Tracing an Indian Diaspora: Contexts, Memories, Representations
The concept of diaspora has been much debated during the past decade in terms of the essential and additional features that go with it, arguing which groups or communities could beuld not be designated as diaspora. The Indian diaspora today, with a strong community constituting more than 20 million and spreading across a hundred countries, continues to grow in size and making its transnational presence felt. This collection of essays traces some of the plurality with the Indian context as well as in the context of globalization, and transnationalism.
The book discusses the migratory movements that have led to the formation of the Indian diaspora and formation to diasporic practices-the ways and means of remembering and enacting diasporic belonging and the sites and spaces where such ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Thinking ‘Indian Diaspora’ for Our Times
- Section 1: ‘A New Form of Slavery’: Indentured Diaspora
- Chapter 2: ‘Positioning’ the Indian Diaspora: The South-East Asian Experience
- Chapter 3: Forgotten Malaysians? Indians and Malaysian Society
- Chapter 4: Indo-Fijians: Marooned without Land and Power in a South Pacific Archipelago?
- Chapter 5: Indo-Caribbean Political Leaders during the Twentieth Century
- Section 2: The New Indian Diaspora
- Chapter 6: Citizenship and Dissent in Diaspora: Indian Immigrant Youth in the United States after 9/11
- Chapter 7: The Indian Diaspora in the United States of America: An Emerging Political Force?
- Chapter 8: Immigration Dynamics in the Receiving State—Emerging Issues for the Indian Diaspora in the United Kingdom
- Chapter 9: Indian Diaspora in the United Kingdom: Second-Generation Parents’ Views and Experiences on Heritage Language Transmission
- Chapter 10: Indian Diaspora in New Zealand: History, Identity and Cultural Landscapes
- Section 3: Doing Diaspora: Identifications
- Chapter 11: The Chishtiyya Diaspora—An Expanding Circle?
- Chapter 12: Hyderabadis Abroad: Memories of Home
- Chapter 13: Moving beyond, Moving Ahead: Possible Paradigms for Accessing Indian Emigrant Subjectivities
- Chapter 14: Immigrants, Images and Identity: Visualising Homelands across Borders
- Chapter 15: Identity Dilemmas: Gay South Asian Men in North America
- Section 4: Representations: Contestations of/in the Indian Diaspora
- Chapter 16: Re-Domesticating Hindu Femininity: Legible pasts in the Bengali American Diaspora
- Chapter 17: Romancing Religion: Neoliberal Bollywood's Gendered Visual Repertoire for a Pain-Free Globalisation
- Chapter 18: Women Writers of the South Asian Diaspora: Towards a Transnational Feminist Aesthetic?
- Chapter 19: Memory of Trauma in Meena Alexander's Texts
- Chapter 20: Meta-Mobilis: The Case for Polymorphous Existence in K.S. Maniam's between Lives
- Chapter 21: Exilic Dispositions and Dougla Identity in Laure Moutoussamy's Passerelle de vie (The Bridge of Life)
Copyright © Parvati Raghuram, Ajaya Kumar Sahoo, Brij Maharaj, Dave Sangha, and Individual Contributors for their Respective Contributions, 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2008 by
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Tracing an Indian diaspora: contexts, memories, representations/edited by Parvati Raghuram …(et al.).
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. East Indian diaspora. I. Raghuram, Parvati.
