This book traces the major stages of thinking in the development of inclusive education. It provides overviews of the main theoretical influences: the medico-psychological model; sociological positions; curriculum studies; school effectiveness; and the impact upon policy and practice of the Disability Movement. Positioned and discussed in their historical contexts the book provides a synopsis and critique of the last 50 years, including the introduction of the term "Special Educational Needs," the practice of integration, and the present processes of inclusive education. The unique features of this book include personal reflections by a number of people who are considered to have had major influence in the


DouglasBiklenUniversity of Syracuse, USA

Sample Texts

Achieving the Complete School (1985)

Schooling without Labels (1992)

Communication Unbound (1993)

Contested words, contested science (Biklen and Cardinal, 1997)

‘I am intelligent’: The social construction of mental retardation (Biklen and Duchan, 1994)

Foreword to Schooling Children with Down Syndrome (in Kliewer, 1998)

My introduction to disability came abruptly, a few months into graduate study in social policy. I participated on a research team investigating living conditions in large state institutions for the so-called ‘mentally retarded’. These facilities housed anywhere from 1,200 to 6,000 residents, children as well as adults, classified according to U.S. definitions at the time as profoundly retarded, severely retarded, moderately retarded and mildly retarded.

My training was in ethnographic research, not in special education, and this may have helped me to be able ...

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