Theories and Applications of Counseling and Psychotherapy provides students with the foundational knowledge needed to implement various therapeutic approaches in individual and family counseling. The dynamic author team presents theories through a multicultural and social justice-oriented lens, including evidence to support each theory. Students will embrace chapter concepts through vibrant illustrations and relevant examples from movies, TV shows, photographs, paintings, musical lyrics, news articles, and other sources presented throughout.

Postmodernism : Constructivism and Social Constructionism

Postmodernism: Constructivism and Social Constructionism

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Learning Objectives

After reading this chapter, each student should be able to:

  • Articulate the contributions of the key players to constructivism and social constructionism.
  • Summarize the philosophical roots of constructivism and social constructionism.
  • Discuss the differences underlying modernist and postmodernist beliefs about reality.
  • Describe the narrative approach to the construction of the self and the use of metaphor.
  • Describe the therapeutic process of constructivist and social constructionist approaches to therapy, including goals, the therapist’s role, the client’s role, assessment, and the therapeutic change processes.
  • Compare and contrast constructivist (i.e., narrative) and social constructionist (i.e., positive/virtues-based) therapeutic strategies and techniques.
  • Assess postmodernism’s multicultural and ethical implications, determining where challenges may arise in the course of therapy.


The term postmodernism has various connotations, but ...

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