DS432.5.T73 304.80954—dc22 2008 2008031598
ISBN: 978-81-7829-833-7 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Sugata Ghosh, Abantika Banerjee, Mamta Singh and Trinankur Banerjee
List of Tables[Page viii]
- 2.1 Indian Occupational Categories in Colonial Burma (1931) 37
- 2.2 Malaysia—Ethnic Groups as a Percentage of the Total Population (2000) 43
- 2.3 Singapore Residents by Ethnic Group (June 2005) 47
- 5.1 East Indian Immigration to the Caribbean, 1838–1917 97
- 7.1 Indian American Election Candidates, 2 November 2004 165
- 9.1 Languages Spoken by Parents to their Children (in %) (n = 84) 198
- 9.2 Languages Spoken by Children to their Parents (in %) (n = 84) 199
List of Plates and Figures[Page ix]Plates
- 4.1 Fijian Government Soldiers Push Back a Crowd during the Coup in May 2000 86
- 4.2 Preparing for the Voters at a Polling Station in the General Election, May 2006 89
- 5.1 Adrian Cola Rienzi 103
- 5.2 Cheddi Jagan 116
- 10.1 Hindi Radio at Diwali Festival, Auckland 2006 211
- 10.2 The New Sikh Gurdwara in Auckland 223
- 11.1 Hazrat Inayat Khan, the Indian Sufi Master and Musician Who First Brought Sufism to the West 242
- 11.2 Children's Theatre Programme at the Urs of Hazrat Inayat Khan in New Delhi, 1999 247
- 11.3 Participants from India, Australia, the US, Canada and Germany in a Retreat at Hazrat Inayat Khan's Dargah in New Delhi, 2003 249
- 17.1 Amitabh Bachchan in Ram Balram, 1980 351
- 17.2 Amitabh Bachchan in Naseeb, 1981 351
- 17.3 A Still from HAHK!359
List of Abbreviations[Page x]
AAHOA Asian-American Hotel Owners Association AAPI American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin AIWA Asian Indian Women in America AFPFL Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League ALTA Agricultural Landlord and Tenants Act ALTO Agricultural Landlords and Tenants Ordinance AMJCA All-Malayan Council of Joint Action ASHA Asian Women's Self-Help Association AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BIA Board of Immigration Appeals BJP Bharatiya Janata Party CAIR Council on American–Islamic Relations CBI Confederation of British Industry CIAM Central Indian Association of Malaya CMIO Chinese, Malays, Indians and ‘Others’ CSR Colonial Sugar Refining DHS Department of Homeland Security EIC East India Company EU European Union FAB Fijian Affairs Board FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FIA Federation of Indian American Associations FLP Fiji Labour Party FTUC Fiji Trades Union Congress GCC Great Council of Chiefs GRCs group representation constituencies IACPA Indian American Centre for Political Awareness IAFPE India America Forum for Political Education IALI Indian American Leadership Incubator IIL Indian Independence League INA Indian National Army INS Immigration and Naturalisation Service IOOR India and Oriental Office Records [Page xi] ISKCON International Society for Krishna Consciousness LAI League Against Imperialism MCA Malayan Chinese Association MCP Malayan Communist Party MIC Malayan Indian Congress NEP New Economic Policy NFIA National Federation of Indian American Associations NFP National Federation Party NGOs non-governmental organisations NHS National Health Service NLTA Native Land Trust Act NLTB Native Land Trust Board NRIs non-resident Indians NRM new religious movement NSEERS National Security Entry–Exit Registration System NUPW National Union of Plantation Workers OCA Organisation of Chinese Americans OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development PAP People's Action Party PIOs people of Indian origin PNC People's National Congress PNAC Project for the New American Century PPP People's Progressive Party RSS Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh SDL Soqosoqo Duavata ni Lewenivanua SAMTA South Asian Mentoring and Tutoring Association SOAS School of Oriental and African Studies UGC University Grants Commission UMNO United Malays National Organisation USINPAC US India Political Action Committee VHP Vishwa Hindu Parishad WLP Washington Leadership Programme
Tracing an Indian Diaspora arrives on the scene when disciplinary studies in the humanities and social sciences are in a state of flux. The volume is not only a major contribution to diaspora studies; it is also a pointer to the new directions in which interdisciplinary research could be fruitfully carried out. Indeed, as the editors argue ‘Diaspora has become a key trope in the humanities today’.
Central to the book is the premise that diaspora involves the ‘re imagining of territoriality’. For, traditional political paradigms always recognised the territoriality of nation states. As the editors cogently argue, the Indian diaspora today typifies ‘locations of resistance and locations of belonging’. In the wake of 9/11, we find that questions of belonging are increasingly ‘being territorialised, scrutinised and penalised’. There are ‘multiple identifications and contested affiliations’ in the era of global capital. Based on this framework, the volume arranges chapters into four main sections. Each section is preceded by a brief introduction.
