Transsexualism: Illusion and Reality


Colette Chiland

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Disseminations: Psychoanalysis in Contexts

    Series Editor: Anthony Molino

    Reason and Unreason: Psychoanalysis, Science and Politics by Michael Rustin

    The Vitality of Objects: Exploring the Work of Christopher Bollas edited by Joseph Scalia

    Dreams and Drama: Psychoanalytic Criticism, Creativity and the Artist by Alan Roland

    Levinas, the Frankfurt School and Psychoanalysis by C. Fred Alford

    Transsexualism: Illusion and Reality by Colette Chiland


    View Copyright Page


    I cannot over-emphasize my debt to Robert Stoller, who opened the way to a different kind of investigation from that prevailing in the general run of sex-change literature, to a different way of listening to the patient, and to the thesis that a particular kind of family dynamics operates between a ‘transsexual’ child and that child's parents. Stoller's untimely death put an end to my exchanges with him, which were always marked by his warm friendship and his passion for psychoanalysis. I did not always agree with his theories, but without him I should never have been able even to start thinking about the problem of changing sex.

    This book would not have been written had I not been welcomed to their units by Professors Jacques Breton and Pierre Banzet. Professor Banzet's secretary, Patricia Billon, performed the arduous task of tracing patients who had had surgery so that we could follow them up.

    Finding all the necessary books and articles was tantamount to a treasure hunt, in which I was greatly helped by Susan Coates, Robert Emde, Robert and Marcelle Féger, Maurice Godelier, Dider Houzel, Otto and Paulina Kernberg, Serge Lebovici, Gaïd Le Maner, Leslie Lothstein, Peter Neubauer, Lionel Ovesey, Ethel Person, David Rosenham, Bernard Saladin d'Anglure, Denis Salas, Kari Schleimer, Hélène E. Stork, Beatrice and Immanuel Wallerstein, and Kenneth Zucker. The librarians at Cornell Medical Center – The New York Hospital, Westchester Division, White Plains, and of the many libraries of Stanford University placed the truly remarkable resources of all the American libraries at my disposal. A detour via the British Library gave me access to books that could not have been found anywhere else, where they were reserved for me on the days I requested.

    At the Alfred-Binet Centre, René Diatkine was a constant source of encouragement to me in my work. The following members of my team took part in the research on children and their parents, adolescents, and adults: Roberta Bettini, Marie-Pierre Dufaure-Lebouteiller, Alain Gibeault, Marie-Françoise Lefèvre, Pierre Mattar, and Michèle Pollak-Cornillot. Our notes were typed up by my secretary, Danièle Orenstein.

    Simone and Gaston Wolf-Labant supported me every day in my work.

    I wish to express my warmest thanks to them all!


    A word of introduction to this ‘very French’ book is perhaps in order for the English-speaking reader. I belong to a now disappearing tradition of university professors of clinical and pathological psychology who first trained as philosophers and later became psychiatrists and psychoanalysts. Through this initial background as a philosopher I acquired a taste for exactitude in the use of concepts and the reading of texts, and it has also led me to consider clinical data in the context of ideas about human existence and the culture in which the patient develops and lives.

    My concern with transsexuals over the past 20 years is not due to any particular attraction to their specific problem situation, but is the outcome of a long progression. I began by running a seminar for several years on the subject of women, the modern world, and psychoanalysis, which led to a number of publications. Of these, I shall mention only one contribution published in English, entitled ‘Clinical practice, theory and their relationship in regard to female sexuality’ (Chiland, 1980). I aligned myself with the authors who took issue with Freud over his conception of women as ‘castrated men’ and drew attention to the positive aspects of femaleness.

    My interest then turned to sex differences in psychopathology. Whereas a great deal of work has been published on sex differences in psychology, there have been no studies covering the field of psychopathological differences between the sexes as a whole. Yet it has been found throughout the world that more boys than girls are sent to child psychiatrists; as an indication of the orders of magnitude involved, in the unit in which I worked, the sex ratio was 162 boys to 100 girls over a 15-year period. The sociocultural hypothesis that this is because parents are more concerned about their male than their female children is untenable in view of the greater biological fragility of boys (in terms of perinatal mortality and of childhood mortality and morbidity) and men (whose life span is shorter). Consideration of the various symptoms reveals a high ratio of boys to girls for most – higher than the sex ratio of children who see a psychiatrist. There is no simple explanation for this fact.

    Finally, one day Antoine, a four-year-old boy, came into my office. I had read Robert Stoller's books, in particular Sex and Gender (Stoller, 1968, 1975), and it seemed to me that Antoine conformed in every respect to the description of what he then called a transsexual boy and was later to term a very feminine boy. I undertook with my team to treat Antoine and his parents.

    I gave an account of this treatment at a one-day conference that was also attended by Professor Jacques Breton. At the end of the day, he said to me: ‘Since you are interested in transsexualism, why don't you come and work in my clinic?’ To tell the truth, I had not been interested in transsexualism, but in Antoine … That is how I came to spend eight years working in Professor Breton's Gender Identity Clinic at the Fernand-Widal Hospital in Paris. Here I saw patients of a kind I had never encountered before; and I read the literature. I was fascinated by the general question of the development of gender identity, and by the difficulty of grasping the nature of the mental functioning and pathology of these patients, who refuse to be seen as suffering from mental disorders but feel themselves to be the victims of a ‘mistake of nature’ which they ask the medical practitioner to rectify by giving them their ‘true’ body. The origins of this pathology remain a puzzle. Might the aetiology be biological, so that these patients are suffering from a form of intersex? Even if this is so, some part is played by the interactions with the environment that we witness when we see the young child and the parents together. In every case the problem is rooted in the patient's early life and affects the patient's being, sense of existence, and self.

    I published some papers – in particular, one on childhood and transsexualism (Chiland, 1988) – and patients began to be referred to my unit. We formed a working and research group (made up of psychoanalytically trained psychiatrists and psychologists and a social worker) and followed up a limited number of patients in depth. I personally interviewed about 300 patients (of all ages – children, adolescents, young adults, and older adults) who suffered from gender identity disorder, the adults among whom had requested hormonal and surgical sex reassignment. I conducted a follow-up study of 49 reassigned patients.

    The more patients I see, the more aware I become of individual variations. We use the word ‘transsexuals’ as a matter of terminological convenience, and may investigate what they have in common. Yet it must not be forgotten that each patient has his own history and his own mode of speaking that go beyond the stereotyped formulas learned from the media and from militant groups. The ways in which each patient differs from the others constitute the criterion for evaluating the possibility of psychological help, which, however, these patients are on the whole very reluctant to contemplate and to accept. Yet we are now seeing surgically reassigned patients who, long after their operations, request psychological help or even a psychoanalysis. A particularly interesting case history was published by Danielle Quinodoz, who works in Geneva (Quinodoz, 1998, 2002a, 2002b).

