Doctoral education is of prime importance worldwide. In many countries, there is severe shortage of doctoral degree holders, while in others there is an oversupply in many fields. There is a global debate on the best ways of providing doctoral training. To illustrate global trends, the book analyses the current realities of doctoral education with the help of case studies based on fourteen countries and one continent. It includes an overview of the state of the literature on doctoral education as well as an analysis of doctoral education from a historical perspective with a detailed comparative discussion. Trends and Issues in Doctoral Education: A Global Perspective also examines the challenges and ideas of current and proposed reforms in doctoral education.
Chapter 13: From Quantitative Expansion to Qualitative Improvement: Changes in Doctoral Education in Japan
From Quantitative Expansion to Qualitative Improvement: Changes in Doctoral Education in Japan
Doctoral education in Japan has undergone several major changes since the late 19th century, developing distinctive characteristics during the process. On the one hand, Japan's doctoral education still maintains some historic traditions. On the other hand, the country has launched several national-level reforms since the late 1980s, aiming to modernize the system. Japan's doctoral education is significantly different from that of many Western countries, including Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, and neighbouring Asian countries such as China and Korea. From a historical perspective, Japan established its modern higher education system in the late ...