in a range of contexts, periods and cultures.

    Although written in the form of observations and discussions, much of the text can be used in a very direct way as the basis for children's investigations, experiments and creative work. Paragraphs which can be used in this way are marked with a symbol in the margin and printed with a grey background.

    In works of art and in the wider environment, the visual elements are hardly ever seen in isolation from one another, so discussing them separately, though necessary, is also artificial. At every stage there is a need to link up the focus of a particular investigation with what is known of the other visual elements, with the aim of seeing art as an organic whole, rather than a series of unconnected parts. To help achieve this there is extensive cross-referencing throughout the book, showing how the visual elements, and what can be done with them, are connected and related.

    The selection of artworks for discussion in the final section of each chapter is listed in Appendix 5 and is based on my own work in schools and with teachers, but has been subject to other constraints which have resulted in its range being both restricted and distorted. The first constraint has been one of relevance. Examples which illustrate clearly the properties and potential of visual elements in a creative and interesting way are not, in all cases, easy to come by. In addition, much of our present understanding of the visual elements was developed by twentieth-century artists in Europe and America, most of whom were men. The second constraint has been one of availability. As far as possible I have chosen as examples works which are either available as images on the Internet (Appendix 4), or which have been reproduced in low-cost books or other resources which may be available in schools. The need to do this has, regrettably reinforced the gender and cultural bias evident in the contents of major art galleries and art books for the mass market. There is in particular far too great an emphasis on European and American male artists, which has resulted in both women artists and other contemporary cultures being badly under-represented. The most effective way of correcting this is for teachers to research and exploit the resources available in their own areas and communities, which may also make it possible for children to meet artists and experience more works of art at first hand.


    Although one person's name appears on the titlepage this book, like most others, could not have been written without the help and cooperation of a large number of dedicated colleagues. It is based on my own teaching in primary and special schools in Leicestershire as well as in-service and ITT courses at the University of Leicester. To all my pupils, students and teaching colleagues, who have enabled me to learn far more than I can ever have taught them, I extend my warmest thanks.

    During the planning and writing of this book I have received constant help and advice from Sally Pudney and Peter Halliday, who have not only read and commented on the text in draft form but have also given me the benefit of their extensive classroom experience in a wide range of teaching situations. Their advice and support have been invaluable.

    I am grateful to the children and parents who have kindly allowed their artwork to be reproduced, and to Morag Hunter-Carsch, who has given permission for reproduction of two photographs by her husband, the late Henry Carsch. Thanks are also due to the children, teachers and head teacher of Hamilton Primary School, Colchester, for trialling some of the ideas in this book and sharing the results with me.

    Marianne Lagrange of Paul Chapman Publishing, Susie Home and the production team at Sage Publications have been an unfailing source of help, advice and encouragement. I would also like to express my thanks to Penny Butler, whose skill and insight as copy-editor have greatly improved the book, both overall and in many details. Numerous individuals have also been generous in their help for the project, including Peter Jackman of Calder Colours (Ashby) Ltd, who kindly supplied the paints used in my experiments and for Colour figures 18; Jon Palmer who produced Figure 4.5b on his computer; Jonathan Westgate and Paula Buck of the School of Education at Leicester University who continue to help me keep my computer functioning; and Matt Wenham and Kate Grice, who finally got me linked up to the Internet.

    Lastly, my greatest thanks must again be given to my wife Christine, who has lived with this project every day for nearly a year. Without her love and support this and every other endeavour would be impossible.

    MartinWenham, Bangor, Gwynedd, March 2002
  • Appendices

    Appendix 1 Materials used in Colour figures 18

    Colour figures 18 were made by painting sheets of paper, then cutting and assembling them. The paints used were Ocaldo ready-mixed poster paints, made and supplied by:

    Calder Colours

    Nottingham Road


    Leicestershire LE65 1DR

    Telephone: 01530 412885

    The six colours used as primary hues were:

    lemon yellow Y[g]:020 lemon
    orange yellow Y[r]:021 brilliant yellow
    scarlet R[o]:026 brilliant red
    magenta R[v]:012 cerise
    ultramarine B[v]:031 brilliant blue
    cyan B[g]:067 sky blue

    042 black and 046 white were used as well, together with occasionally 027 crimson as a very high-chroma red (e.g. in Colour figure 6b).