What precisely is achieved in the shift of the study from ‘immigrants’ to that of the ‘diaspora’? Parvati Raghuram, Ajaya Kumar Sahoo, Brij Maharaj and Dave Sangha, editors of this volume, focus on ‘contexts, memories and representations’. They contend that ‘reading the diaspora is most politically productive when embedded in the reality of its production, circulation and appropriation’.
Straddling several disciplines and knowledgeable systems such as sociology, political science, ethnography, literature, anthropology, geography, history, international relations, women's studies, Tracing an Indian Diaspora is a testimony to the power of this cutting-edge discipline to generate thinking about the diaspora. The volume does not intend to be all comprehensive. Indeed, the editors, in a self-reflexive manner, highlight several areas such as the interface between newer modes of knowledge like digital technology and transnational affiliation that call for a more detailed enquiry.
Written for the most part in a lucid, jargon-free language, the volume is truly international in character. It seeks out scholars from various parts of the world who offer original thinking on the issue of the (Indian) diaspora in the age of global capital. There is a common thread [Page xiii]that runs through the volume, although the editors admit that their effort represents ‘an assemblage’ and not ‘a narrative’.
Tracing an Indian Diaspora is a landmark volume. It signals the arrival of the new discipline.Professor, Department of English University of Hyderabad
The editors would like to acknowledge the authors for their contributions to the book. Ajaya would particularly like to thank them for responding swiftly to his often urgent requests during the editorial process.
Parvati would like to thank the Geography Department at The Open University for providing an intellectually stimulating and supportive environment. Dave would like to acknowledge the support of his colleagues in the Social Work Programme at the University of Northern British Columbia. Brij would like to acknowledge the support received from the Geography Department at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.
Finally, the editors would like to thank Dr Sugata Ghosh of SAGE Publications for his kind interest and support in bringing out the book in time.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 451]
Ravinder Barn is Professor of Social Policy and Social Work at Royal Holloway, University of London.
Sahadeo Basdeo is Professor of History and International Relations, University of British Columbia, Okanagan Campus in Kelowna, Canada.
Carl Vadivella Belle is the Inaugural Hindu Chaplain at Flinders University, Adelaide.
Nandini Bhattacharya is Associate Professor, and Chair, Department of Women's and Gender Studies, University of Toledo, USA.
Geoffrey Burkhart is Associate Professor Emeritus of Anthropology at American University, Washington, DC, USA.
Esha Niyogi De teaches Women's Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
Wardlow Friesen is Senior Lecturer, School of Geography and Environmental Science, The University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Celia A. Genn is Lecturer in Asian Studies at Griffith University and in Religious Studies at the University of Queensland.
Pierre Gottschlich is Assistant Professor at the Department of Political Science and Chair of International Politics, University of Rostock, Germany.
Robin A. Kearns is Associate Professor, School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Auckland, New Zealand.
Karen Isaksen Leonard is a Historian and Anthropologist at the University of California, Irvine, USA.
Brij Maharaj is Professor of Geography, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
Sunaina Maira is Associate Professor of Asian American Studies, University of California, Davis, USA.
[Page 452]Brinda Mehta is Professor of French and Francophone Studies, Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, Mills College, Oakland, California, USA.
Cynthia J. Miller is a Faculty Member in the Institute for Liberal Arts at Emerson College, USA.
Sam Naidu is Lecturer at the Department of English, Rhodes University, South Africa.
Mala Pandurang is Associate Professor, Department of English, Dr B.M.N. College of Home Science, SNDT University, Mumbai, India.
Parvati Raghuram is Lecturer in Geography at the Open University, United Kingdom.
Rajesh Rai is Associate Professor of South Asian Studies Programme, National University of Singapore.
Ajaya Kumar Sahoo is Lecturer, Centre for Study of Indian Diaspora, University of Hyderabad, India.
Brinsley Samaroo is Professor of History, University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad.
Dave Sangha is Assistant Professor of Social Work, University of Northern British Columbia, Canada.
Jaspal Kaur Singh is Assistant Professor, English Department, Northern Michigan University, Marquette, Michigan, USA.
Henry Srebrnik is Professor of Political Studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
Bernard Wilson is Associate Professor in the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo.