Total Quality Management in Human Service Organizations
Publication Year: 1993
Subject: Social Work Administration (general)
Now that business, government, and other fields are embracing Total Quality Management (TQM) as their management philosphy, TQM may also hold the solution for problems that exist in human services organizations today. After a brief history of TQM, the author discusses the philosophy of management, quality as an organizational goal, the challenges of determining an organization's customers, and collecting and using customer quality data. He also describes how to achieve quality improvement through teamwork and shows how to use brainstorming, cause and effect diagrams, check sheets, and pareto analysis. Among the other topics examined are contractor involvement, training top management personnel, training middle managers and staff, and selecting an implementation strategy. All the examples used in this volume are drawn from the fields of public ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: Quality Management: The New Managerial Wave
- The Quality Crisis in the Human Services
- Quality Creates Loyal Customers
- Quality is Free
- Quality Management and Human Service Values
- Is Your Organization Ready for Quality Management?
- Chapter 2: What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
- A Brief History of TQM
- W. Edwards Deming
- Phil Crosby
- J. M. Juran
- Armand Feigenbaum
- TQM and Service Organizations
- The TQM Wave Hits the United States
- Chapter 3: TQM as a Philosophy of Management
- The Baldrige Award Criteria
- Common Ground among the Big Four TQM Experts
- Does Philosophy Really Matter?
- Chapter 4: Quality as an Organizational Goal
- What is Quality?
- Customer-Defined Quality
- The Challenge of Determining an Organization's Customers
- The Challenge of Reconciling Different Customer Quality Views
- The Challenge of Professionally Defined Quality
- The Challenge of Collecting and Using Customer Quality Data
- Chapter 5: Collecting and Using Customer Quality Data
- Collecting and Using Internal Customer Quality Data
- Identifying the Organization's Internal Customers
- Determining Internal Customer Quality Preferences
- Developing Quality Measures
- Collecting Quality Data
- Monitoring Quality Data
- Collecting and Using Client Customer Quality Data
- Identifying the Organization's Client Customers
- Determining Client Customer Quality Preferences
- Collecting Customer Quality Data
- Monitoring Customer Quality Data
- Chapter 6: Understanding and Controlling Variation
- The Nature of Variation
- Determining if a Process is under Control
- Defining the System
- Determining the Major Processes
- Determining if a Major Process is Stable
- After Major Processes are Stabilized
- Chapter 7: Continuous Quality Improvement Through Teamwork
- The Deming Cycle
- Teams and Teamwork
- Quality Circles
- Quality Teams
- The Tools of TQM
- Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
- Check Sheets
- Pareto Analysis
- Improving Systems and Major Processes
- Chapter 8: Top Management Commitment
- Creating a Culture of Quality
- Setting the Tone
- Key Actions
- A Long-Term Perspective
- Employee Empowerment
- Organizational Goal Displacement in TQM
- Losing Sight of the Customer
- The Measure and Improve Fallacy
- Quality as Everybody's and Nobody's Job
- Chapter 9: Contractor Involvement
- The Quality Implications of Design and Performance Specifications
- The Quality Implications of Government Procurement Systems
- The Partnership Model of POSC
- Chapter 10: A Plan for Implementing TQM
- Training Top Management
- Soliciting Top Management Commitment
- Forming the Quality Council
- Selecting the Implementation Strategy
- Training of Middle Managers and Staff
- Collecting and Analyzing Customer Quality Data
- Forming Quality Teams
- Recognizing Superior Quality Improvement
- Continuous Quality Improvement
SAGE Human Services Guides[Page ii]
A series of books edited by ARMAND LAUFFER and CHARLES D. GARVIN. Published in cooperation with the University of Michigan School of Social Work and other organizations.