    Appendix 2 Shape Alphabet

    This alphabet, suggested for use when investigating letters as shapes (pp. 83–4), is based on a design by the German designer Hans Schmidt, which he originally printed from a set of simple wooden blocks in the 1960s.

    Appendix 3 Notes on Children's Work

    Figure 3.9Tŷ Coeden (Tree-house) by Hefin, age 8

    Pencil on paper; original size A4

    Hefin drew from his imagination the tree-house he would like to have in his garden, and the trees in the forest behind. He built up the picture in stages, drawing the tree-house first, then the steps up to it along the fallen tree, then the garden underneath and finally the trees behind. This is really a narrative drawing, in which he tells us about an imaginary place by way of a picture rather than in words. (The drawing is reproduced from a photocopy, as the original has unfortunately been lost.)

    Hefin has developed his lines in a variety of ways, making shapes and textures which grow into linear and rotating patterns. It is also noticeable that, in order to show exactly what he wants, he has drawn parts of the scene as if they were tilted forward. In this way he is able to show us the walkway up the fallen tree and the garden underneath, which would be invisible with conventional perspective. This tilting, which cancels out any illusion of depth and flattens the whole scene on to the picture-plane, was a device used by Cézanne in many of his late still-lifes, and contributed to the development of Cubism by Picasso and Braque (p. 38). Hefin's drawing, however, has more in common with the fantasy landscapes of Henri Rousseau (p. 103).

    Colour figure 9aMixing cool colours by Max, age 6

    Poster-paint on paper; original size A4

    Colour figure 9bHot colour pattern by Isabella, age 6

    Poster-paint on paper; original size A3

    Both these paintings resulted from a series of colour mixing activities in a Year 1 class. Max, experimenting with controlled mixing, found that ‘because it was cool colours it was like water, so I did the curly shapes like the ripples’. He also put the most vivid green and blue he had available next to each other to obtain the greatest possible colour contrast. Isabella, at a later stage in the same programmme, used what she had learned about colour mixing to develop a pattern she had found at home, drawn in her sketch-book and then redrawn much larger. She said: ‘It was nice going round and not going over the edges. I liked the diamond shapes.’

    These paintings show several interactions between visual elements such as shape, colour and texture, and, in Isabella's case, line as well. Of particular interest is the coupling of cool colours with energetic shapes by Max, and static shapes with hot colours by Isabella (compare Colour figures 11a and 11b). Isabella's painting also shows that the clearer the lines separating areas of colour are, the stronger the contrast between the colours will appear (p. 59)

    Colour figure 10aSeaside collage by Mollie, age 7 Colour figure 10bAt the seaside I saw … by Hannah, age 7

    Both poster-paint on paper, cut and assembled; original sizes 320×230mm

    Both these assembled pieces were part of a longer programme of work in a Year 2 class. After a visit to the seaside, the children chose three colours which they felt went well together, from hundreds of samples in paint shade-cards (pp. 56–7), mixed poster-paint to match them and painted sheets of paper. Having discussed some of Matisse's late cut-outs, especially Les bêtes de la mer (see Appendix 5) they made the own collages from the painted papers, using shapes which reminded them of what they had seen at the seaside.

    Of the many comparisons to be made between these two works, perhaps the most significant are the way in which layout, shape and tonal contrast reflect the different approaches. Hannah's layout in three panels appears well thought out and structured, whereas Mollie's appears freer, though it is not haphazard. Mollie's shapes are more organic and most of them interact only with the colour-panel they are on, whereas Hannah's are more angular and are overlaid so that they interact with each other. This, combined with the layout and strong tonal contrast, gives Hannah's work a more static, considered feel, whereas Mollie's is more spontaneous and dynamic.

