The World of Crime: Breaking the Silence on Problems of Security, Justice, and Development Across the World

Books

Jan Van Dijk

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Challenge of Measuring Crime Internationally

    Part II: Common Crimes Across the World

    Part III: Emerging Global Crime Threats

    Part IV: International Trends in Criminal Justice

    Part V: International Perspectives on Crime and Justice

  • Dedication

    To Ruscha

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Preface

    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the new generation of survey-based statistics on both common crimes and on emerging global threats. Following the example of Transparency International's rankings of countries on levels of corruption, the book presents “league tables” on various types of crime. Using information from a wide range of sources, over 150 countries, from both the developed and developing world, are benchmarked on their levels of crime, violence, sexual violence, organized crime, trafficking in persons, petty and grand corruption, and terrorism. All information is presented in easily understandable tables and graphs, depicting levels of crime in world regions and individual countries. Statistics on the most important types of crime are depicted also in the form of color-shaded world maps. The book offers a first-ever World Atlas of Crime.

    Part I of this book explains why it had to be written. Crime is rapidly becoming global in its various manifestations. Terrorist attacks are funded, planned, prepared, and executed across borders. Chemical drugs are shipped from Asia through Europe or Australia to end up in discos in North America. Cocaine goes from South America through the Caribbean or Africa to Europe. Young women are trafficked for sexual exploitation from countries in Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe to the European Union, North America, and Australia. Billions in criminal assets are moved around the world by money launderers and stashed away in safe havens. Every year millions of naïve people fall victim to Internet-based frauds emanating from Nigeria: Their savings end up in banks in, for example, China within seconds.

    The international community is slowly rising to the challenge of global crime. More and more people have started to realize that no American or European judge, however dedicated, can arrest a scam artist in Lagos, Nigeria, or freeze and confiscate assets hidden in Beijing. Something needs to be done to protect the victims of global crime. Governments appreciate that more international cooperation in criminal justice is needed. They understand that the strengthening of criminal justice agencies in poorer countries is the first line of defense against global crime. In recent years, the first global treaties against organized crime, human trafficking, corruption, and terrorism have entered into force. Both the United States and some European countries are detaching some of their best law enforcement experts and prosecutors abroad to assist local colleagues in countering global threats.

    The question is whether criminology has also risen to the challenge of globalizing crime. Strangely enough, most research and most courses in criminology have maintained a distinctly domestic focus. We learn about the operations of domestic law enforcement and justice systems and about the characteristics of local offenders and local victims. Prevailing criminological theories are almost exclusively tested in national settings, using national or city data. The comparative approach, prevailing in economics and so many other advanced fields of study, remains conspicuously absent in criminology. Some textbooks offer a brief section on international or comparative issues for curiosity's sake, often using statistics on crime from Interpol. Ironically, even these statistics are no longer available. In 2006, Interpol made the decision to remove all crime statistics from its public Web sites. After publishing international figures of crime for 50 years, Interpol has discontinued its series precisely at a time when international information on crime makes more sense than ever.

    In this book, I will argue that Interpol's decision is criminologically sound and its director should be commended. Statistics of police-recorded crimes reflect the performance of the police rather than levels of crime. Where police forces are incompetent or corrupt, fewer victims report crimes and recorded crime rates will consequently be low. Where police forces are more effective, levels of reporting are higher and rates of recorded crimes go up. This mechanism explains why according to international statistics, rates of recorded crime are highest in Sweden and New Zealand and lowest in Albania and Colombia. As measures of the levels of crime across countries, police figures of crime are a source of disinformation. Fortunately, new sources of information on crime in an international perspective have become available. The International Crime Victim Survey, a standardized survey on victimization experience, was carried out in 1988 for the first time in a dozen countries. It has since been repeated once or more in 78 countries. For many countries, including the United States, Canada, England and Wales, Australia, and the Netherlands, comparable survey-based data on victimization are available from five sweeps of the ICVS, the latest from 2005. Similar new sources of information have been created regarding organized crime and corruption.

    Comparative surveys on various types of crime such as the ICVS have been given a clean bill of health by leading crime survey experts such as American scholar Jim Lynch. And yet the execution of the ICVS has remained a vulnerable undertaking, receiving more criticism than support. Its results have not been widely distributed through the UN or other international channels. In fact, many governments are opposed to international crime statistics, which they regard as a potential threat to their national sovereignty. They are unwilling to see their “dirty laundry” of crime and violence exposed in the international arena. As promoter of the ICVS and senior official within the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, responsible for crime issues, I have witnessed several instances where governments thwarted efforts to collect international statistics on crime, corruption, or terrorism. In 2004, for example, I coauthored a lengthy report on trends on crime and justice for the occasion of the 11th UN Crime Congress in Bangkok. This report was generally well received—and even praised in the Political Declaration adopted at the end of the Congress. And yet it never evolved into a full-fledged UN publication. At the United Nations' Crime Commission in Vienna later in the year, the executive director of UNODC, Antonio Maria Costa, tossed to the commission the idea of a biannual World Crime Report of the United Nations. This obvious proposal was, at the prompt initiative of the U.S. delegation, summarily rejected. The consensus among the diplomats and experts convening in Vienna was that crime statistics are too politically sensitive for the United Nations.