- GRANTSMANSHIP by Armand Laulfer (second edition)
- CREATING GROUPS by Harvey J. Bertcher and Frank F. Maple (second (edition)
- GROUP PARTICIPATION by Harvey J. Bertcher (second edition)
- BE ASSERTIVE by Sandra Stone Sundel and Martin Sundel
- NEEDS ASSESSMENT by Keith A. Neuber with William T. Atkins, James A. Jacobson, and Nicholas A. Reuterman
- DEVELOPING CASEWORK SKILLS by James A. Pippin
- EFFECTIVE MEETINGS by John E. Tropman (seond edition)
- CHANGING ORGANIZATIONS AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS by Jack Rothman, John L. Erlich, and Joseph G. Teresa
- HELPING WOMEN COPE WITH GRIEF by Phyllis R. Silverman
- EVALUATING YOUR AGENCY's PROGRAMS by Michael J. Austin, Gary Cox. Naomi Gottlieb, J. David Hawkins, Jaan M. Kruzich, and Ronald Rauch
- ASSESSMENT TOOLS by Armand Lauffer
- UNDERSTANDING PROGRAM EVALUATION by Leonard Rutman and George Mowbray
- FAMILY ASSESSMENT by Adele M. Holman
- SUPERVISION by Elleen Gambrlll and Theodora J. Slain
- STRESS MANAGEMENT FOR HUMAN SERVICES by Richard E. Farmer, Lynn Hunt Monohan, and Reinhold W. Hekeler
- FAMILY CAREGIVERS AND DEPENDENT ELDERLY by Dianne Springer and Timothy H. Brubaker
- DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES FOR HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES by Morris Schaefer
- GROUP THERAPY WITH ALCOHOLICS by Baruch Levine and Virginia Gallogly
- DYNAMIC INTERVIEWING by Frank F. Maple
- CAREERS, COLLEAGUES, AND CONFLICTS by Armand Lauffer
- TREATING ANXIETY DISORDERS by Bruce A. Thyer
- TREATING ALCOHOLISM by Norman K. Denzin
- WORKING UNDER THE SAFETY NET by Sieve Burghardt and Michael Fabricant
- MANAGING HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL by Peter J. Pecora and Michael J. Austin
- IMPLEMENTING CHANGE IN SERVICE PROGRAMS by Morris Schaeler
- PLANNING FOR RESEARCH by Raymond M. Berger and Michael A. Patchner
- IMPLEMENTING THE RESEARCH PLAN by Raymond M. Berger and Michael A. Patchner
- MANAGING CONFLICT by Herb Bisno
- STRATEGIES FOR HELPING VICTIMS OF ELDER MISTREATMENT by Rita S. Breckman and Ronald D. Adelman
- COMPUTERIZING YOUR AGENCY's INFORMATION SYSTEM by Denise E. Bronson, Donald C. Peiz, and Eileen Trzcinski
- HOW PERSONAL GROWTH AND TASK GROUPS WORK by Robert K. Conyne
- COMMUNICATION BASICS FOR HUMAN SERVICE PROFESSIONALS by Elam Nunnally and Caryl Moy
- COMMUNICATION DISORDERS IN AGING edited by Raymond H. Hull and Kathleen M. Griffin
- THE PRACTICE OF CASE MANAGEMENT by David P. Moxley
- MEASUREMENT IN DIRECT PRACTICE by Belly J. Blythe and Tony Trlpodi
- BUILDING COALITIONS IN THE HUMAN SERVICES by Milan J. Dluhy with the assistance of Sanford L. Kravitz
- PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS by Kenneth J. Bender
- PRACTICE WISDOM by Donald F. Krill
- PROPOSAL WRITING by Soraya M. Coley and Cynthia A. Scheinberg
- QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR LONG-TERM CARE PROVIDERS by William Ammentorp, Kenneth D. Gosset, and Nancy Euchner Poe
- GROUP COUNSELING WITH JUVENILE DELINQUENTS by Matthew L. Ferrari
- ADVANCED CASE MANAGEMENT: New Strategies For The Ninetiees by Norma Radol Ralff and Barbara Shore
- TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HUMAN SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS by Lawrence L. Martin
- CONDUCTING NEEDS ASSESSMENTS by Fernando I. Soriano
- ORAL HISTORY IN SOCIAL WORK by Rulh R. Martin
- THE FIRST HELPING INTERVIEW: Engaging the Client and Building Truest by Sara F. Fine and Paul H. Glasser
- MEASURING THE PERFORMANCE OF HUMAN SERVICE PROGRAMS by Lawrence L. Martin and Peter M. Kettner
- CREATING SMALL SCALE SOCIAL PROGRAMS: Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation by Barbara Schram
- GOAL FOCUSED INTERVIEWING by Frank F. Maple
- IMPROVING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A Practical Guidebook for the Human Services Field by Gary V. Sluyter
Copyright © 1993 by Sage Publications, Inc.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Martin, Lawrence L.