    Colour figure 11aPeaceful by James, age 9

    Aquarelle pencil and poster-paint on paper; original size A4

    Colour figure 11bAngry by Zoë, age 9

    Poster-paint on paper; original size A4

    Colour figure 12bSleepy by Robin, age 9

    Poster-paint on paper; original size A4

    These three paintings resulted from an exercise carried out by a Year 4 class, in which they were asked to express and communicate a mood through colour, but not by painting a picture. By presenting the idea in this way it was hoped that the work would be non-representational. All three are very successful examples of the potential of colour to communicate emotional states. Two of them are easy to decipher, and the third is a little more mysterious. As James put it, it was ‘challenging to express, with colours and shapes, the picture I had in my mind’.

    The paintings of Zoë and James show in a clear way how colour can interact with shapes and textures to communicate very divergent emotional states, from the aggressive energy of anger to the sensation of floating in a cool, free environment. Robin's painting was the only one from the whole class in which the mood being communicated could not immediately be guessed at, but when he was asked about his painting, he replied that he dreams in colour. His use of dilute paint, especially light-over-dark tonal contrast and complementary colour pairs, gives the whole painting a dynamic, shifting, kaleidoscopic feel, which expresses very well the unreality of a dream.

    Colour figure 12aFfrwythau (Fruits) by Bethan, age 8

    Pencil, pencil crayon and wash on paper, original size A4

    Bethan does a lot of drawings from memory and imagination, so I suggested that she tried to draw or paint something she was looking at, as a simple kind of still-life. This was one of the results. Although Bethan's painting and Robin's (Colour figure 12b) are equally successful, the contrast between them could hardly be stronger. On the one hand, we have simplicity, delicacy and space with very few shapes and colours, and on the other complexity, energetically filling its frame completely and using almost every part of the colour-wheel.

    Bethan, like Hefin (Figure 3.9) uses a lot of line in her work. A second, undulating line covers some of her first, confident outlines, then she develops her simple line drawing with colour. Here there is a contrast between the strong, fairly precise pencil-crayon colour and the delicate wash applied later, each of which has its own distinctive texture. Colour intensity is also varied skilfully, to emphasize that the banana is an angular object, not a round one. This painting is also a good example of space as a positive visual element. The three shapes float weightlessly in space, the shapes of the fruits interacting with each other and with the ellipse of the plate, which in turn interacts with the edge of the paper so that all of the space is active

    Appendix 4 Image Resources

    Learning from the artwork of others is an essential part of an exploration of art, and doing so through investigations of the visual elements has the advantage that, while resources of images are just as vital as for any other approach to art, particular examples are not often essential. In the final sections of Chapters 212, artists' works are quoted together with comments. These are listed, together with their locations, in Appendix 5 and many of them can be viewed on-line on interactive gallery websites (see p. 154). Apart from visits to local art galleries and visits from local artists, image resources available to schools will be in the form of posters, books, CD-Roms and the Internet.


    Posters are very good resources for display at the start of a programme of work and for whole-class teaching, but are less useful for supporting individual work. The main limitations are first, the availability of images to exemplify what is being investigated or discussed, and secondly their cost. Twentieth-century art is under-represented in most low-cost art poster catalogues, partly because of high fees required by copyright holders, and posters from specialist suppliers are often in the art-print end of the market and correspondingly expensive. On a cost-per-image basis posters are usually much more expensive than books, and it is worth enquiring into the possibility of borrowing them from other schools or library services.


    Although less usual than posters for whole-class teaching, books are often better for individual or small groups, and good art books contain many images to compare and contrast, as well as an informative commentary. To support and extend investigations into the visual elements, books on individual artists will be more rewarding than those on themes or historical periods. More specialized and expensive art books are available from library services, but it is worth trying to build up a basic art library in the school, for day-to-day use by both children and teachers. The range of mass-market art books has expanded significantly in recent years and this, together with greatly reduced prices, means that many of them may now be considered for in-school image resources.