    One's theoretical positions must not prevent one from being available to meet and listen to people (Chiland, in press). Although the relationship with some aggressive patients in whom the transvestite component predominates may be difficult, with others it proves to be warm and fruitful; even if they do not wish to commit themselves to a psychological treatment, they report that they are pleased to find a place where they can talk about the reality of their situation.

    Transsexualism in the modern sense of the term belongs to our culture. In every age some people have rejected their assigned sex and tried to live as members of the other sex. There have been and still are cultures that offer a place to, and reserve a particular social status for, persons who are ‘neither men nor women’. However, hormonal and surgical sex reassignment characterizes our culture, in which scientific and technical advances have made it possible.

    At the same time, our culture is fascinated by everything out of the ordinary. The media would rather focus on people who stand out from the crowd than on those who present no problems. Television programmes on sexuality feature wife-swappers, sadomasochists, prostitutes, protagonists of the porn industry, and the like; they do not show us the lives of ordinary folk, but suggest that ordinary folk dream in secret only of the extraordinary … The boundaries that ought to separate private from public life are becoming blurred. Exhibition is destroying intimacy. Under the banner of tolerance, the result is a ‘loss of sexual bearings’. Some situations are quite crazy.

    Inherent in the transsexual contention is a contradiction that lies deep within our culture. Transsexuals say that their identity is defined not by the sex of their body but by that of their mind and soul. Yet they are not content to occupy the symbolic place of the other sex (although a so-called transgender movement, preferring gender change to sex change, has recently arisen), but require a bodily token of their change of status. This bodily token, or ‘neo-sex’, becomes the proof of the truth of their assertion that they are members of the other sex. Our culture accords primacy to material, biological reality, and although it has much to say about the symbolic order, it sets little store by the symbolic life.

    As the reader will have gathered, this book is concerned with transsexuals, whom it discusses on the basis not of a priori ideas but of my clinical experience – in which I have done my best to understand patients and to relieve their suffering, even if I have not always succeeded. The book is not concerned with homosexuals. Homosexuality is a completely different matter. Transsexuals visit doctors, and need them, at most for the purpose of obtaining their bodily ‘transformation’, which the doctor sees as a mutilation. Homosexuals seldom consult a doctor, and do not ask for a mutilation. In this book it is not my intention to express personal opinions on societal issues except where those opinions are grounded in clinical experience.

    I should like to thank my translator, Philip Slotkin, who took great pains to translate my French text into English as exactly and faithfully as possible while eschewing the jargon of neologisms. Translation is a difficult trade, and indeed an impossible task – for words do not have one-to-one equivalents, and it is not just a matter of substituting a word in one language for its counterpart in the other. The words that a given language accepts or rejects reflect profound differences in conceptualization. For instance, in English ‘gender’ has come to be the normal term for social or psychosocial sex, but the equivalent French word cannot always be used in this sense. Similarly, words like sexué or sexuation, used in French with reference to the division between the sexes, will not go into English directly. Some effort will therefore be called for on the part of English-speaking readers to adapt to the difference of perspective between this book and the English-language literature, and I wish to thank them for it in advance.

