Trauma & Transformation: Growing in the Aftermath of Suffering


Richard G. Tedeschi & Lawrence G. Calhoun

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    For Mary Lynne, Eliza, and Mary Laura. The joys of my life.

    L. G. C.

    For Joan, Michael, and my parents, for all they have given.

    R. G. T.


    View Copyright Page


    This volume is an attempt to weave together material from various writings in philosophy, religion, and especially psychology to account for a phenomenon that has been recognized since ancient times but given little attention by psychologists: the experience of personal growth or strengthening that often occurs in persons who have faced traumatic events. We use an essentially cognitive framework to explain this experience because changes in belief systems seem to be so often reported by persons who describe their growth, and these beliefs appear to play a central role in relieving emotional distress and encouraging useful activity.

    Although both of us have experienced traumatic events in our lives, we are personally unfamiliar with many of the events mentioned in this book. Our teachers have been the clients with whom we have worked as clinicians, and the people who have agreed to talk with us, sometimes for hours, as part of our research studies in this area. It is to these people we owe the greatest debt. They have not only informed us as psychologists, but made us more sensitive to the struggles and victories of those who have been most painfully touched by life.

    We hope that we have presented information in a way that is accessible to clinicians, laypersons, and especially in Chapter 9, other people who have experienced trauma. We have also tried to summarize a far-flung literature and describe a way of understanding the process of growth that will encourage more attention from researchers. In addition, we believe that this book can be used as a supplementary text in courses on human development, crisis intervention, and introductory courses in counseling and psychotherapy. It is also our hope that this book will be useful as a resource for helping professionals in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, social work, psychiatry, family counseling, human services, nursing, and sociology.

    We wish to acknowledge the assistance of Arnie Cann, Lori Folk, Carl Frye, Donna Harding, and the other students and colleagues with whom we have the pleasure to work. We thank Raymond Berger for his helpful and incisive review of our manuscript. We are especially grateful for the reassignment of duties granted to the senior author by the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. This greatly facilitated the completion of this project. Finally, we express our appreciation to our editors at Sage, Marquita Flemming and Jim Nageotte, for supporting our work.

    Richard G.Tedeschi, Lawrence G.Calhoun, Charlotte, North Carolina
  • Appendix: The Post Traumatic Growth Inventory

    Indicate for each of the statements below the degree to which this change occurred in your life as a result of your crisis, using the following scale.

    • 1 = I did not experience this change as a result of my crisis.
    • 2 = I experienced this change to a very small degree as a result of my crisis.
    • 3 = I experienced this change to a small degree as a result of my crisis.
    • 4 = I experienced this change to a moderate degree as a result of my crisis.
    • 5 = I experienced this change to a great degree as a result of my crisis.
    • 6 = I experienced this change to a very great degree as a result of my crisis.
    • My priorities about what is important in life. (IV)
    • I'm more likely to try to change things which need changing. (I)
    • An appreciation for the value of my own life. (IV)
    • A feeling of self-reliance. (Ill)
    • A better understanding of spiritual matters. (V)
    • Knowing that I can count on people in times of trouble. (II)
    • A sense of closeness with others. (II)
    • Knowing I can handle difficulties. (Ill)
    • A willingness to express my emotions. (II)
    • Being able to accept the way things work out. (Ill)
    • Appreciating each day. (IV)
    • Having compassion for others. (II)
    • I'm able to do better things with my life. (I)
    • New opportunities are available which wouldn't have been otherwise. (I)
    • Putting effort into my relationships. (II)
    • I have a stronger religious faith. (V)
    • I discovered that I'm stronger than I thought I was. (Ill)
    • I learned a great deal about how wonderful people are. (II)
    • I developed new interests. (I)
    • I accept needing others. (II)
    • I established a new path for my life. (I)
    NOTE: Scale is scored by adding all responses. Factors are scored by adding responses to items on factors.

    Factor I: New Possibilities

    Factor II: Relating to Others

    Factor III: Personal Strength

    Factor IV: Appreciation of Life

    Factor V: Spiritual Change

    The Development of the Post Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI)
    Item Development

    The first step in developing the PTGI was a general review of studies of perceived benefits. Thirty-four items were generated.

    Factor Analysis

    A factor analysis was performed on these items using a principal component extraction and varimax rotation, yielding six factors. These accounted for 55% of the common variance and included 21 items that loaded greater than .5 on one of the five factors without loading .4 or greater on any other factor. There was a Pearson product-moment correlation of r = .98 between total score based on the 21-item version of the PTGI and the total score based on 34 items.


    Females reported more benefits (M = 75.18, SD = 21.24) than males (M = 67.77, SD = 22.07), t(1, 590) = 3.94, p < .001. Females also scored higher than males on every factor except New Possibilities.

    Internal Consistency and Test-Retest Reliability

    The internal consistency of the PTGI is α = .90, and for the factors, a ranged from .67 to .85. Corrected item-scale correlations (r = .35 to r = .63) indicated that all items are measuring a similar underlying construct, but none is overly redundant with the others. The Pearson product-moment correlations among the subscales ranged from r = .27 to r = .52.

    In a sample of 28 persons, the test-retest reliability over a 2-month period for the 21 items was r = .71.

    Construct Validity

    Some discriminant validity work has been done with samples ranging from N = 318 to N = 449. Only the Appreciation of Life factor is related to social desirability, but the modest relationship (r = −.15) indicates that persons reporting more appreciation of life are less likely to present themselves in a socially desirable fashion. The PTGI is modestly correlated with optimism (r = .23), as measured by the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985). Among the “Big Five” factors of personality, as measured by the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985), the PTGI is most strongly related to Extroversion (r = .29). It is also related at more modest levels to Openness to Experience (r = .21), Agreeableness (r = .18), and Conscientiousness (r = .16). There is no relationship with Neuroticism, indicating that persons who report benefits from experiencing trauma are neither more nor less well adjusted than persons who do not report these benefits.

    Persons experiencing severe trauma reported more benefits than those who did not, on the PTGI score and on the following factors: New Possibilities, Relating to Others, Personal Strength, and Appreciation of Life. Females who experienced trauma received higher scores on the PTGI (M = 90.26) than did males (M = 73.48). Complete data on scale development and validity studies are reported in Tedeschi and Calhoun (in press).


    Abbott, D.A., & Meredith, W.H. (1986) Strengths of parents with retarded children. Family Relations, 35, 371–375.
    Abrahamson, L.Y., Metalsky, G.I., & Alloy, L.B. (1989) Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96, 358–372.
    Abrams, F.R. (1989) Medical-ethical perspectives on human suffering. In R.Taylor & J.Watson (Eds.), They shall not hurt (pp. 89–105). Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.
    Adams, P.R., & Adams, G.R. (1984) Mount Saint Helens ashfall. American Psychologist, 39, 252–260.
    Adler, A. (1943) Neuropsychiatric complications in victims of Boston's Coconut Grove disaster. Journal of the American Medical Association, 123, 1098–1101.
    Affleck, G., Allen, D.A., Tennen, H., McGrade, B.J., & Ratzan, S. (1985) Causal and control cognitions in parents' coping with chronically ill children. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 3, 367–377.
    Affleck, G., Tennen, H., & Gershman, K. (1985) Cognitive adaptations to high-risk infants: The search for mastery, meaning, and protection from future harm. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 89, 653–656.
    Aldwin, C.M. (1994). Stress, coping, and development. New York: Guilford.
    Aldwin, C.M., Levenson, M.R., & Spiro, A. (1994). Vulnerability and resilience to combat exposure: Can stress have life-long effects?Psychology and Aging, 9, 34–44.
    Alexander, V. (1991). Words I never thought to speak: Stories of life in the wake of suicide. New York: Lexington Books.
    American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    Anderson, C.A. (1989) The severely physically disabled: A subjective account of suffering. In R.Taylor & J.Watson (Eds.), They shall not hurt (pp. 107–124). Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.
    Anderson, J.R. (1985). Cognitive psychology and its implications (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Freeman.
    Andreasen, N.L., & Norris, A.S. (1972) Long-term adjustment and adaptation mechanisms in severely burned adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 154, 352–362.
    Andrykowski, M.A. (1992, August). Positive psychosocial adjustment among cancer survivors. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Antonucci, T.C., & Jackson, J.S. (1990) The role of reciprocity in social support. In B.R.Sarason, I.G.Sarason, & G.R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 173–198). New York: John Wiley.
    Aristotle. (1970). Poetics (G.F. Else, Trans.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
    Auerhahn, N.C., Laub, D., & Peskin, H. (1993) Psychotherapy with Holocaust survivors. Psychotherapy, 30, 434–442.
    Averill, J.R., & Nunley, E.P. (1992). Voyages of the heart: Living an emotionally creative life. New York: Free Press.
    Balk, D.E., & Hogan, N.S. (in press). Religion, spirituality, and bereaved adolescents. In D.W.Adams & E.J.Deveau (Eds.), Helping children and adolescents: The impact of threat to their lives, dying, death, and bereavement. Amityville, NY: Baywood.
    Baltes, P.B., & Smith, J. (1990) Toward a psychology of wisdom and its ontogenesis. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 87–120). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Bandura, A. (1977) Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.
    Bandura, A. (1978) The self-system in reciprocal determinism. American Psychologist, 33, 344–358.
    Bandura, A. (1982a). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, 122–147.
    Bandura, A. (1982b). The psychology of chance encounters and life paths. American Psychologist, 37, 747–755.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1988) Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1, 77–98.
    Bandura, A., Cioffi, D., Taylor, C.B., & Brouillard, M.E. (1988) Perceived selfefficacy in coping with cognitive stressors and opioid activation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 479–488.
    Bandura, A., O'Leary, A., Taylor, C.B., Gauthier, J., & Gossard, D. (1987) Perceived self-efficacy and pain control: Opioid and nonopioid mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 563–571.
    Barrera, M. Jr., (1988) Models of social support: Beyond the buffering hypothesis. In L.H.Cohen (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning (pp. 211–236). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Baruch, R., & Stutman, S. (1992, August). Resilience: Searching for an interventive strategy. In H.Tomes (Chair), The process of fostering resilience: Roles for psychologists and media. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Baumeister, R.F. (1991). Meanings of life. New York: Guilford.
    Beardslee, W.R., & Podorefsky, D. (1988) Resilient adolescents whose parents have serious affective and other psychiatric disorders: Importance of self-understanding and relationships. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 63–69.
    Berger, P.L. (1967). The sacred canopy: Elements of a sociological theory of religion. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Berger, R. (1988) Learning to survive and cope with human loss. Social Work Today, 19(34), 14–17.
    Bergin, A.E. (1991) Values and religious issues in psychotherapy and mental health. American Psychologist, 46, 394–403.
    Berlin, N. (1981). The secret cause: A discussion of tragedy. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.
    Bijur, P.E., Wallston, K.A., Smith, C.A., Lifrak, S., & Friedman, S.A. (1993, August). Gender differences in turning to religion for coping. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Birren, J.E., & Fisher, L.M. (1990) The elements of wisdom: Overview and integration. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 317–332). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Borysenko, J. (1993). Fire in the soul: A new psychology of spiritual optimism. New York: Warner.
    Bowker, J. (1970). Problems of suffering in religions of the world. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Bowlby, J. (1980). Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic Books.
    Brewin, C.R. (1984) Attributions for industrial accidents: Their relationship to rehabilitation outcome. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 2, 156–164.
    Brickman, P., Rabinowitz, V., Karuza, J., Coates, D., Cohn, E., & Kidder, L. (1982) Models of helping and coping. American Psychologist, 37, 368–384.
    Brown, J.D. (1986) Evaluations of self and others: Self-enhancement biases in social judgments. Social Cognition, 4, 353–376.
    Brueggemann, W. (1984). The message of the Psalms. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg.
    Bruner, J. (1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Burger, J.M. (1989) Negative reactions to increases in perceived personal control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 246–256.
    Burt, M.R., & Katz, B.L. (1987) Dimensions of recovery from rape: Focus on growth outcomes. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 57–81.
    Calhoun, K.S., & Atkeson, B.M. (1991). Treatment of rape victims. New York: Pergamon.
    Calhoun, L.G., & Allen, B.G. (1991) Social reactions to the survivor of suicide in the family: A review of the literature. Omega, 23, 95–107.
    Calhoun, L.G., & Tedeschi, R.G. (1989–1990). Positive aspects of critical life problems: Recollections of grief. Omega, 20, 265–272.
    Calhoun, L.G., Tedeschi, R.G., Cann, A., Gill, M.J., & Burr, H. (1994). Perceiving benefits: Negative events, positive events, and positive bias. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Calhoun, L.G., Tedeschi, R.G., & Lincourt, A. (1992, August). Life crises and religious beliefs: Changed beliefs or assimilated events? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Campbell, A. (1981). The sense of well-being in America. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
    Carver, C.S., Pozo, C., Harris, S.D., Noreiga, V., Scheier, M.F., Robinson, D.S., Ketcham, A.S., Moffat, F.L., & Clark, K.C. (1993) How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress: A study of women with early stage breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 375–390.