    The most affordable best-value art books at present (2002) are the Basic Art series published by Taschen. Somewhat more expensive, but of excellent quality and still very good value, is the Colour Library series by Phaidon. Books in the Thames and Hudson's World of Art series are very informative and the series is wide-ranging, but their smaller format reduces their usefulness in the classroom. All these publishers have websites which list the titles available in each series. Many Dover Books are also good value, but it can be difficult to get hold of the whole of their range.


    CD-Roms are an excellent source of images, if a high-resolution colour monitor is available. Most major galleries market CD-Roms, but these vary in quality, and unless a high proportion of the images will be used, they can be a very expensive resource, judged on a cost-per-image basis. When assessing quality, it is worth investigating the images before purchase to find out whether, when the magnifying option is selected, the enlarged image is actually more detailed than the overall one, or is simply expanded with no added information. The latter is, of course, much less useful.

    The Internet

    The availability of images on the Internet is changing so rapidly that any information here is almost certain to be out-of-date before it is read. However, a few general remarks may be useful. On-line images rarely have enough detail to make serious study possible, but are good for a general overview. In addition, even with good equipment, textures become invisible in most images and colour values are often seriously distorted.

    Few art galleries, even major ones, have fully interactive websites in which their collections are available for viewing on-line. At present the best appear to be: National Gallery, London (http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk); Tate Gallery, UK (http://www.tate.org.uk); Guggenheim Collection, New York (http://www.guggenheimcollection.org), all of whose collections are accessible from their home pages for on-line viewing. In addition, the Tate website gives the location of every item in the collection which is currently being exhibited. The Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne in Paris has an excellent collection, but the links are a little more complex. The sequence is: http://www.centrepompidou.fr > musée > les Modernes > recherches (in bottom bar) > artist's name.

    Some major museums also have excellent websites. Two of the best are the British Museum, London (http://www.britishmuseum.org.uk) and the Metropolitan Museum in New York (http://www.metmuseum.org/collections). The website of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London has fairly high-quality images but only a small proportion of the collection is featured.

    Viewing art on-line is not without its complications. The availability of images is constantly changing. At the time of writing (March 2002), some galleries are experiencing problems with copyright. Many images of works by artists alive after 1930, which are often the most worthwhile for studying the visual elements, are not available, and images which were on-line a year ago have been withdrawn. All you can do is log on and try.

    Appendix 5 List of Artists and Artworks

    The works and the galleries in which they are usually displayed are listed under artists' names, arranged alphabetically. Nearly all the listed works are paintings, and a note is put beside those such as drawings, scuptures and posters which are not. Where a work is illustrated in a book listed in the References section, a page reference is given.


    • Wilton Diptych: London, National Gallery

    Bellini, Giovanni (died 1536)

    • The Doge Leonardo Loredan: London, National Gallery

    Brancusi, Constantin 1876–1957

    • Bird in space (bronze and marble sculpture): Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art
    • Moderne
    • Fish (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Maiastra (bronze and stone sculpture) : London, Tate Gallery
    • Sleeping muse (marble sculpture): Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne

    Braque, Georges 1882–1963

    • Violin and jug: Basle, Kunstmuseum
    • Violin and palette: New York, Guggenheim Collection

    Calder, Alexander 1898–1976

    • Mobile (metal, wood, wire and string sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • T and swallow (wood and steel sculpture): London, Tate Gallery

    Cassandre, A.M. (pseudonym of Adolphe Mouron) 1901–68

    • Normandie (printed poster): copies in various museums including London, Victoria and Albert Museum; Hillier, 1976: 78

