• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

Biological, psychological and social factors are considered in this volume in its exploration of adolescent substance abuse, with adolescents presented as a clearly defined group with unique needs and concerns. The author examines issues such as assessment, treatment planning, service provision and the recovery process, and proposes creative treatment approaches. Integrating the complex elements which impact upon the initiation, maintenance and treatment of young substance abusers, the author uses his biopsychosocial model to examine normative issues for adolescents and how impairment in these areas can cause - or be the result of - substance abuse. Consideration is also given to particularly vulnerable young people, such a

Family and Peer Relationship Factors: The Adolescent's Interpersonal Environment
Family and peer relationship factors: The adolescent's interpersonal environment
Introduction

The adolescent's interpersonal environment is the “holding environment” (Winnicott, 1965) for her psychological development. Holding environment in this context shall be thought of as the clusters of overlapping relationships that provide emotional safety and support for nurturing healthy psychological development.

The adolescent's holding environment can be thought of as having two parts: her family and her peer relationships. Family and friends serve as both a context for the teenager's psychological changes and are co-participants in change during this time of life.

As a context within which change happens, the adolescent's family and peer relationships interact with each other, “The family system and the peer system are seen as operating synergistically ...

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