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1981). Attention and self-regulation. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1987, August). Dispositional optimism, coping and stress. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York.
    Carver, C.S., Scheier, M.F., & Weintraub, J.K. (1989) Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.
    Church, J.S. (1974) The Buffalo Creek disaster: Extent and range of emotional and/or behavioral problems. Omega, 5, 61–63.
    Collins, R.L., Taylor, S.E., & Skokan, L.A. (1990) A better world or a shattered vision? Changes in life perspectives following victimization. Social Cognition, 8, 263–285.
    Colvin, C.R., & Block, J. (1994) Do positive illusions foster mental health? An examination of the Taylor and Brown formulation. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 3–20.
    Constantine, L. (1986). Family paradigms. New York: Guilford.
    Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae, R.R. (1985). NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Costa, P.T. Jr., & McCrae, R.R. (1986) Personality stability and its implications for clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Review, 6, 407–424.
    Costa, P.T. Jr., & Widiger, T.A. (1994). Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Coyne, J.C., & Downey, G. (1991) Social factors and psychopathology: Stress, social support, and coping processes. In Annual review of psychology (Vol. 42, pp. 401–425). Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews, Inc.
    Coyne, J.C., Ellard, J.H., & Smith, D.A.F. (1990) Social support, interdependence, and the dilemmas of helping. In B.R.Sarason, I.G.Sarason, & G.R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view (pp. 129–149). New York: John Wiley.
    Coyne, J.C., & Smith, D.A.F. (1994) Couples coping with a myocardial infarction: Contextual perspective on patient self-efficacy. Journal of Family Psychology, 8, 43–54.
    Coyne, J.C., Wortman, C.B., & Lehman, D.R. (1988) The other side of support: Emotional overinvolvement and miscarried helping. In B.H.Gottlieb (Ed.), Marshaling social support (pp. 305–330). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Crowne, D.P., & Liverant, S. (1963). Conformity under varying conditions of personal commitment, journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 547–555.
    Curbow, B., Somerfield, R., Baker, F., Wingard, J.R., & Legro, M.W. (1993) Personal changes, dispositional optimism, and psychological adjustment to bone marrow transplantation. journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 423–443.
    Cutrona, C.E. (1990) Stress and social support—In search of optimal matching. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 3–14.
    Dakof, G.A., & Taylor, S.E. (1990). Victims' perceptions of social support: What is helpful from whom?journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 80–89.
    Darvill, T.J., & Johnson, R.C. (1991) Optimism and perceived control of life events as related to personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 951–954.
    Davidson, L.M., Fleming, I., & Baum, A. (1986) Post-traumatic stress as a function of chronic stress and toxic experience. In C.R.Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: Traumatic stress theory research and intervention (Vol. 2, pp. 57–77). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Davis, R.G., & Friedman, L.N. (1985) The emotional aftermath of crimes and violence. In C.R.Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (Vol. 1, pp. 90–112). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Diener, E. (1984) Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542–575.
    Dienstbier, R.A. (1992) Mutual impacts of toughening on crises and losses. In L.Montada, S.Filipp, & M.J.Lerner (Eds.), Life crises and experiences of loss in adulthood (pp. 367–384). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Dorman, L. (1994, May 17). To Azinger, cancer becomes a blessing. New York Times.
    Downey, G., Silver, R.C., & Wortman, C.B. (1990) Reconsidering the attribution-adjustment relation following a major negative event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 925–940.
    Drabek, T.E., & Key, W.H. (1976) The impact of disaster on primary group linkages. Mass Emergencies, 1, 89–105.
    Druss, R.G., & Douglas, C.J. (1988) Adaptive responses to illness and disability: Healthy denial. General Hospital Psychiatry, 10, 163–168.
    Elder, G.H. Jr., (1979) Historical change in life patterns and personality. In P.B.Baltes & O.G.Brim (Eds.), Life span development and behavior (Vol. 2, pp. 117–159). New York: Academic Press.
    Elder, G.H. Jr., & Clipp, E.C. (1989) Combat experience and emotional health: Impairment and resilience in later life. Journal of Personality, 57, 311–341.
    Ell, K., & Dunkel-Schetter, C. (1994) Social support and adjustment to myocardial infarction, angioplasty, and coronary artery bypass surgery. In S.A.Shumaker & S.M.Czajkowski (Eds.), Social support and cardiovascular disease (pp. 301–332). New York: Plenum.
    Epstein, S. (1973) The self-concept revisited, or a theory of a theory. American Psychologist, 28, 404–416.
    Epstein, S. (1980) The self-concept: A review and the proposal of an integrated theory of personality. In E.Staub (Ed.), Personality: Basic issues and current research (pp. 81–132). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Epstein, S. (1990) The self-concept, the traumatic neurosis, and the structure of personality. In D.Ozer, J.M.Healy Jr., & A.J.Stewart (Eds.), Perspectives on personality (Vol. 3, pp. 63–98). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Epstein, S. (1994) Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. American Psychologist, 49, 709–724.
    Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
    Everstine, D.S., & Everstine, L. (1993). The trauma response: Treatment for emotional injury. New York: Norton.
    Fisher, S., & Fisher, R.L. (1993). The psychology of adaptation to absurdity. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Fiske, S.T., & Taylor, S.E. (1984). Social cognition. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Foa, E.B., Rothbaum, B.O., Riggs, D.S., & Murdock, T.B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims: A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 715–723.
    Folkman, S. (1984) Personal control and stress in the coping process: A theoretical analysis. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 839–852.
    Frankl, V. (1961) Logotherapy and the challenge of suffering. Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, 1, 3–7.
    Frankl, V.E. (1963). Man's search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York: Pocket Books.
    Franklin, K.M., Janoff-Bulman, R., & Roberts, J.E. (1990). Long-term impact of parental divorce on optimism and trust: Changes in general assumptions or narrow beliefs?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 743–755.
    Fritz, G.K., Williams, J.R., & Amylon, M. (1988) After treatment ends: Psychosocial sequelae in pediatric cancer survivors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 58, 552–561.
    Fromm, E. (1947). Man for himself. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
    Ganzini, L., McFarland, B.H., & Cutler, D. (1990) Prevalence of mental disorders after catastrophic financial loss. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 17, 680–685.
    Garbarino, J., Kostelny, K., & Durow, N. (1991) What children can tell us about living in danger. American Psychologist, 46, 376–383.
    Garmezy, N. (1985) Stress resistant children: The search for protective factors. In J.E.Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Book Suppl. No. 4). Oxford, UK: Pergamon.
    Gergen, K. (1994). Toward transformation in social knowledge (
    2nd ed.
    ). London: Sage.
    Gibbons, F.X. (1986) Social comparison and depression: Company's effect on misery. journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 140–148.
    Goodhart, D.E. (1985). Some psychological effects associated with positive and negative thinking about stressful event outcomes: Was Pollyanna right?Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 216–232.
    Gore, P.M., & Rotter, J.B. (1963) A personality correlate of social action. Journal of Personality, 31, 58–64.