Total quality management in human service organizations / Lawrence L. Martin.
p. cm.—(Sage human services guides; vol. 67)
“Published in cooperation with the University of Michigan School of Social Work.”
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8039-4949-9 (cl.).—ISBN 0-8039-4950-2 (pbk.)
1. Human services—United States—Management. 2. Total quality management—United States. I. Title. II. Series: Sage human services guides; v. 67.
97 98 99 00 01 10 9 8 7 6 5 4
Sage Production Editor: Yvonne Könneker
The impetus for this book was the realization that the human services have largely ignored the total quality management (TQM) movement. While both business and government as well as the health services have embraced TQM, one finds little mention of this new managerial wave in the human services literature. I hope this book will help spread the word about TQM among human service professionals.
The purpose of this book is to provide the reader with an overview of what TQM is all about. The book stresses the point that TQM is a new philosophy of management and is not simply a new set of tools that human service managers can pick and choose from. I have also tried to point out what I believe is a basic compatibility between the underlying values of TQM and those of the human services in general and social work in particular.
I owe a debt of gratitude to several individuals for their assistance in making this book a reality. I want to thank Steve McLaughlin, Arlene Sarver, Linda Mushkatel, and Pat Matthews, who provided me with information and insights into the TQM programs of the Maricopa County Department of Social Services. I also want to thank Marquita Flemming and Dale Grenfell of Sage Publications. Finally, a special thanks goes to Armand Lauffer, who saw the value in this book and helped guide its preparation.Boca Raton, Florida, March 1993, [Page x]
Afterword: Quality as a Journey[Page 103]
In Chapter 1, the reader was advised to remain skeptical about TQM, but asked not to judge until all the material in this book had been presented. That time has come. In the preceding pages, we have reviewed the history, the philosophy, and the tools of TQM. It is now time for the reader to decide if TQM is a relevant management system for human service organizations. I may be expressing a bias, but I think the reader will agree that it is.
What should be apparent to the reader at this point is that TQM is actually a relatively simple management system. Yes, TQM does have its own jargon, which can be troublesome at times. However, when we distill TQM down to its essence, what we find is a relatively simple philosophy of management with a set of relatively simple analytical tools. If one had to reduce TQM down to a single concept, “customer driven” might capture its essence as well as any. In TQM the customer is king, and the job of organizations is to make the king happy. This simple guiding principle brings a clarity of focus and an energy to the running of a human service organization—something that is frequently missing in other management systems.
What may be the most surprising thing about TQM is that the world took so long to discover it. Organizations have been run for just about every conceivable purpose. But only recently have we seriously considered running them for the benefit of customers.
One of the major advantages of TQM, of course, is its basic compatibility with human service and social work values. Human service professionals should find TQM philosophically harmonious with their own value system. Given TQM's widespread popularity, most human organizations will probably have a close encounter with it sometime during the decade of the 1990s. Given TQM's value base, the inevitable should perhaps be looked on more with anticipation than dread.
Finally, I would like to remind the reader that TQM is a journey, not a destination. TQM is not something you can do this year and forget about the year after. Continuous quality improvement is a never ending voyage of discovery.
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About the Author[Page 109]
Lawrence L. Martin is Associate Professor of Social Work at The Columbia University School of Social Work. He holds an MSW and a Ph.D. in political science from Arizona State University and an MIM in International Management from the American Graduate School of International Management in Glendale, Arizona. He is the coauthor of Purchase of Service Contracting (Sage, 1987) and Designing and Managing Programs (Sage, 1990). He is also the author/coauthor of numerous articles and book chapters dealing with the administration of human service programs. Before assuming his current academic position, he held a variety of positions with government and nonprofit human service organizations.