Transgenderism and Intersexuality in Childhood and Adolescence: Making Choices presents an overview of the research, clinical insights, and ethical dilemmas relevant to clinicians who treat intersex youth and their families. Exploring gender development from a cross-cultural perspective, esteemed scholar Peggy T. Cohen-Kettenis and experienced practitioner Friedemann Pfäfflin focus on assessment, diagnosis, and treatment issues. To bridge research and practical application, they include numerous case studies, definitions of relevant terminology, and salient chapter summaries.
Chapter 6: Clinical Management of Gender Problems in Children
Clinical Management of Gender Problems in Children
Between the various DSM versions, DSM criteria for GID have changed considerably. For children, the DSM-III-R criteria have been criticized because they were rather confusing and unbalanced (Zucker, Bradley, & Lowry Sullivan, 1992). This was, first, because there were different criteria for boys and girls; second, because cross-gender identification and same- gender aversion characteristics were included in one criterion; and, third, because a stated desire to be of the opposite sex was necessary for the diagnosis (for boys only), which probably led to an underestimation of GID diagnoses in older boys. Older boys have indeed been found to be less inclined to express the wish to be a girl than younger boys ...