    Gorkin, L., Follick, M.J., Wilkin, D.L., & Niaura, R. (1994) Social support and the progression and treatment of cardiovascular disease. In S.A.Shumaker & S.M.Czajkowski (Eds.), Social support and cardiovascular disease (pp. 281–299). New York: Plenum.
    Gottlieb, B.H., & Wagner, F. (1991) Stress and support processes in close relationships. In J.Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 165–188). New York: Plenum.
    Graham, B. (1981). Till Armageddon: A perspective on suffering. Minneapolis, MN: Grason.
    Green, D. (1986, Summer). The origins of resilience. Changes, pp. 276–278.
    Greenwald, A.G. (1980) The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603–618.
    Greven, P. (1990). Spare the child. New York: Knopf.
    Hager, D. (1992) Chaos and growth. Psychotherapy, 29, 378–384.
    Hall, C.M. (1986) Crisis as opportunity for spiritual growth. Journal of Religion and Health, 25, 8–17.
    Hamera, E.K., & Shontz, F.C. (1978) Perceived positive and negative effects of life-threatening illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 22, 419–424.
    Hamilton, J.C., Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Cather, C. (1993) A self-regulatory perspective on psychopathology and psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 3, 205–248.
    Hannah, T.E. (1988, Summer). Hardiness and health behavior: The role of health concern as a moderator variable. Behavioral Medicine, pp. 59–63.
    Harvey, J.H., Orbuch, T.L., Chwalisz, K.D., & Garwood, G. (1991) Coping with sexual assault: The roles of account-making and confiding. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4, 515–531.
    Harvey, J., Weber, A., & Orbuch, T.L. (1990). Interpersonal accounts. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.
    Hastie, R. (1981) Schematic principles in human memory. In E.T.Higgins, C.P.Herman, & M.Zanna (Eds.), Social cognition: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 1, pp. 39–88). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Healy, J.M. Jr., (1989) Emotional adaptation to life transitions: Early impact on integrative cognitive processes. In D.M.Buss & N.Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 115–127). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Helgeson, V.S. (1991) The effects of masculinity and social support on recovery from myocardial infarction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 621–633.
    Helgeson, V.S., & Taylor, S.E. (1993) Social comparisons and adjustment among cardiac patients. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 15, 1171–1195.
    Helmreich, W.B. (1992). Against all odds: Holocaust survivors and the successful lives they made in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Herbert, T.C., & Cohen, S. (1993) Stress and immunity in humans: A meta-analytic review. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 364–379.
    Herman, J.L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
    Hobfoll, S.E., Spielberger, C.D., Breznitz, S., Figley, C., Folkman, S., Lepper-Green, B., Meichenbaum, D., Milgram, N., Sandler, I., Sarason, I., & van der Kolk, B. (1991) War-related stress: Addressing the stress of war and other traumatic events. American Psychologist, 46, 848–855.
    Hobfoll, S.E., & Vaux, A. (1993) Social support: Social resources and social context. In L.Goldberger & S.Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 685–705). New York: Free Press.
    Hodgkinson, P.E., & Shepherd, M.A. (1994) The impact of disaster support work. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 587–600.
    Hodgkinson, P.E., & Stewart, M. (1991). Coping with catastrophe. London: Routledge.
    Holahan, C.J., & Moos, R.H. (1990) Life stressors, resistance factors, and improved psychological functioning: An extension of the stress resistance paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 909–917.
    Horowitz, M.J. (1975) Intrusive and repetitive thoughts after experimental stress: A summary. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1457–1463.
    Horowitz, M.J. (1976). Stress response syndromes. New York: Jason Aronson.
    Horowitz, M.J. (1986). Stress response syndromes (
    2nd ed.
    ). Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
    Houston, B.K., Bloom, L.J., Burish, T.G., & Cummings, E.M. (1978) Positive evaluation of stressful experiences. Journal of Personality, 46, 205–214.
    Howard, G.S. (1989). A tale of two stories: Excursions into a narrative approach to psychology. Notre Dame, IN: Academic Publications.
    Hoyt, T. Jr., (1978) What can Christianity do for me? In H.J.Young (Ed.), Preaching on suffering and a God of love (pp. 73–77). Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
    Hurley, D. (1987, August). A sound mind in an unsound body. Psychology Today, pp. 34–43.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1979) Characterological versus behavioral self-blame: Inquiries into depression and rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1798–1809.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989a). Assumptive worlds and the stress of traumatic events: Applications of the schema construct. Social Cognition, 7, 113–136.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1989b). The benefits of illusions, the threat of disillusionment, and the limitations of inaccuracy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 8, 158–175.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions. New York: Free Press.
    Janoff-Bulman, R., & Timko, C. (1985) Working with victims: Changes in the researcher's assumptive world. In A.Baum & J.Singer (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology: Methods and environmental psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 75–97). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Janoff-Bulman, R., & Timko, C. (1987) Coping with traumatic life events. In C.R.Snyder & C.Ford (Eds.), Coping with negative life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives (pp. 351–382). New York: Plenum.
    Jenkins, C.D., Stanton, B., Savageau, J.A., Delinger, P., & Klein, M.D. (1983) Coronary artery bypass surgery: Physical, psychological, social, and economic outcomes six months later. Journal of the American Medical Association, 250, 782–788.
    Joseph, S., Williams, R., & Yule, W. (1993) Changes in outlook following disaster: The preliminary development of a measure to assess positive and negative responses. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 271–279.
    Kahana, E., & Kinney, J. (1991) Understanding caregiving interventions in the context of the stress model. In R.F.Young & E.A.Olson (Eds.), Health, illness, and disability in later life: Practice issues and interventions (pp. 122–142). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Kamarck, T.W., Manuck, S.B., & Jennings, J.R. (1990) Social support reduces cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: A laboratory model. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 42–58.
    Kaplan, H.B. (1991) Social psychology of the immune system: A conceptual framework and review of the literature. Social Science and Medicine, 33, 909–923.
    Kast, V. (1990). The creative leap: Psychological transformation through crisis (D. Whitcher, Trans.). Wilmette, IL: Chiron. (Original work published 1987)
    Keller, H. (1968). Midstream: My later life. New York: Greenwood.
    Kelly, G.A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1). New York: Norton.
    Kelly, H.A. (1993). Ideas and forms of tragedy from Aristotle to the Middle Ages. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Kendall-Tackett, K.A., Williams, L.M., & Finkelhor, D. (1993) Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 164–180.
    Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., & Glaser, R. (1989) Psychoneuroimmunology: Past, present, and future. Health Psychology, 8, 677–682.
    Kierkegaard, S. (1983). Fear and trembling. (H.V. Long & E.H. Long, Trans.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Kilpatrick, D.G., Veronen, L.J., & Best, C.L. (1985) Factors predicting psychological distress among rape victims. In C.R.Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (Vol. 1, pp. 113–141). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Klass, D. (1986–1987). Marriage and divorce among bereaved parents in a self-help group. Omega, 17, 237–249.