  • References

    Abramowitz, S. I. (1986) Psychosocial outcomes of sex reassignment surgery, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 2: 183–9.
    Alby, J. M. (1956) Contribution à l'étude du trans-sexualisme, PhD thesis, Paris.
    Alby, J. M. et al. (1996) Sur l'identité sexuelle: ÀA propos du transsexualisme, Paris: Association freudienne internationale.
    Althof, S. E. and Keller, A. C. (1980) Group therapy with gender identity patients, International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 30, 4: 481–9.
    Badinter, É. (1992) XY: De l'identité masculine, Paris: Odile Jacob. XY: On Masculine Identity, translated by LydiaDavis, New York: Columbia University Press, 1995.
    Bakwin, H. (1968) Deviant gender-role behavior in children: relation to homosexuality, Pediatrics, 41: 620–9.
    Barker, J. C. (1965) Behaviour therapy for transvestism: a comparison of pharmacological and electrical aversion techniques, British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 268–76.
    Barlow, D. H., Abel, G. G. and Blanchard, E. B. (1977) Gender identity change in a transsexual: an exorcism, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 5, Sept.: 387–95.
    Barlow, D. H., Abel, G. G. and Blanchard, E. B. (1979) Gender identity change in transsexuals, follow-up and replications, Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, Aug.: 1001–7.
    Barlow, D. H., Reynolds, E. J. and Agras, S. (1973) Gender identity change in a transsexual, Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, Apr.: 569–76.
    Baudelot, C. and Establet, R. (1992) Allez les filles!, Paris: Seuil.
    Beauvoir de, S. (1949) Le Deuxième sexe, Paris: Gallimard. The Second Sex, translated and edited by H. M.Parshley, with an introduction by Margaret Crosland, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.
    Beier, K. M. (1994) Gibt es eine ‘weibliche Analogie’ zur Perversion?, Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologic, 44, 3–4: 137–43.
    Beigel, H. G. (1965) ‘Three transvestites under hypnosis’, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 13, Apr.: 71–82.
    Benjamin, H. (1953) Transvestism and transsexualism, International Journal of Sexology, 7, 1: 12–14.
    Benjamin, H. (1964) Nature and management of transsexualism, with a report on thirty-one operated cases, Western Journal of Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology, 72, March-April: 105–11.
    Benjamin, H. (1966) The Transsexual Phenomenon, New York: Julian Press.
    Bender, P. M. (1976) A typology of transsexualism: gender identity theory and data, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 6, Nov.: 567–84.
    Berner, W. (1991) Sadomasochismus bei einer Frau: Bericht über eine psychoanalytische Behandlung, Zeitschrift für Sexualforschung, 4, 1: 45–57.
    Besnier, N. (1994) Polynesian gender liminality through time and space, in G.Herdt (ed.), Third Sex, Third Gender, New York: Zone Books, 285–328.
    Blakemore, C. B. (1963a) The application of faradic aversion conditioning in a case of transvestism, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, May: 29–34.
    Blakemore, C. B. (1963b) Follow-up note to: The application of faradic aversion conditioning in a case of transvestism, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, Aug.: 191.
    Blanchard, R., Clemmensen, L. H. and Steiner, B. W. (1983) Gender reorientation and psychosocial adjustment in male-to-female transsexuals, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 6: 503–9.
    Blanchard, R., Steiner, B. W., Clemmensen, L. H. and Dickey, R. (1989) Prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 1, Feb.: 43–5.
    Block, J. H. (1976) Issues, problems and pitfalls in assessing sex differences: a critical review of ‘The Psychology of Sex Differences’, Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 22, 4: 283–308.
    Bockting, W. O. and Coleman, E. (1992) Gender Dysphoria: Interdisciplinary Approaches in Clinical Management, Binghampton, NY: The Haworth Press.
    Bon, I. (1990), Le Transsexualisme: l'émergence conjuguée de pratiques médicale et judiciaire, thèse pour le doctorat en droit privé, Université Jean Moulin, Lyon III.
    Braconnier, A. (1984) Le sexe de l'analyste. Relation avec le contretransfert, Adolescence, 2, 2: 349–57.
    Braconnier, A. (1990) Les Adieux à l'enfance, Paris: Calmann-Lévy.
    Braconnier, A. (1996) Le Sexe des émotions, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Bradley, D. C. (1995) Transsexualisme: l'idéologie, les principes juridiques et la culture politique, in Conseil de l'Europe, Transsexualisme, médecine et droit, 63–80.
    Branlard, J.-P. (1993) Le Sexe et l'état des personnes: Aspects historique, sociologique et juridique, Bibliothèque de droit privé, Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence.
    Breton, J., Frohwirth, C., Pottiez, S. and Kindynis, S. (1985) Le Transsexualism: Etude nosographique et médico-légale, Paris: Masson.
    Breton, S. (1989) La Mascarade des sexes. Fétichisme, inversion et traves-tissement rituels, Préface de Marc Augé, Paris: Calmann-Lévy.
    Brown, G. R. and Collier, L. (1989) Transvestites' women revisited: a non patient sample, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 1, Feb.: 73–83.
    Buhrich, N. (1977) Brief communication: transvestism in history, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165, 1: 64–6.
    Bullough, V. L. (1974) Transvestites in the Middle Ages, American Journal of Sociology, 79, May: 1381–94.
    Bullough, V. L. (1975) Transsexualism in history, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4, 5: 561–76.
    Bullough, V. L. and Bullough, B. (1993) Cross Dressing, Sex, and Gender, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Bureau, J., Beaudoin, R. and Fallon, Y. (1989) L Adaptation socio-économique et interpersonnelle et la satisfaction psycho-sexuelle pré et post conversion sociale, hormonale et chirurgicale de transsexuel(le)s mâles et femelles, Quebec: Université du Québec à Montréal, Département de sexologie.
    Canguilhem, G. (1943) Le Normal et le pathologique, réédité Paris: PUF, 1966, 1972. The Normal and the Pathological, translated by Carolyn R.Fawcett in collaboration with Robert S.Cohen, with an introduction by MichelFoucault, New York: Zone Books, 1989.
    Carbonnier, J. (1995) Droit civil, 1 Les personnes, Paris: PUF.
    Castagnet, F. (1981) Sexe de l'âme, sexe du corps, Paris: Centurion.
    Cauldwell, D. O. (1949) Psychopathia transsexualis, Sexology, 16, 274–80.
    Chiland, C. (1979) Garçons et filles dans un monde en changement, Revue de Psychologie Appliquée, 2ème trimestre 1979, 29, 2: 129–38. L'Enfant, la famille, l'école, Paris: PUF, 1989, 199–208.
    Chiland, C. (1980) Clinical practice, theory and their relationship in regard to female sexuality, International Journal of Psycho-analysis, 61: 359–65.
    Chiland, C. (1988) Enfance et transsexualisme, La Psychiatrie de l'Enfant, 31, 2: 313–73.
    Chiland, C. (1990) Etre femme aujourd'hui, Le Journal des Psychologues, Oct., 81: 26–32.
    Chiland, C. (1996) Origine du sexe, in M.Soulé, Origines, identités, destinies, Paris: ESF, 81–8.
    Chiland, C. and Lebovici, S. (1981) Psychopathologie différentielle des sexes. Evolution au cours des dernières décennies et bilan actuel, Enfance, 1–2, 61–73. L'Enfant, la famille, l'école, Paris: PUF, 1989, 209–24.
    Chiland, C. and Mattar, P. (1996) Psychothérapie des troubles de l'identité sexuée, in D.Widlöcher and A.Braconnier, Psychanalyse et psychothérapie, Paris: Flammarion, 190–9.
    Chiland, C. (in press) Le transsexualisme: les théories et les personnes, NeuroPsy.
    Childs, A. (1977) Acute symbiotic psychosis in a postoperative transsexual, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 1: 37–44.
    Clare, D. and Tully, B. (1989) Transhomosexuality, or the dissociation of sexual orientation and sex object choice, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 6: 531–6.