    Caulfield, Patrick 1936–

    • Pottery. London, Tate Gallery

    Cézanne, Paul 1839–1906

    • Forked pine-tree in the park of Château-Noir: London, National Gallery
    • Kitchen still-life: Paris, Musée d'Orsay
    • Le Château de Médan: Glasgow, Burrell Collection
    • Still-life with fruit and vase: London, Courtauld Institute
    • Still-life with ginger-jar and melons: London, National Gallery
    • Still-life with water-jug: London, Tate Gallery

    Constable, John 1776–1837

    • The hay wain: London, National Gallery
    • The hay wain (full-size preparatory sketch): London, Victoria and Albert Museum

    Delaunay, Robert 1885–1941

    • Circular forms, sun no. 2: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Düchting, 1994: 47
    • Rhythm: joy of life: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Düchting, 1994: 66
    • Window on the city no.4: New York, Guggenheim Collection; Düchting, 1994: 29
    • Windows open simultaneously: London, Tate Gallery

    Delaunay, Sonia 1885–1979

    • Electric prisms: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Düchting, 1994: 44
    • Flamenco singer: Lisbon, Gulbenkian Foundation; Düchting, 1994: 50
    • Le Bal Bullier: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Düchting, 1994: 42–3
    • Rhythm colour: Lille, Musée des Beaux-Arts; Düchting, 1994: 78

    Derain, André 1880–1954

    • Mountains, Collioure: Washington, DC, National Museum of Art

    Escher, Maurits (M.C.) 1898–1972

    • Dream (woodcut): Escher, 1994: plate 7
    • Development 1 (woodcut): Escher, 1994: plate 16
    • Three worlds (lithograph): Escher, 1994: plate 49

    Eyck, Jan van (died 1441)

    • Man in a turban: London, National Gallery

    Frink, Elisabeth 1930–93

    • Bird (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Goggle head (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Harbinger bird IV (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery

    Gabo, Naum 1890–1977

    • Head no. 2 (enlarged version) (steel sculpture) : London, Tate Gallery
    • Kinetic construction (standing wave) (metal and wood with electric motor): London, Tate Gallery
    • Model for ‘Column’ (construction): London, Tate Gallery
    • Model for ‘Constructed torso’ (construction): London, Tate Gallery
    • Model for ‘Rotatingfountain’ (metal and plastic construction): London, Tate Gallery

    Giacometti, Alberto 1901–66

    • Man pointing (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery

    Gogh, Vincent van 1853–1890

    • Cottages at Auvers: Paris, Musée d'Orsay; Walther, 1990: 77
    • The postman Joseph Roulin (drawing): Malibu, CA, J. Paul Getty Museum; Walther, 1990: 42
    • Self-portrait 1889: Paris, Musée d'Orsay; Walther, 1990: 73
    • Starry night: New York, Museum of Modern Art; Walther, 1990: 71
    • Still-life with onions: Otterlo, Rijksmuseum Kroller-Müller; Zelanski and Fisher, 1989: 50
    • Wheat fields with cypresses (drawing): Amsterdam, Rijkmuseum Vincent van Gogh; Walther, 1990: 68
    • Wheat fields with cypresses. London, National Gallery; Walther, 1990: 69

    Hepworth, Barbara 1903–75

    • Ball, plane and hole (wood sculpture) : London, Tate Gallery
    • Figure of a woman (stone sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Seated figure (wood sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Three forms (marble sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Two forms (alabaster and limestone sculpture) : London, Tate Gallery

    Hobbema, Meyndert 1638–1709

    • The Avenue, Middelharnis: London, National Gallery

    Hokusai, Katsushika 1760–1849

    • Great Wave of Kanagawa (woodblock print): copies in many museums, including London, Victoria and Albert Museum

    Johns, Jasper 1930

    • Flags: collection of the artist; Zelanski and Fisher, 1989: 96

    Kandinsky, Wassily 1866–1944

    • Blue mountain: New York, Guggenheim Collection; Becks-Malorny, 1999: 35
    • In grey: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Becks-Malorny, 1999: 118
    • Murnau: landscape with a tower: Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Becks-Malorny, 1999; 31
    • Red oval: New York, Guggenheim Collection; Becks-Malorny, 1999: 33
    • With a white border: New York, Guggenheim Collection; Becks-Malorny, 1999: 93