    Klein, W.M., & Kunda, Z. (1993) Maintaining self-serving social comparisons: Biased reconstruction of one's past behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 732–739.
    Kobasa, S.C. (1979) Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11.
    Kobasa, S.C., Maddi, S.R., Puccetti, M.C., & Zola, M.A. (1985) Effectiveness of hardiness, exercise and social support as resources against illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 29, 525–533.
    Koenig, H.G., George, L.K., & Siegler, I.C. (1988) The use of religion and other emotion-regulating coping strategies among older adults. Gerontologist, 28, 303–310.
    Komp, D.M. (1993). A child shall lead them: Lessons in hope from children with cancer. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
    Kramer, D.A. (1990) Conceptualizing wisdom: The primacy of affect-cognition relations. In R.J.Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 279–313). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Krementz, J. (1983). How it feels when a parent dies. New York: Knopf.
    Krook, D. (1969). Elements of tragedy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Krystal, H. (1988). Integration and self-healing: Affect, trauma, alexithymia. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
    Kulik, J.A., & Mahler, H.I.M. (1993) Emotional support as a moderator of adjustment and compliance after coronary artery bypass surgery: A longitudinal study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 45–63.
    Kushner, H.S. (1981). When bad things happen to good people. New York: Avon.
    Lagrande, L.E. (1988). Changing patterns of human existence: Assumptions, beliefs, and coping with the stress of change. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Langer, E.J., & Rodin, J. (1976) The effects of choice and enhanced personal responsibility for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34, 191–198.
    Lauer, R.H., & Lauer, J.C. (1988). Watersheds: Mastering life's unpredictable crises. New York: Ivy Books.
    Lazarus, R., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
    Leder, D. (1984–1985). Toward a phenomenology of pain. Review of Existential Psychology and Psychiatry, 19, 255–266.
    Lehman, D.R., Davis, C.G., Delongis, A., Wortman, C., Bluck, S., Mandel, D.R., & Ellard, J.H. (1993) Positive and negative life changes following bereavement and their relations to adjustment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 12, 90–112.
    Lehman, D.R., Ellard, J.H., & Wortman, C.B. (1986) Social support for the bereaved: Recipients' and providers' perspectives on what is helpful. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 438–446.
    Lehman, D.R., Lang, E.L., Wortman, C.B., & Sorenson, S.B. (1989) Long-term effects of sudden bereavement: Marital and parent-child relationships and children's reactions. Journal of Family Psychology, 2, 344–367.
    Lehman, D.R., Wortman, C.B., & Williams, A.F. (1987) Long-term effects of losing a spouse or child in a motor vehicle crash. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 218–231.
    Levy, S.M. (1985). Behavior and cancer. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lewis, C.S. (1963). A grief observed. New York: Seabury Press.
    Lifton, R.J. (1993). The protean self: Human resilience in an age of fragmentation. New York: Basic Books.
    Lincoln, Y., & Guba, E. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Lipowski, Z.J. (1970) Physical illness, the individual and the coping process. Psychiatry in Medicine, 1, 91–102.
    Little, D. (1989) Human suffering in comparative perspective. In R.Taylor & J.Watson (Eds.), They shall not hurt (pp. 53–72). Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press.
    Lopata, H.Z. (1973) Self-identity in marriage and widowhood. Sociological Quarterly, 14, 407–418.
    Lund, D.A., Caserta, M.S., & Dimond, M. (1993) The course of spousal bereavement in later life. In M.S.Stroebe, W.Stroebe, & R.O.Hansson (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement: Theory, research, and intervention (pp. 240–254). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Lupfer, M.B., Brock, K.F., & DePaola, S.J. (1992) The use of secular and religious attributions to explain everyday behavior. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31, 486–503.
    Maddi, S.R., Bartone, P.T., & Puccetti, M.C. (1987). Stressful events are indeed a factor in physical illness: Reply to Schroeder and Costa (1984). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 833–843.
    Mahoney, M.J. (1991). Human change processes. New York: Basic Books.
    Malinak, D.P., Hoyt, M.F., & Patterson, V. (1979) Adults' reactions to the death of a parent. American Journal of Psychiaty, 136, 1152–1156.
    Malinovsky-Rummell, R., & Hansen, D.J. (1993) Long-term consequences of childhood physical abuse. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 68–79.
    Manning, M.R., Williams, R.F., & Wolfe, D.M. (1988) Hardiness and the relationship between stressors and outcomes. Work and Stress, 2, 205–216.
    Martin, L.L., & Tesser, A. (1989) Toward a motivational and structural theory of ruminative thought. In J.S.Uleman & J.A.Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 306–326). New York: Guilford.
    Martin, L.L., Tesser, A., & McIntosh, W.D. (1993) Wanting but not having: The effects of unattained goals on thoughts and feelings. In D.M.Wegner & J.W.Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 552–572). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Matlin, M., & Stang, D. (1978). The Pollyanna principle: Selectivity in language, memory, and thought. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman.
    Maton, K. (1989) The stress-buffering role of spiritual support: Cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 310–323.
    May, R. (1981). Freedom and destiny. New York: Norton.
    McAdams, D.P. (1989) The development of a narrative identity. In D.M.Buss & N.Cantor (Eds.), Personality psychology: Recent trends and emerging directions (pp. 160–174). New York: Springer-Verlag.
    McAdams, D.P. (1993). The stories we live by: Personal myths and the making of the self. New York: Morrow.
    McCann, I.L., & Pearlman, L.A. (1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy, and transformation. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    McCann, I.L., Sakheim, D.K., & Abrahamson, D.J. (1988) Trauma and victimization: A model of psychological adaptation. Counseling Psychologist, 16, 531–594.
    McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. Jr., (1993) Psychological resilience among widowed men and women: A 10-year follow-up of a national sample. In M.S.Stroebe, W.Stroebe, & R.O.Hansson (Eds.), Handbook of bereavement: Theory, research and intervention (pp. 196–207). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    McIntosh, D.N. (1991, August). Religion as schema: Implications for the relation between religion and coping. In P.C.Hill (Chair), Promising cognitive models for an empirical psychology of religion. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco.
    Miles, L. (1965) (Ed.). Saint Thomas More: A dialogue of comfort against tribulation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Miles, M.S., & Crandall, E.K.B. (1983) The search for meaning and its potential for affecting growth in bereaved parents. Health Values, 7, 19–23.
    Miles, M.S., Demi, A.S., & Mostyn-Aker, P. (1984) Rescue workers' reactions following the Hyatt hotel disaster. Death Education, 8, 315–331.
    Monahon, C. (1993). Children and trauma: A parent's guide to helping children heal. New York: Lexington Books.
    Moran, C., & Britton, N.R. (1994) Emergency work experience and reaction to traumatic incidents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 7, 575–585.
    Moran, M. (1992, November 2). Basketball: This court jester knows the score. New York Times, p. C2.
    Morgan, J.J., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992, August). Positive self-complexity and reactions to traumatic events. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Moustakas, C. (1961). Loneliness. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Neeld, E.H. (1990). Seven choices: Taking the steps to new life after losing someone you love. New York: Delta.