    Clark, D. F. (1965) A note on avoidance conditioning techniques in sexual disorders, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 3, Nov.: 203–6.
    Coates, S. and Zucker, K. J. (1988) Gender identity disorders in children, in C. J.Kestenbaum and D. T.Williams (eds), Handbook of Clinical Assessment of Children and Adolescents, vol. 2, New York: University Press, 893–914.
    Coleman, E., Bockting, W. O. and Gooren, L. (1993) Homosexual and bisexual identity in sex-reassigned female-to-male transsexuals, Archives of Sexual Behaviour, 22, 1: 37–50.
    Conseil de l'Europe (Council of Europe) (1995) Transsexualisme, médecine et droit, Actes, XXIIIe Colloque de droit européen, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Pays-Bas), 14–16 April 1993, Strasbourg: Editions du Conseil de l'Europe.
    Corbett, G. (1991) Gender, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Czermak, M. and Frignet, H. (1993) Quel sexe voulez-vous?, Liberation, 17 Nov.
    Davenport, C. W. (1986) A follow-up study often feminine boys, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15: 511–17.
    David, C. (1975) La bisexualité psychique, éléments d'une réévaluation, Revue française de Psychanalyse, 39, 5–6: 695–856.
    David, C. (1992) La Bisexualité psychique: Essais psychanalytiques, Paris: Payot.
    Decker de, M. (1987) Madame le Chevalier d'Éon, Paris: Librairie académique Perrin.
    Delcourt, M. (1944) Œdipe ou la légende du conquérant, Liège: Faculté de Philosophic et Lettres.
    Delcourt, M. (1958) Hermaphrodite: Mythes et rites de la bisexualité dans l'Antiquité classique, Paris: PUF. Revised edn., 1992, Collection Dito. Hermaphrodite: Myths and Rites of the Bisexual Figure in Classical Antiquity, translated by JenniferNicholson, London: Studio Books, 1961.
    Denny, D. (1994) Gender Dysphoria: A Guide to Research, New York: Garland.
    Désirat, K. (1985) Die transsexuelle Frau. Zur Entwicklung und Beeinträchtigung weiblicher Geschlechtsidentität, Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.
    Diamant-Berger, O. (1984) Le Transsexualisme, Droit et Éthique médicale, vol. 1, Paris: Masson.
    Doucé, J. (ed.) (1986), La Question transsexuelle, Paris: Lumière et justice.
    DSM-III, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
    third edition
    (1980), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    DSM-III-R, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, third edition revised (1987), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (1994), Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
    Durkheim, É. (1897) La prohibition de l'inceste et ses origines, L'Année sociologique, 1, 1: 1–70.
    Eaubonne, F. d' (1976) La Femme avant le patriarcat, Paris: Payot.
    Ebaugh, H. R. Fuchs (1988) Becoming an Ex: The Process of Role Exit, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Eber, M. (1982) Primary transsexualism: a critique of a theory, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 46, 2: 168–82.
    Edgerton, M. T. and Meyer, J. K. (1973) Surgical and psychiatric aspects of transsexualism, in C.Horton (ed), Surgery of the External Genitalia, Boston: Little, Brown, 117–61.
    Editors of the Harvard Law Review (1990) Sexual Orientation and the Law, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Eicher, W. (1992) Transsexualismus, Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der Geschlechtsumwandlung, 2. revised edn, Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag.
    Elchardus, J.-M. and Elchardus, G. (1989) Adolescence et identité: l'impasse transsexuelle, Adolescence, 7, 1: 147–53.
    Engels, F. (1884, 1891) L'Origine de la famille, de la propriété privée et de l'Etat, French trans. by JeanneStern, Paris: Editions sociales, 1974. The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State, Introd. by EvelynReed, New York: Pathfinder Press, 1972.
    Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1990) Sexual inversion among the Azande, American Anthropologist, 72, 6, Dec: 1428–34.
    Fahrner, E. M., Kockott, G. and Duran, G. (1987) Die psychosoziale Integration operierter Transsexueller, Nervenartzt, 58, Jun. 6: 340–8.
    Faulk, M. (1989) Psychosis in a transsexual [letter], British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, Aug.: 257–9.
    Feldman, M. P. (1966) Aversion therapy for sexual deviation: a critical review, Psychological Bulletin, 65: 65–79.
    Fisk, N. M. (1973) Gender dysphoria syndrome (the how, what, and why of a disease), in P.Gandy and D.Laub (eds), Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 7–14.
    Fisk, N. M. (1974) Editorial: gender dysphoria syndrome: the conceptualization that liberalizes indications for gender reorientation and implies a broadly based multi-dimensional rehabilitative regimen, Western Journal of Medicine, 120, May: 386–91.
    Fisk, N. M. (1978) Five spectacular results, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 4: 351–69.
    Fleming, M. Z., Cohen, D., Salt, P., Jones, D. and Jenkins, S. (1981) A study of pre- and postsurgical transsexuals: MMPI characteristics, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 2, Apr.: 161–70.
    Fleming, M. Z., Jones, D. and Simons, J. (1982a) Preliminary results of Rorschach protocols of pre- and postoperative transsexuals, Journal of Clinical Psychology, 38, 2: 408–15.;2-8
    Fleming, M. Z., MacGowan, B. R., Robinson, L., Spitz, J. and Salt, P. (1982b) The body image of the postoperative female-to-male transsexual, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 3: 461–2.
    Fleming, M. Z., Steiman, C. and Bocknek, G. (1980) Methodological problems in assessing sex reassignment surgery: a reply to Meyer and Reter, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9, 5: 451–6.
    Fookes, B. H. (1969) Some experiences in the use of aversion therapy in male homosexuality, exhibitionism and fetishism-transvestism, British Journal of Psychiatry, 115: 339–41.
    Foucault, M., presented by (1978) Herculine Barbin dite Alexina B., Paris: Gallimard.
    Freud, S. (1905) Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie, GW, 5: 29–145. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality, SE, 7: 125–245.
    Freud, S. (1913) Totem und Tabu, GW, 9; Totem and Taboo, SE, 13.
    Freud, S. (1925) Einige psychische Folgen des anatomischen Geschlechtsunterschieds, GW, 14:19–30; Some psychical consequences of the anatomical distinction between the sexes, SE, 19, 243–58.
    Freud, S. (1931) Über die weibliche Sexualität, GW, 14: 517–37; Female Sexuality, SE, 21: 221–43.
    Fridell Sari, R., Zucker, K. J., Bradley, S. J. and Maing Dianne, M. (1996) Physical attractiveness of girls with gender identity disorder, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 1: 17–31.
    Garapon, A. (1996) Le Gardien des promesses: Justice et démocratie, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Garé, T. (1992) Jurisprudence, 21955: 415–19.
    Garfinkel, H. (1967), Studies in Ethnomethodology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Gelder, M. G. and Marks, I. M. (1969) Aversion treatment in transvestism and transsexualism, in R.Green and J.Money (eds), Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 383–413.
    Gender Identity and Development in Childhood and Adolescence (1992) Conference proceedings of a two-day international conference at St George's Hospital, London.
    Georgoudi, S. (1990) Bachofen, le matriacat et le monde antique, in G.Duby and M.Perrot, Histoire des femmes, vol. 1, L'antiquité, Paris: Plon, 477–91. GeorgesDuby and MichellePerrot, general eds, A History of Women in the West, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992–94.
    Gobert, M. (1988) Le transsexualisme, fin ou commencement?, La Semaine Juridique, Ed. G, 62, 47, 3361.
    Gobert, M. (1990) Le transsexualisme ou de la difficulté d'exister, La Semaine Juridique, Ed. G, 49, 3475.
    Gobert, M. (1992) Réflexions sur les sources du droit et les ‘principes' d'indisponibilité du corps humain et de l’état des personnes (A propos de la maternité de substitution), RTD civ. 91 (3), July-Sept.: 489–528.
    Godelier, M. (1982) La Production des Grands Hommes. Pouvoir et domination masculine chez les Baruya de Nouvelle-Guinée, Paris: Fayard. The Making of Great Men: Male Domination and Power among the New Guinea Baruya, translated by RupertSwyer, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; Paris, Editions de la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 1986.
    Godelier, M. (1992) Corps, parenté, pouvoir(s) chez les Baruya de Nouvelle-Guinée, Journal de la Société des Océanistes, 94, 1: 3–24.
    Godelier, M. (1996) Meurtre du père, sacrifice de la sexualité, in M.Godelier and J.Hassoun, Meurtre du père, sacrifice de la sexualité: Approches anthropologiques et psychanalytiques, Strasbourg and Paris: Arcanes, 21–52.
    Godlewski, J. (1988) Transsexualism and anatomic sex ratio reversal in Poland, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 17, 6, Dec: 547–8.
    Goubeaux, G. (1989) Traité de droit civil: Les personnes, Paris: LGDJ, 228–41.
    Green, R. (1974) Sexual Identity Conflicts in Children and Adults, New York: Basic Books.
    Green, R. (1978) Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexual or transsexual parents, American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 6, June: 692–7.
    Green, R. (1987) The ‘Sissy Boy Syndrome’ and the Development of Homosexuality, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Green, R. and Money, J. (eds), (1969) Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Greenson, R. R. (1966) A transvestite boy and a hypothesis, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 47: 396–403. Reprinted as A transsexual boy and a hypothesis, in Explorations in Psychoanalysis, New York: International Universities Press, 1978.
    Greenson, R. R. (1968) Dis-identifying from mother: its special importance for the boy, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 49: 370–4.
    Gutheil, E. (1930) Analysis of a case of transvestism, in W. Stekel, Sexual Aberrations, New York: Liverwright.
    Hamburger, C. (1953) The desire for change of sex as shown by personal letters from 465 men and women, Acta Endocrinologica, 14: 361–75.
    Hamburger, C., Stürup, G. K. and Dahl-Iversen, E. (1953) Transvestism: hormonal, psychiatric and surgical treatment, J.A.M.A., 152, 30 May: 391–6.
    Hastings, D. and Markland, C. (1978) Post-surgical adjustment of twenty-five transsexuals (male-to-female) in the University of Minnesota study, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1, 4: 327–36.
    Hausman, B. L. (1995) Changing Sex: Transsexualism, Technology, and the Idea of Gender, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Herdt, G. (ed.) (1994) Third Sex, Third Gender. Beyond Sexual Dimosphism in Culture and History, New York: Zone Books.
    Héritier, F. (1994) Les Deux Sœurs et leur mère: Anthropologic de l'inceste, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Héritier, F. (1996) Masculin/Féminin: La pensée de la différence, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Héritier, F., Cyrulnik, B., Naouri, A., Vrignaud, D. and Xanthakou, M. (1994) De l'inceste, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Hertz, J., Tillinger, K. G. and Westman, A. (1961) Transvestism: report on five hormonally and surgically treated cases, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 37: 283–94.
    Hirschfeld, M. (1910) Die Transvestiten, eine Untersuchung über den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb mit umfangreichem casuistischem und historischem Material, Berlin: Medizinischer Verlag. New edition: Leipzig: Ferdinand Spohr, 1925.
    Hirschfeld, M. (1923) Die intersexuelle Konstitution, Jahrblatt für sexuelle Zwischenstufen, 23: 3–27.
    Hoenig, J. (1977) The legal position of the transsexual: mostly unsatisfactory outside Sweden, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 116, 3, 5 Feb.: 319–23.
    Hoenig, J., Kenna, J. C. and Youd, A. (1971) Surgical treatment for transsexualism, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavia, 47: 106–33.
    Hore, B. H., Nicolle, F. V. and Calnan, J. S. (1975) Male transsexualism in England: sixteen cases with surgical intervention, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4, 1: 81–8.
    Horney, K. (1922–36) Feminine Psychology, New York: Norton, 1967. La Psychologie de la femme, French translation by GeorgetteRintzler, Paris: Payot, 1969, 1971.
    Hunt, D. and Hampson, J. L. (1980) Follow-up of 17 biologic male transsexuals after sex-reassignment surgery, American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 4, April: 432–8.
    Igert, B. and Lebouteiller, M.-P. (1970) L'entretien prolongé comme contribution à la connaissance des families des enfants suivis en psychiatric, La Psychiatrie de l'Enfant, 13, 2: 449–509.
    Jespersen, O. (1924) Genre et sexe, La Philosophie de la grammaire, reprint, Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1971, 317–43.
    Jonas, H. (1979) Das Prinzip Veranwortung, Versuch einer Ethik für die technologische Zivilisation, Frankfurt a. M.: Insel Verlag. Le Principe responsabilité. Une éthique pour la civilisation technologique, French transl. by JeanGreisch, Paris: Cerf, 1992.
    Jorgensen, C. (1967) Christine Jorgensen: A Personal Autobiography, New York: Paul S. Eriksson.
    Kampik, E., Muller, N. and Sorya, M. (1989) Manifestation einer schizophrenen Psychose bei einer transsexuellen Patientin nach operativer Geschlechtskorrektur, Nervenarzt, 60, 6, Jun.: 361–3.
    Keller, A. C., Althof, S. E. and Lothstein, L. M. (1982) Group therapy with gender-identity patients – a four-year study, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 36, 2, April: 223–8.
    Kernberg, O. F. (1975) Borderline Conditions and Pathological Narcissism, New York: Jason Aronson.
    Kessler, S. and McKenna, W. (1978) Gender: An Ethnomethodological Approach, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
    Kockott, G. and Fahrner, E. M. (1987) Transsexuals who have not undergone surgery: a follow-up study, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 6, Dec: 511–22.
    Kosky, R. J. (1987) Gender-disordered children: does inpatient treatment help?, Medical Journal of Australia, 146: 565–9.
    Kreisler, L. (1970) Les intersexuels avec ambiguïté génitale: La Psychiatrie de l'Enfant, 13, 1:5–127.
    Kreisler, L. (1990) Ce que les enfants de sexe ambigu ont apporté à la connaissance de l'identité sexuée, Nervure, 3, 9: 15–18.
    Kröhn, W., Bertemann, H., Wand, H. and Wille, R. (1981) Nachuntersuchung bei operierten Transsexuellen, Nervenarzt, 52, 1, Jan.: 26–31.
    Kuiper, A. J., Cohen-Kettenis, P. and Van der Reyt, F. (1985) Transsexuality in the Netherlands: some medical and legal aspects, Medicine and Law, 4, 4: 373–8.
    Lagrange, J. (1992), Le ‘vrai sexe’ du transsexuel, Psychanalyse à l'Université, 17, 66: 97–116.
    Landen, M., Wålinder, J. and Lundström, B. (1996a) Incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism in Sweden, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 4: 261–3.
    Landen, M., Wålinder, J. and Lundström, B. (1996b) Prevalence, incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 93, 4: 221–3.
    Langaney, A. (1987) Le Sexe et l'innovation, Paris: Seuil.
    Laqueur, T. (1990) Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud, The President and Fellows of Harvard College. La Fabrique du sexe: Essai sur le corps et le genre en Occident, French transl. by MichelGautier, Paris: Gallimard, 1992.
    Laub, D. R. and Fisk, N. (1974) A rehabilitation program for gender dysphoria syndrome by surgical sex change, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 53, Apr.: 388–403.
    Laufer, M. and Laufer, E. (1984), Adolescence and Developmental Breakdown: A Psychoanalytic View, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Lavin, N. I., Thorpe, J. G., Barker, J. C., Blakemore, C. B. and Conway, C. G. (1961) Behavior therapy in a case of transvestism, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 133, Oct.: 346–53.