    Klee, Paul 1879–1940

    • Ad Parnassum: Berne, Kunstmuseum; Hall, 1992: 99
    • A young lady's adventure: London, Tate Gallery; Hall, 1992: 55
    • Conqueror: Berne, Kunstmuseum; Hall, 1992: 91
    • Crystal gradation: Basle, Kunstmuseum; Hall, 1992: 59
    • Fruits on red: Munich, Stadtische Galerie; Hall, 1992: 89
    • Fugue in red: private collection; Hall, 1992: 61
    • Hanging fruit: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art
    • Little jester in a trance: Cologne, Museum Ludwig; Hall, 1992: 81
    • Polyphony: Basle, Kunstmuseum; Hall, 1992: 97
    • They're biting!: London, Tate Gallery
    • Three subjects, polyphony, private collection; Hall, 1992: 93
    • Uplift and direction (glider flight): private collection; Hall, 1992: 95

    Léger, Fernand 1881–1955

    • Still-life with a beer-mug: London, Tate Gallery

    Lewis, Wyndham 1882–1957

    • Workshop: London, Tate Gallery

    Malevich, Kasimir 1878–1935

    • Dynamic suprematism. London, Tate Gallery
    • Suprematist composition: airplane flying: New York, Museum of Modern Art; Whitford, 1987: 107

    Matisse, Henri 1869–1954

    • Blue nude III (paper cut-out): Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Néret,1994: 67
    • Flowering ivy (paper cut-out): Dallas, Museum of Fine Arts; Néret, 1994: 83
    • Les bêtes de la mer (paper cut-out): Washington, DC, National Museum of Art; Néret, 1994: 79
    • Open window, Collioure: New York, John Hay Whitney Collection
    • Polynesia, the sky (paper cut-out): Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Néret, 1994: 48
    • The snail (paper cut-out): London, Tate Gallery; Néret, 1994: 82, Whitford, 1987: 31
    • View of Collioure: St Petersburg, Hermitage Museum
    • Woman with amphora (paper cut-out): Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne; Néret, 1994: 75
    • Zulma (paper cut-out): Copenhagen, Statens Museum for Kunst; Néret, 1994: 64

    Moholy-Nagy, László 1895–1946

    • K VIL: London, Tate Gallery; Whitford, 1987: 111

    Mondrian, Piet 1872–1944

    • Blue tree: The Hague, Gemeentenmuseum; Whitford, 1987: 18
    • Composition in colour B: Otterlo, Rijksmuseum Króller-Müller; Blotkamp, 1994: 92
    • Flowering apple-tree: The Hague, Gemeentenmuseum; Whitford, 1987: 19
    • Grey tree. The Hague, Gemeentenmuseum; Whitford, 1987: 18
    • Mill by the water: New York, Museum of Modern Art; Blotkamp, 1994: 33
    • Red tree: The Hague, Gemeentenmuseum; Whitford, 1987: 18

    Monet, Claude 1840–1926

    • Charing Cross Bridge: Cardiff, National Museum of Wales
    • Impression, sunrise: Paris, Musée Marmottan
    • Morning on the Seine, Giverny (mist): Chicago, Art Institute
    • Rouen Cathedral: five of this series are in Paris, Musée d'Orsay, others in Paris,
    • Musée Marmottan; see also Zelanski and Fisher, 1989: 24–5
    • Water-lilies: examples of this series are in London, Tate Gallery and Cardiff, National Museum of Wales
    • Water-lily pond: London, National Gallery

    Moore, Henry 1898–1986

    • Family group (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Four piece composition: reclining figure (alabaster sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Recumbent figure (stone sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Seated woman (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery
    • Three points (bronze sculpture): London, Tate Gallery