    Neimeyer, R.A. (1993) An appraisal of constructivist psychotherapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 221–234.
    Nerken, I.R. (1993) Grief and the reflective self: Toward a clearer model of loss and growth. Death Studies, 17, 1–26.
    Newman, J.S., & Pargament, K.I. (1990) The role of religion in the problem-solving process. Review of Religious Research, 31, 390–404.
    Niebuhr, R. (1937). Beyond tragedy: Essays on the Christian interpretation of history. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press.
    Nietzsche, F. (1955). Beyond good and evil (M. Cowan, Trans.). Chicago: Henry Regnery.
    Norris, F.H., Riad, J.K., & Kaniasty, K. (1993, August). Reciprocity of enacted support and the preservation of resources following natural disaster. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.
    Notarius, C.I., & Herrick, L.R. (1988) Listener response strategies to a distressed other. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 97–108.
    Ochberg, F. (Ed.). (1988). Post-traumatic therapy and victims of violence. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    O'Leary, A. (1990) Stress, emotion, and human immune function. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 363–382.
    Osborne, J.W., & Baldwin, J.R. (1982). Psychotherapy: From one state of illusion to another?Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 19, 266–275.
    Paolucci, A., & Paolucci, H. (1962). Hegel on tragedy. New York: Harper Torchbooks.
    Pargament, K. (1990) God help me: Toward a theoretical framework of coping for the psychology of religion. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 2, 195–224.
    Pargament, K.I., Falgout, K., Reilly, B., Ensing, D.S., Olsen, H., Van der Meulen, K., & Warren, R. (1991). God help me (1): Religious coping efforts as predictors of the outcomes to significant life events. Unpublished manuscript, Bowling Green State University.
    Pargament, K.I., Kennell, J., Hathaway, W., Grevengoed, N., Newman, J., & Jones, W. (1988) Religion and the problem-solving process: Three styles of coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 27, 90–104.
    Pargament, K.I., Royster, B.J.T., Albert, M., Crowe, P., Cullman, E.P., Holley, R., Schaefer, D., Sytniak, M., & Wood, M. (1990, August). A qualitative approach to the study of religion and coping: Four tentative conclusions. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston.
    Park, C.L., & Cohen, L.H. (1993) Religious and nonreligious coping with the death of a friend. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 17, 561–577.
    Park, C.L., Cohen, L., & Murch, R. (in press). Assessment and prediction of stress-related growth. Journal of Personality.
    Parkes, C.M. (1971) Psycho-social transitions: A field for study. Social Science and Medicine, 5, 101–115.
    Patterson, J.M. (1989) Illness beliefs as a factor in patient-spouse adaptation to treatment for coronary artery disease. Family Systems Medicine, 7, 428–442.
    Pennebaker, J.W. (1990). Opening up: The healing power of confiding in others. New York: Morrow.
    Pennebaker, J.W., Kiecolt-Glaser, J.K., & Glaser, R. (1988) Disclosure of traumas and immune function: Health implications for psychotherapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 239–245.
    Perloff, L.S. (1983) Perceptions of vulnerability to victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 41–61.
    Perloff, L.S., & Fetzer, B.K. (1986) Self-other judgements and perceived vulnerability to victimization. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 502–510.
    Plunkett, J.W., Schaefer, M., Kalter, N., Okla, K., & Schreier, K. (1986) Perceptions of quality of life following divorce: A study of children's prognostic thinking. Psychiatry, 49, 1–12.
    Price, R. (1994). A whole new life. New York: Atheneum.
    Quarantelli, E.L. (1985) An assessment of conflicting views on mental health: The consequences of traumatic events. In C.R.Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: The study and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (Vol. 1, pp. 173–218). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Raphael, B. (1986). When disaster strikes. New York: Basic Books.
    Raphael, D.D. (1960). The paradox of tragedy. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Reiss, D. (1981). The family's construction of reality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Riessman, C.K. (1993). Narrative analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Rorty, A.O. (Ed.). (1992). Essays on Aristotle's Poetics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ross, M. (1989) Relation of implicit theories to the construction of personal histories. Psychological Review, 96, 341–357.
    Rothbaum, F., Weisz, J.R., & Snyder, S.S. (1982) Changing the world and changing the self: A two-process model of perceived control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 5–37.
    Rotter, J.B. (1954). Social learning and clinical psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Rotter, J.B. (1966) Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1–28.
    Rubonis, A.V., & Bickman, L. (1991) Psychological impairment in the wake of disaster: The disaster-psychopathology relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 384–399.
    Rudestam, K.E. (1977) Physical and psychological responses to suicide in the family. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 162–170.
    Russell, R.L., & van den Broek, P. (1992) Changing narrative schemas in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 29, 344–354.
    Rutter, M. (1987) Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 316–331.
    Rybash, J.M., Hoyer, W.J., & Roodin, P.A. (1986). Adult cognition and aging: Developmental changes in processing, knowing and thinking. New York: Pergamon.
    Saigh, P.A. (Ed.). (1992). Posttraumatic stress disorder: A behavioral approach to assessment and treatment. Needham Heights, MA: Longwood.
    Sanford, J.A. (1977). Healing and wholeness. New York: Paulist Press.
    Sarbin, T.R. (Ed.). (1986). Narrative psychology: The storied nature of human conduct. New York: Praeger.
    Schaefer, J.A., & Moos, R.H. (1992) Life crises and personal growth. In B.N.Carpenter (Ed.), Personal coping: Theory, research, and application (pp. 149–170). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1985) Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219–247.
    Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1987) Dispositional optimism and physical wellbeing: The influence of generalized outcome expectancies on health. Journal of Personality, 55, 169–210.
    Scheier, M.F., & Carver, C.S. (1992) Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16, 201–228.
    Scheier, M.F., Magovern, G.J., Sr., Abbott, R.A., Matthews, K.A., Owens, J.F., Lefebvre, R.C., & Carver, C.S. (1989) Dispositional optimism and recovery from coronary artery bypass surgery: The beneficial effects on physical and psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1024–1040.
    Scheier, M.F., Weintraub, J.K., & Carver, C.S. (1986) Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1257–1264.
    Schier, F. (1983) Tragedy and the community of sentiment. In P.Lamarque (Ed.), Philosophy and fiction: Essays in literary aesthetics (pp. 73–92). Aberdeen, Scotland: The University Press.
    Schlesinger, B. (1982) Children's viewpoints of living in a one-parent family. journal of Divorce, 5, 1–23.
    Schnaier, J.A. (1986) A study of women Vietnam veterans and their mental health adjustment. In C.R.Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake: Traumatic stress theory research and intervention (Vol. 2, pp. 97–132). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Schopenhauer, A. (1942) The wisdom of life. In T.B.Saunders (Ed. and Trans.), Complete essays of Schopenhauer (pp. 1–124). New York: Willey Book Co.
    Schultz, R. (1980) Aging and control. In J.Garber & M.E.P.Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 261–277). New York: Academic Press.