    Lebovitz, P. S. (1972) Feminine behavior in boys: aspects of its outcome, American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 1283–9.
    Lemay, P. (1958) Le Chevalier d'Éon n'était pas éoniste, Progrès Médical, 86, 10, 24 May: 205–6.
    Lévi-Strauss, C. (1949) Les Structures élémentaires de la parenté, Paris: PUF. The Elementary Structures of Kinship, translated from the French by James HarleBell, John Richardvon Sturmer and RodneyNeedham, (ed.), rev. edn, Boston: Beacon Press, 1969.
    Levine, S. B. (1984), Letter to the Editor (suicide by a transsexual), Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13, 3, June: 287–9.
    Levine, S. B. and Lothstein, L. M. (1981) Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 7, 2: 85–113.
    Levine, S. B. and Shumaker, R. (1983) Increasingly Ruth: toward understanding sex reassignment, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, June: 247–61.
    Lief, H. I. and Hubschman, L. (1993) Orgasm in the post-operative transsexual, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 2: 145–55.
    Limentani, A. (1979) The significance of transsexualism in relation to some basic psychoanalytic concepts, International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 6: 139–53.
    Lindemalm, G., Körlin, D. and Uddenberg, N. (1986) Long-term follow-up of ‘sex change’ in thirteen male-to-female transsexuals, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 3: 187–210.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1977a) Psychotherapy with patients with gender dysphoria syndromes, Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 41, 6, Nov.: 563–82.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1977b) Countertransference reactions to gender dysphoric patients: implications for psychotherapy, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 14: 21–31.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1979a) Group therapy with gender-dysphoric patients, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33, 1, Jan.: 67–81.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1979b) The aging gender dysphoria (transsexual) patient, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8, 5, Sept.: 431–44.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1980) The postsurgical transsexual: empirical and theoretical considerations, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9: 547–64.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1982) Sex reassignment surgery: historical, bioethical and theoretical issues, American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 4: 417–26.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1983) Female-to-Male Transsexualism: Historical, Clinical and Theoretical Issues, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1988) Self-object failure and gender identity, in A.Goldberg (ed.), Frontiers in Self Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press, 213–35.
    Lothstein, L. M. (1992) Clinical management of gender dysphoria in young boys: genital mutilations and DSM-IV implications, in W. O.Bockting and E.Coleman, Gender Dysphoria: Interdisciplinary Approaches in Clinical Management, Binghampton, NY: The Haworth Press.
    Lothstein, L. M. and Levine, S. B. (1981) Expressive psychotherapy with gender dysphoric patients, Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, Aug.: 924–9.
    Lundström, B. (1981) Gender dysphoria: a social-psychiatric follow-up of 31 cases not accepted for sex reassignment, PhD thesis, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, St-Jörgen's Hospital, University of Göteborg.
    Lussier, A. (1983) Les déviations du désir: Etude sur le fétichisme, Revue française de psychanalyse, 47, 1: 19–142.
    Lyons, J. (1968) Le genre, Linguistique générale, Paris: Larousse, 219–22.
    Maccoby, E. E. (1988) Gender as a social category, Developmental Psychology, 24, 6: 755–65.
    Maccoby, E. E. (1990) Gender and relationships: a developmental account, American Psychologist, 45, 4, April: 513–20.
    Maccoby, E. E. and Jacklin, C. N. (1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Malinowski, B. (1932) The Sexual Life of Savages, London: George Routledge and Sons.
    Mallett, P., Marshall, E. J. and Blacker, C. V. R. (1989) ‘Puerperal psychosis’ following male-to-female sex reassignment, British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, Aug.: 257–9.
    Marks, I. M. and Gelder, M. G. (1967) Transvestism and fetishism: clinical and psychological changes during faradic aversion, British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, July: 711–29.
    Mathieu, N.-C. (1991) L'Anatomie politique. Catégorisations et idéologies du sexe, Paris: Côté-femmes.
    Mazeaud, H., Mazeaud, L. and Mazeaud, J. (1972) Leçons de droit civil, vol. 1,
    5th edn
    , Michelde Juglart, vol. 2, Les personnes: la personnalité, Paris: Editions Montchrétien.
    McDougall, J. (1973) L'idéal hermaphrodite et ses avatars, Nouvelle Revue de Psychanalyse, 7. Reprinted as Hermaphrodite et la masturbation, in Plaidoyer pour une certaine anormalité, Paris: Gallimard, 1978.
    Mead, M. (1948), Male and Female: A Study of Sexes in a Changing World, New York: William Morrow and Co.
    Meillet, A. (1921a) La catégorie du genre et les conceptions indo-européennes, Linguistique historique et linguistique générale, revised, Paris: Champion, 1958, 211–29.
    Meillet, A. (1921b) Le genre grammatical et l'élimination de la flexion, Linguistique historique et linguistique générale, revised Paris: Champion, 1958, 199–210.
    Meillet, A. (1936) Le genre féminin dans les langues indo-européennes, Linguistique historique et linguistique générale, vol. 2, Paris: Klincksieck, 24–8.
    Mercader, P. (1990), Le Paradoxe transsexuel, PhD thesis, Université Lumière, Lyon 2.
    Mercader, P. (1994), L'Illusion transsexuelle, Paris: Editions L'Harmattan.
    Meyer, J. K. and Reter, D. J. (1979) Sex reassignment, follow-up, Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, Aug.: 1010–15.
    Misès, R., Noël, J. and Castagnet, F. (1980) Adoption et transsexualisme, Annates Médico-Psychologiques, 138, 4: 480–3, discussion 483–90.
    Mogul, K. M. (1982) Overview: The sex of the therapist, American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 1, Jan.: 1–11.
    Money, J. (1971) Prefatory remarks on outcome of sex reassignment in twenty-four cases of transsexualism, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1: 163–5.
    Money, J. (1992) The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 37 years, in Gender Identity and Development in Childhood and Adolescence, conference proceedings of a two-day international conference at St George's Hospital, London, 3–31.
    Money, J. and Brennan, J. G. (1968) Sexual dimorphism in the psychology of female transsexuals, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 5: 487–99.
    Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A. A. (1970) Transsexuelle nach Geschlechtswechsel, Beiträge zur Sexualforschung, 49: 70–87.
    Money, J. and Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972) Man and Woman, Boy and Girl, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Money, J., Hampson, J. G. and Hampson, J. L. (1955) Hermaphroditism: recommendations concerning assignment of sex, change of sex, and psychologic management, Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp, 97: 284–300.
    Money, J., Hampson, J. G. and Hampson, J. L. (1957) Imprinting and the establishment of gender role, AMA Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 11: 333–6.
    Money, J. and Primrose, C. (1968) Sexual dimorphism and dissociation in the psychology of male transsexuals, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 147, 5: 472–86.
    Money, J. and Russo, J. (1979) Homosexual outcome of discordant gender identity/role in childhood: longitudinal follow-up, Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 1: 29–41.