    Nicholson, Ben 1894–1982

    • 1934 (Florentine ballet): private collection; Lewison, 1991: illustration 73
    • 1944 (three mugs): Cambridge, UK, Kettle's Yard; Lewison, 1991: illustration 101
    • 1945 (still-life): London, Tate Gallery; Lynton, 1998: 120
    • August 1956 (Val d'Orca): London, Tate Gallery: Lynton, 1998:158–9; Lewison, 1991: illustration 126
    • June 4 (table form): Buffalo, Albright-Knox Gallery; Lynton, 1998: 141

    O'Keeffe, Georgia 1887–1986

    • Black iris III: New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art; Benke, 2000: 36
    • Oriental poppies: Minneapolis, MN, Weisman Art Museum; Benke, 2000: 39

    Picasso, Pablo 1881–1973

    • La Célestine: Paris, Musée Picasso; Payne, 2000: 35
    • Lady in a black hat: Basle, Bayeler Gallery
    • Seated nude: London, Tate Gallery; Payne, 2000: 65
    • Self-portrait 1901: Paris, Musée Picasso; Payne, 2000: 31

    Pollaiuolo, Antonio c. 1432–98 and Piero c. 1441–96

    • Martyrdom of S. Sebastian: London, National Gallery

    Raeburn, Henry 1756–1823

    • Miss Macartney: Glasgow, Burrell Collection
    • Mrs Downey: London, Tate Gallery
    • William Glendonwyn: Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum

    Rijn, Rembrandt van (Rembrandt) 1606–69

    • Jacob Trip: London, National Gallery
    • Self-portrait aged 34. London, National Gallery
    • Self-portrait aged 63: London, National Gallery

    Riley, Bridget 1931

    • Nataraja: London, Tate Gallery

    Rosa, Salvator 1615–73

    • Self-portrait: London, National Gallery

    Rouault, Georges 1871–1958

    • Duo: two brothers: Paris, Musée Nationale de l'Art Moderne
    • Three judges: London, Tate Gallery

    Rousseau, Henri 1844–1910

    • Snake charmer: Paris, Musée d'Orsay
    • Tropical storm with tiger (surprise!): London, National Gallery

    Rubens, Peter Paul 1577–1640

    • Susanna Lunden: London, National Gallery

    Seurat, Georges 1859–91

    • A Sunday afternoon on the island of La Grande jatte: Chicago, Art Institute
    • Bathers at Asnieres: London, National Gallery
    • Le Bec du Hoc, Grandcamp: London, National Gallery
    • Young woman powdering herself: London, Courtauld Institute

    Spencer, Stanley 1891–1959

    • Daphne: London, Tate Gallery; Robinson, 1990: 83
    • Shipbuilding on the Clyde: welders: London, Imperial War Museum; Robinson, 1990:90–5

    Stieglitz, Alfred 1864–1946

    • Avenue of trees (photograph): Weber, 1994: 53
    • From my window: New York (photograph): Weber, 1994: 15
    • Later Lake George: weathervane on wooden cottage (photograph): Weber, 1994: 72–3
    • Looking north … NY (photograph) : Weber, 1994: 48


    • see Vecellio, Tiziano

    Turner, Joseph 1775–1851

    • The fighting Téméraire tugged to her last berth. London, National Gallery; Bockemuhl, 1993: 82, 85
    • Rain, steam and speed: London, Tate Gallery; Bockemuhl, 1933: frontispiece
    • Rome from the Vatican: London, Tate Gallery; Bockemuhl, 1993: 31
    • Snow storm: steam-boat off a harbour's mouth: London, Tate Gallery; Bockemuhl, 1993: 70–1

    van Eyck see Eyck, Jan van

    van Gogh see Gogh, Vincent van

    Vecellio, Tiziano (Titian) c. 1485–1576

    • Death of Actaeon: London, National Gallery
    • Bacchus and Ariadne: London, National Gallery


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