    Schwartzberg, S.S. (1993) Struggling for meaning: How HIV-positive gay men make sense of AIDS. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 24, 483–490.
    Schwartzberg, S.S., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1991) Grief and the search for meaning: Exploring the assumptive worlds of bereaved college students. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 270–288.
    Scott, R.B.Y. (1971). The way of wisdom. New York: Macmillan.
    Seeman, M., & Evans, J.W. (1962) Alienation and learning in a hospital setting. American Sociological Review, 27, 772–783.
    Selby, J.W., & Calhoun, L.G. (1980) Psychodidactics: An undervalued and underdeveloped treatment tool of psychological intervention. Professional Psychology, 11, 236–241.
    Seligman, M.E.P. (1975). Helplessness: On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: Freeman.
    Selye, H. (1950). The physiology and pathology of exposure to stress. Montreal: Acta.
    Shafranske, E.P., & Malony, H.N. (1990) Clinical psychologists' religious and spiritual orientations and their practice of psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 27, 72–78.
    Shay, J. (1994). Achilles in Vietnam: Combat trauma and the undoing of character. New York: Atheneum.
    Shedler, J., Mayman, M., & Manis, M. (1993) The illusion of mental health. American Psychologist, 48, 1117–1131.
    Shelton, R.R., Calhoun, L.G., & Tedeschi, R.G. (1994, August). Significant life events: A qualitative study of narrative elements. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.
    Shinn, R.L. (1986, January 1–8). Reinhold Niebuhr: A reverberating voice. Christian Century, pp. 15–17.
    Shontz, F.C. (1975). The psychological aspects of physical illness and disability. New York: Macmillan.
    Shore, J.H., Tatum, E.L., & Vollmer, W.M. (1986) Psychiatric reactions to disaster: The Mount St. Helens experience. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 590–595.
    Shostrom, E.L. (1976). Actualizing therapy: Foundations for a scientific ethic. San Diego, CA: Edits Publishers.
    Silver, R.C., Boon, C., & Stones, M.H. (1983) Searching for meaning in misfortune: Making sense of incest. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 81–102.
    Silver, R.C., & Urbanowicz, A. (1990, August). A study of successful and unsuccessful support providers following bereavement. In K.Heller (Chair), Understanding the factors responsible for support intervention success and failure. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Boston.
    Silver, R.C., & Wortman, C.B. (1980) Coping with undesirable life events. In J.Garber & M.E.P.Seligman (Eds.), Human helplessness: Theory and applications (pp. 279–340). New York: Academic Press.
    Singer, J.A., & Salovey, P. (1993). The remembered self: Emotion and memory in personality. New York: Free Press.
    Singer, J.K. (1964) A guide to Job's encounter. In R.Breaktone (Ed.), Job: A case study (pp. 237–317). New York: Bookman.
    Slaby, A.E. (1989). Aftershock: Surviving the delayed effects of trauma, crisis and loss. New York: Villard.
    Sledge, W.H., Boydstun, J.A., & Rabe, A.J. (1980) Self-concept changes related to war captivity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 430–443.
    Smith, T.W., Houston, B.K., & Stucky, R.J. (1982) Positive evaluation as a strategy for coping with stress. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1, 193–208.
    Smith, T.W., Pope, M.K., Rhodewalt, F., & Poulton, J.L. (1989) Optimism, neuroticism, coping, and symptom reports: An alternative interpretation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 640–648.
    Spilka, B. (1989) Functional and dysfunctional roles of religion: An attributional approach. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 8, 5–15.
    Stewart, A.J. (1982) The course of individual adaptation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 1100–1113.
    Stotland, E. (1969). The psychology of hope: An integration of experimental, clinical, and social approaches. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Strauss, A. (1987). Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Strickland, B.R. (1989) Internal-external control expectancies: From contingency to creativity. American Psychologist, 44, 1–12.
    Stroebe, M., Gergen, M.M., Gergen, K., & Stroebe, W. (1992) Broken hearts or broken bonds—Love and death in historical perspective. American Psychologist, 47, 1205–1212.
    Stutman, S., & Baruch, R. (1992, August). A model for the process of fostering resilience. In H.Tomes (Chair), The process of fostering resilience: Roles for psychologists and media. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Stutts, W., Calhoun, L.G., Tedeschi, R.G., & Cann, A. (1994, August). Religion, assumptive worlds, and the aftermath of trauma: What changes? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.
    Swann, W.B. (1983) Self-verification: Bringing social reality into harmony with the self. In J.Suls & A.G.Greenwald (Eds.), Social psychological perspectives on the self (Vol. 2, pp. 33–66). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Swindle, R.W. Jr., Heller, K., & Lakey, B. (1988) A conceptual reorientation to the study of personality and stressful life events. In L.H.Cohen (Ed.), Life events and psychological functioning: Theoretical and methodological issues (pp. 237–268). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Tait, R., & Silver, R.C. (1989) Coming to terms with major negative life events. In J.S.Uleman & J.A.Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 351–382). New York: Guilford.
    Taylor, S.E. (1983) Adjustment to threatening life events. American Psychologist, 38, 1161–1173.
    Taylor, S.E. (1990) Health psychology—The science and the field. American Psychologist, 45, 40–50.
    Taylor, S.E., & Brown, J.D. (1988) Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 193–210.
    Taylor, S.E., & Brown, J.D. (1994) Positive illusions and well-being revisited: Separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 21–27.
    Taylor, S.E., Collins, R.L., Skokan, L.A., & Aspinwall, L.G. (1989) Maintaining positive illusions in the face of negative information: Getting the facts without letting them get to you. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 8, 114–129.
    Taylor, S.E., Falke, R.L., Mazel, R.M., & Hilsberg, B.L. (1988) Sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction among members of cancer support groups. In B.H.Gottlieb (Ed.), Marshaling social support (pp. 187–208). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Taylor, S.E., Lichtman, R.R., & Wood, J.V. (1984) Attributions, beliefs in control, and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 489–502.
    Taylor, S.E., Wayment, H.A., & Collins, M.A. (1993) Positive illusions and affect regulation. In D.M.Wegner & J.W.Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 325–434). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Taylor, S.E., Wood, J.V., & Lichtman, R.R. (1983) It could be worse: Selective evaluation as a response to victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 19–40.
    Taylor, V. (1977, October). Good news about disaster. Psychology Today, pp. 93–94, 124–126.
    Tedeschi, R.G. (1989, August). The masculine gender role as impediment to rehabilitation. In G.Brooks (Chair), Beyond the masculine mystique: Loosening male gender role bonds. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New Orleans, LA.
    Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1988, August). Perceived benefits in coping with physical handicaps. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.
    Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1991) Perceiving benefits in traumatic events: Some issues for practicing psychologists. Journal of Training & Practice in Professional Psychology, 5, 45–52.
    Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1993) Using the support group to respond to the isolation of bereavement. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 15, 47–54.
    Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (in press). The Post Traumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress.