    Morgan, A. J. Jr (1978) Psychotherapy for transsexual candidates screened out of surgery, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 4: 273–83.
    Mukherjee, J. B. (1980) Castration – a means of induction into the Hijirah group of the eunuch community in India, American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 1, 1, March: 61–5.
    Nanda, S. (1984) The Hijras of India: a preliminary report, Medicine and Law, 3, 1: 59–75.
    Nanda, S. (1990) Neither Man nor Woman: The Hijras of India, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Nanda, S. (1994) Hijras: an alternative sex and gender role in India, in G.Herdt (ed.), Third Sex, Third Gender, New York: Zone Books, 373–417.
    Nelson, C., Paitich, D. and Steiner, B. W. (1976) Medicolegal aspects of transsexualism, Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 21: 557–64.
    Niedzwiecki, P. (1993) Femmes et langage, Cahier de Femmes d'Europe, 40, August.
    O'Brien, D. (1977) Female husbands in Southern Bantu Societies, in AliceSchlegel, Sexual Stratification: A Cross-Cultural View, New York: Columbia University Press, 109–26.
    Oppenheimer, A. [Faure-Oppenheimer] (1980) Le Choix du sex: À propos des théories de Stoller, Paris: PUF.
    Oppenheimer, A. (1983) Le choc de la puberté. À propos de la demande de changement de sexe, Adolescence, 1, 2: 309–18.
    Oppenheimer, A. (1989) Le refus du masculin dans l'agir transsexuel, Adolescence, 7, 1: 155–69.
    Ostow, M. (1953) Correspondence, tranvestitism, J.A.M.A., 152, 16: 1553.
    Pauly, I. B. (1965) Male psychosexual inversion: a review of 100 cases, Archives of General Psychiatry, 13, Aug.: 172–81.
    Pauly, I. B. (1981) Outcome of sex reassignment surgery for transsexuals, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 15, 1: 45–51.
    Pauly, I. B. (1986) The gender identity movement: a growing surgical-psychiatric liaison, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 4: 315–29.
    Person, E. S. and Ovesey, L. (1974a) The transsexual syndrome in males, I: a primary transsexualism, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, January: 4–20.
    Person, E. S. and Ovesey, L. (1974b) The transsexual syndrome in males, IIb: secondary transsexualism, American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, April: 174–93.
    Pettiti, L.-E. (1992) Les Transsexuels, Paris: PUF.
    Pfäfflin, F. (1981) Psychiatric and legal implications of the new law in the Federal Republic of Germany, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 4, 1–2: 191–8.
    Pfäfflin, F. (1987) Fünf Jahre Transsexuellengesetz – eine Zwischenbilanz, Beiträge zur Sexualforschung, 62: 147–55.
    Pfäfflin, F. (1992) Regrets after sex reassignment surgery, in W. O.Bockting and E.Coleman, Gender Dysphoria: Interdisciplinary Approaches in Clinical Management, Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Press.
    Pfäfflin, F. and Junge, A. et al. (1992) Geschlechtsumwandlung, Abhandlungen zur Transsexualität, Stuttgart/New York: Schattauer.
    Pollack, W. S. (1995) Deconstructing dis-identification: rethinking psychoanalytic concepts of male development, Psychoanalysis, Psychotherapy, Psychology of Men, 12, 1: 30–45.
    Pouillon, J. (1979) Remarques sur le verbe ‘croire’, in M.Izard and P.Smith, La Fonction symbolique, Essais d'anthropologie, Paris: Gallimard, 43–51.
    Prince, V. C. (1967) The Transvestite and His Wife, Los Angeles: Argyle Books.
    Pum Maître (1984) Le transsexualisme et le droit, Propos Utiles aux Médecins, 2 Nov. 1163: 7–8.
    Quinodoz, D. (1988) A fe/male transsexual patient in psychoanalysis, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 79, 1: 95–111.
    Quinodoz, D. (2002a) Corps d'homme? corps de femme?, Pyschanalyse et psychose, 2: 109–27.
    Quinodoz, D. (2002b) Termination of a fe/male transsexual patient's analysis: an example of general validity, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 83: 783–98.
    Randell, J. B. (1969) Preoperative and postoperative status of male and female transsexuals, in R.Green and J.Money (eds), Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment, Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 355–81.
    Randell, J. B. (1971) Indications for sex reassignment surgery, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1: 153–61.
    Rekers, G. A. (1982a) Growing Up Straight: What Every Family Should Know About Homosexuality, Chicago: Moody Press.
    Rekers, G. A. (1982b) Shaping Your Child's Sexual Identity, Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House.
    Rekers, G. A., Bentler, P. M., Rosen, A. C. and Lovaas, O. I. (1977) Child gender disturbance: a clinical rationale for intervention, Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 14: 2–11.
    Rekers, G. A., Kilgus, M. and Rosen, A. C. (1990) Long-term effects of treatment for gender identity disorder of childhood, Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 3, 2: 121–53.
    Rekers, G. A., Lovaas, O. I. and Low, B. (1974) The behavioral treatment of a ‘transsexual’ preadolescent boy, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2, 2: 99–116.
    Ricoeur, P. (1990) Soi–même comme un autre, Paris: Seuil. As Another: The Ethics of Subjectivity, edited by RichardA. Cohen and James L.Marsh, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2002.
    Ricoeur, P. (1995a) La Critique et la Conviction, Paris: Calmann-Lévy. Critique and Conviction, translated by KathleenBlarney, New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
    Ricoeur, P. (1995b) Réflexion faite: Autobiographic intellectuelle, Paris: Editions Esprit.
    Roback, H. B. and Lothstein, L. M. (1986) The female mid-life sex-change applicant: a comparison with younger female transsexuals and older male sex change applicants, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15, 5, Oct.: 401–15.
    Roback, H. B., Schwartz Felleman, E. and Abramowitz, S. I. (1984) The mid-life male sex-change applicant: a multiclinic survey, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 13, April: 141–53.
    Rodotà, S. (1995) Presentation générale des problèmes liés au transsexualisme, in Conseil de l'Europe, Transsexualisme, médecine et droit, Actes, XXIIIe Colloque de droit européen, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Pays-Bas), 14–16 April 1993, Strasbourg: Editions du Conseil de l'Europe, 17–24.
    Rogo, D. S. (1987), The Infinite Boundary: A Psychic Look at Spirit Possession, Madness, and Multiple Personality, New York: Dodd, Mead & Company.
    Rogo, D. S. (1989) A report on an unusual cure, Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 56, 817: 23–7.
    Roscoe, W. (1987) Bibliography of berdache and alternative gender roles among North American Indians, Journal of Homosexuality, 14, 3–4: 81–171.
    Roscoe, W. (1994) How to become a berdache: toward a unified analysis of gender diversity, in G.Herdt (ed.), Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History, New York: Zone Books, 329–72, notes 566–82.
    Roth, M. (1981) Transsexualism and the sex-change operation: a contemporary medico-legal and social problem, Medico-Legal Journal, 49, Part 1: 5–19.
    Rubellin-Devichi, J. (1996) Défense et illustration du droit français à l'égard du transsexualisme, in J. M.Alby et al., Sur l'identité sexuelle. À propos du transsexualisme, Paris: Association freudienne Internationale, 131–60.
    Rufflé, J. (1986) Le Sexe et la mort, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Sadoughi, W., Jayaram, B. and Bush, I. (1978) Post-operative changes in the self-concept of transsexuals as measured by the Tennessee self-concept scale, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 7, 4, July: 347–9.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1977) Mythe de la femme et pouvoir de l'homme chez les Inuit de l'Arctique Central (Canada), Anthropologie et Sociétés, 1, 3: 79–98.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1980) ‘Petit-Ventre', l'enfant-géant du cosmos inuit. Ethnographie de l'enfant et enfance de l'ethnographie dans l’Arctique central inuit, L'Homme, Jan.–Mar., 20, 1: 7–46.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1985) Du projet ‘PAR.AD.I' au sexe des anges: notes et débats autour d'un ‘troisième sexe’, Anthropologie et Sociétés, 9, 3: 139–76.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1986) Du fœtus au chamane: la construction d'un ‘troisième sexe’ inuit, Etudes/Inuit/Studies, 10, 1–2: 25–113.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1988) Penser le ‘féminin' chamanique, ou le ‘tiers-sexe’ des chamanes inuit, Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, 18, 2–3: 19–50.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1990) Chasse, sexes et symbolisme, Etudes/Inuit/Studies, 14, 1–2: 75–139.
    Saladin d'Anglure, B. (1992) Le ‘troisième’ sexe, La Recherche, 23, 245, July–Aug.: 836–44.
    Salas, D. (1994) Sujet de Chair et sujet de droit: la justice face au transsexualisme, Paris: PUF.
    Samuels, A. (1984) Once a man, always a man; once a woman, always a woman – sex change and the law, Medicine, Science and the Law, 24, 3: 163–6.
    San Francisco Administrative Code (1990) Recognition of Domestic Partnerships, Adopted November 6, 1990, San Francisco Charter, Appendix U, Initiative Ordinance U, CH-366.25, 26 and 27.
    Schlegel, A. (ed.) (1977) Sexual Stratification: A Cross-Cultural View, New York: Columbia University Press.
    Shtasel, T. F. (1979) Behavioral treatment of transsexualism: a case report, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 5, 4, Winter: 362–7.
    Sørensen, T. (1981a) A follow-up study of operative transsexual males, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63, 486–503.
    Sørensen, T. (1981b) A follow-up study of operative transsexual females, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 64: 50–64.
    Steiner, B. W. (1981) From Sappho to Sand: historical perspective on cross-dressing and cross-gender, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26, Nov.: 502–6.
    Steiner, B. W. (ed.) (1985) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New York: Plenum.
    Steiner, B. W. and Berstein, S. M. (1981) Female-to-male transsexuals and their partners, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26, April: 178–82.
    Stern, D. (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant: A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology, New York: Basic Books.
    Stern, D. (1993) L'enveloppe ‘prénarrative'. Vers une unité fondamentale d'expérience permettant d'explorer la réalité psychique du bébé, Journal de la psychanalyse de l'enfant, 14: 13–65.
    Stoller, R. J. (1967) Transvestites' women, American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 3, Sept.: 333–9.
    Stoller, R. J. (1968) Sex and Gender, vol. 1, New York: Science House.
    2nd edn
    . New York: Jason Aronson, 1974.
    Stoller, R. J. (1975) Sex and Gender, vol. 2, The Transsexual Experiment, London: The Hogarth Press.
    Stoller, R. J. (1985a), Observing the Erotic Imagination, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Stoller, R. J. (1985b) Presentations of Gender, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Stoller, R. J. (1990) Identité de genre: développement et pronostic, une vue d'ensemble, in C.Chiland and J. G.Young, Nouvelles approches de la santé mental'e de la naissance à l'adolescence pour l'enfant et sa famille, Paris: PUF, 115–27. Gender identity development and prognosis: a summary, in C.Chiland and J. G.Young (eds), New Approaches to Mental Health from Birth to Adolescence, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1992, 78–87.
    Studer, R., Kind, H. and Kohler, Th. (1980) Ehen von Transsexuellen, Marriage partnerships of transsexuals, Nervenarzt, 51, 12: 708–11.
    Stürup, G. K. (1976) Male transsexuals: a long-term follow-up after sex reassignment operations, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 53, 1, Jan.: 51–63.
    Taitz, J. (1987) Judicial determination of the sexual identity of postoperative transsexuals: a new form of sex discrimination, American Journal of Law and Medicine, 13, 1: 53–69.
    Taitz, J. (1989) The legal determination of the sexual identity of a postoperative transsexual seen as a human rights issue, Medicine and Law, 7, 5: 467–574.
    Teoh, J. I. (1972) Transvestism treatment by aversive therapy, Medical Journal of Malaya, 26, 3, March: 179–85.
    Théry, I. (1993) Le Démariage, Paris: Odile Jacob.
    Thorpe, J. G., Schmidt, E., Brown, P. T. and Castell, D. (1964) Aversion-relief therapy: a new method for general application, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2, May: 71–82.
    Tieger, T. (1980) On the biological basis of sex differences in aggression, Child Development, 51: 943–63.
    Tully, B. (1992) Accounting for Transsexualism and Transhomosexuality, London: Whiting & Birch.
    Turtle, G. (1963) Over the Sex Border, London: Gollancz.
    Turtle-Somerset, G. (1990) The transsexual predicament, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 83, June, 6: 416.
    Van der Reijt, M. F. (1995) Allocution, in Conseil de l'Europe, Transsexualisme, médecine et droit, Strasbourg: Editions du Conseil de l'Europe, 9–11.
    Vannereau, D. (1986) La sémantique et ses mensonges, in J.Doucé (ed.), La Question transsexuelle, Paris: Lumière et justice, 127–8.
    Wålinder, J. (1971) Incidence and sex ratio of transsexualism in Sweden, British Journal of Psychiatry, 119: 195–6.
    Wålinder, J., Lundström, B. and Thuwe, I. (1978) Prognostic factors in the assessment of male transsexuals for sex reassignment, British Journal of Psychiatry, 132: 16–20.
    Wålinder, J. and Thuwe, I. (1975) A Social-Psychiatric Follow-up Study of 24 Sex-Reassigned Transsexuals, Scandinavian University Books, Gothenburg: Akademiforlaget.
    Wålinder, J. and Thuwe, I. (1976) A law concerning sex reassignment of transsexuals in Sweden, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 3, May: 255–8.
    Walser, P. (1968) Verlauf und Endzustände bei Transvestiten und Transsexuellen, Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie, Neurochirurgie und Psychiatrie, 101: 417–33.
    Walters, W. A. W. and Ross, M. W. (eds) (1986) Transsexualim and Sex Reassignment, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Will, M. R. (1992) ‘… ein Leiden mit dem Recht’, Zur Namens – und Geschlechtsänderung bei transsexuellen Menschen in Europa, in F.Pfäfflin and A.Junge, Geschlechtsumwandlung, Abhandlungen zur Transsexualität, Stuttgart: Schattauer, 113–47.
    Will, M. R. (1995) Les conditions juridiques d'une intervention médicale pour changer de sexe: la situation en droit compare, in Conseil de l'Europe, Transsexualisme, médecine et droit, Actes, Strasbourg: Editions du Conseil de l'Europe, 81–108.
    Williams, W. L. (1986) The Spirit and the Flesh, Boston: Beacon Press.
    Wise, T. N. (1985) Coping with a transvestitic mate: clinical implications, Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 11, 4: 293–300.
    Wise, T. N., Dupkin, C. and Meyer, J. K. (1981) Partners of distressed transvestites, American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 9, Sept.: 1221–4.
    World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines, Geneva: WHO.
    Yaguello, M. (1978), Les Mots et les femmes, Paris: Payot.
    Yaguello, M. (1989) Le Sexe des mots, Paris: Belfond.
    Zavitzianos, G. (1982) The perversion of fetishism in women, Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 51: 405–25.
    Zucker, K. J. and Bradley, S. J. (1995) Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents, New York: Guilford.
    Zucker, K. J., Wild, J., Bradley, S. J. and Mowry, C. B. (1993), Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder, Archives of Sexual Behavior, 22, 1: 23–36.
    Zuger, B. (1984) Early effeminate behavior in boys. Outcome and significance for homosexuality, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 172, 2: 90–97.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website