    Tedeschi, R.G., Calhoun, L.G., & Gross, B.J. (1993, August). Construing benefits from negative events: An examination of personality variables. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto.
    Tedeschi, R.G., Calhoun, L.G., & Page, L. (1992, August). Possibilities for growth in positive and negative life events. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Tennen, H., & Affleck, G. (1990) Blaming others for threatening events. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 209–232.
    Thoits, P.A. (1991) Gender differences in coping. In J.Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 107–138). New York: Plenum.
    Thomas, G. (1978) Transforming the tragic into the creative. In H.J.Young (Ed.), Preaching on suffering and a God of love (pp. 18–21). Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
    Thomas, L.E., DiGiulio, R.C., & Sheehan, N.W. (1991) Identifying loss and psychological crisis in widowhood. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 26, 279–295.
    Thompson, S.C. (1981) Will it hurt less if I can control it? A complex answer to a simple question. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 89–101.
    Thompson, S.C. (1985) Finding positive meaning in a stressful event and coping. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6, 279–295.
    Thompson, S.C., & Janigian, A.S. (1988) Life schemes: A framework for understanding the search for meaning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 260–280.
    Tiger, L. (1979, January). Optimism: The biological roots of hope. Psychology Today, pp. 18–33.
    Vaillant, G.E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Broek, P., & Thurlow, R. (1991) The role and structure of personal narratives. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 5, 257–274.
    van der Kolk, B.A. (1986). Psychological trauma. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Van der Wal, J. (1990) The aftermath of suicide: A review of empirical evidence. Omega, 20, 149–171.
    Vash, C.L. (1981). The psychology of disability. New York: Springer.
    Veronen, L.J., & Kilpatrick, D.G. (1983) Rape: A precursor of change. In E.J.Callahan & K.A.McCluskey (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology: Non-normative events (pp. 167–191). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Viorst, J. (1986). Necessary losses. New York: Fawcett.
    Wagner, K.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (1991) Perceptions of social support by suicide survivors and their social networks. Omega, 23, 61–73.
    Wallerstein, J.S. (1986) Women after divorce: Preliminary report from a ten-year follow-up. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 65–77.
    Wallston, K.A., & Wallston, B.S. (1982) Who is responsible for your health? The construct of health locus of control. In G.S.Sanders & J.Suls (Eds.), Social psychology of health and illness (pp. 65–95). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Waltz, M. (1986). Marital context and post-infarction quality of life: Is it social support or something more?Social Science and Medicine, 22, 791–805.
    Waltz, M., & Bandura, B. (1988) Subjective health, intimacy, and perceived selfefficacy after heart attack: Predicting life quality five years afterwards. Social Indicators Research, 20, 303–332.
    Wasch, H., & Kirsch, I. (1992, August). Response expectancy and coping as predictors of dysphoric mood. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Weinstein, N.D. (1980) Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806–823.
    Weiss, R., & Parkes, C.M. (1983). Recovery from bereavement. New York: Basic Books.
    Werner, E.E. (1984, November). Resilient children. Young Children, pp. 68–72.
    Werner, E.E. (1989) High-risk children in young adulthood: A longitudinal study from birth to 32 years. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 59, 72–81.
    Werner, E.E., & Smith, R.S. (1982). Vulnerable but invincible: A longitudinal study of resilient children and youth. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Wertheimer, A. (1991). A special fear. London: Routledge.
    Whiteman, D.B. (1993) Holocaust survivors and escapees—Their strengths. Psychotherapy, 30, 443–451.
    Wiebe, D.J. (1991) Hardiness and stress moderation: A test of proposed mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 89–99.
    Wilkinson, C.B. (1983) Aftermath of disaster: The collapse of the Hyatt Regency Hotel skywalks. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 1134–1139.
    Wills, T.A. (1987) Downward comparison as a coping mechanism. In C.R.Snyder & C.E.Ford (Eds.), Coping with negative life events: Clinical and social psychological perspectives (pp. 243–268). New York: Plenum.
    Wilson, J.P. (1989). Trauma, transformation, and healing: An integrative approach to theory, research, and post-traumatic therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    Wilson, S.R., & Spencer, R.C. (1990) Intense personal experiences: Subjective effects, interpretations, and after-effects. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 46, 565–573.;2-3
    Wolin, S.J., & Wolin, S. (1993). The resilient self: How survivors of troubled families rise above adversity. New York: Villard.
    Wood, J.V., Taylor, S.E., & Lichtman, R.R. (1985) Social comparison in adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 49, 1169–1183.
    Wortman, C.B., & Lehman, D.R. (1985) Reactions to victims of life crises. In I.G.Sarason & B.R.Sarason (Eds.), Social support: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 463–489). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
    Wortman, C.B., & Silver, R.C. (1989) The myths of coping with loss. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 349–357.
    Wortman, C.B., & Silver, R.C. (1990) Successful mastery of bereavement and widowhood: A life-course perspective. In P.B.Baltes & M.M.Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging (pp. 225–264). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Wuthnow, R. (1991). Acts of compassion: Caring for others and helping ourselves. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Wuthnow, R. (1992). Rediscovering the sacred. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerd-mans.
    Wuthnow, R. (1994). Sharing the journey: Support groups and America's new quest for community. New York: Free Press.
    Younkin, S.L. (1992, August). Psychological hardiness in stress resistance versus vulnerability: A reconceptualization. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
    Zemore, R., & Shepel, L.F. (1989) The effects of breast cancer and mastectomy on emotional support and adjustment. Social Science and Medicine, 28, 19–27.

    About the Authors

    Richard G. Tedeschi is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and a practicing clinical psychologist. He is the author of articles on coping and growth in response to trauma, with bereavement being a particular area of study. He has been interested in the process of mutual support as a facilitator of parental and sibling bereavement support groups for many years. His university teaching has focused on the psychology of personality and on clinical training and supervision, especially integrative therapy techniques and clinician responses to client trauma. His nonprofessional time is taken up with tending to his patch of land in the country.

    Lawrence G. Calhoun is Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and a practicing clinical psychologist. He is the coauthor of Dealing With Crisis (1976), Psychology and Human Reproduction (1980), and numerous scholarly articles, and he is currently on the editorial board of Omega—Journal of Death and Dying. His scholarly activities have focused on the responses of persons encountering significant life crises and on the social responses of others to the individuals directly affected by trauma. He has taught both undergraduate and graduate courses in a variety of applied areas, and his clinical work is focused on adults facing depression and anxiety or coping with highly challenging life circumstances. His nonprofessional interests include reading, pickup games of basketball, and, as a Brazilian-born American, a fanatical devotion to World Cup soccer.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website