    In the current era of globalization, crime problems often have “spillover” effects across national borders. Governments can no longer treat crime problems as domestic affairs. The current book can be seen as an attempt to break the “conspiracy of silence” around international crime information. It is the personalized version of the kind of report that the Crime Commission voted down in Vienna 3 years ago.

    Part II presents available data on common crimes, such as burglaries, robberies, and assaults based on the ICVS and on homicides based on police and health statistics. A special section is devoted to results on violence against women based on other international research. Subsequent chapters discuss the main causes of common crime at the macro level. The most important determinants of crime appear to be (rapid) urbanization, extreme poverty/economic inequality, overrepresentation of young males, discrimination of women, alcohol abuse, and availability of guns. Scatterplots depict the statistical links between national scores on known macro causes and national rates of crime. This visual presentation of the data allows the reader to see at a glance how individual countries are placed on, for example, beer consumption or gun ownership and rates of assaults. The plots also reveal which countries are outliers (e.g., score high on alcohol consumption but low on assaults). Readers can see for themselves whether the statistical relations look strong enough to be convincing. All data used in the analyses are also put in appendices, which makes them easily available for secondary analyses by the reader. The information on the causes of crime provides several entry points for strategies to prevent crime at the national or local level. Governments in Europe and Africa are, for example, alerted to the role of alcohol abuse in youth violence. Governments in the Americas will be informed on the links between gun ownership and various forms of serious violent crime.

    The trend data on common crime, presented at the end of Part II, show that levels of crime are declining not just in the United States but in nearly all developed countries. This finding makes it important to find explanations for the drops in crime that are applicable across countries. In the United States, lower crime rates are often attributed to wider use of imprisonment. The international information shows that similar drops in crime have occurred in countries such as Finland and France where rates of imprisonment have remained stable or declined. Results of the ICVS and other studies demonstrate that in all Western countries, middle-class families and businesspeople have responded to increased losses from crime with massive investments in self-protection. This phenomenon of “responsive securitization” is presented as the main driving force behind the near-universal drops in common crime. Chapter 7 discusses the fact that poorer countries as well as low-income groups in richer ones cannot afford to invest as much in self-protection as those better off. This factor of security affordability explains why public safety is increasingly unequally distributed both between countries and within. While risks of crime have gone down in the North, many developing countries in the world's South are still struggling with rising rates of violence and crime. Within Western nations, risks have gone down steeper among high- and middle-income groups than among less well-protected low-income groups.

    In Part III of this book, the focus is shifted from common crimes to the emerging global crime threats such as organized crime, corruption, and terrorism. Official statistics on organized crime are shown to be of little use. Harnessing information from a variety of sources such as surveys among business executives, risk assessments by security experts, and country rates of unsolved murders, a composite index is made of the prevalence of organized crime in countries. Unsurprisingly, this index is found to correlate strongly with a composite index of grand corruption. Organized crime and high-level corruption are shown to be two of a kind. Terrorism indices, however, point at a distribution that is very different, with a concentration in the Middle East.

    In Part IV, countries are ranked according to the performance of their police forces, the independence and integrity of their courts, and their use of imprisonment. As before, results are presented in the form of tables and graphs, indicating differences between countries and regions. The results point at a major “justice deficit” in developing countries: In the world's South, police forces and courts are seriously underfunded and often perform poorly. As expected, the United States comes out as world leader in imprisonment. Perhaps more surprisingly, data from surveys among business leaders show confidence in the integrity of courts to be declining in both developing and developed countries, including western Europe and North America.

    In Part V, the final part, police performance and judicial integrity are linked to levels of organized crime. The results reveal that institutional failures to uphold the rule of law are root causes of organized crime and grand corruption as well as of terrorism. In countries where police forces are not performing and the rule of law is not assured, organized crime and grand corruption can flourish and terrorist groups are more likely to attack. The analyses also show that such lawlessness is closely linked to economic stagnation. In the short term, national economies may receive a boost from criminal activities such as drug production and trafficking. But our analyses suggest that, on balance, the organized crime-corruption complex is a major obstacle for economic growth. Several developing countries are in the grips of vicious circles of institutional failure, generalized lawlessness, and economic stagnation. Crime emerges as a vitally important development issue.

    Over the past years, the member states of the United Nations have adopted international legal instruments to strengthen the fight against organized crime, corruption, and terrorism. Insiders are unimpressed by the pace and scale of implementation of these treaties. The book ends with a plea for global reform in the justice and security sector. International cooperation in law enforcement and criminal justice should no longer be just preached over conference tables but practiced in police stations and criminal courts. In order to generate reliable partners in developing countries, a large-scale transfer of skills and equipment to the South is required. This book hopes to convince readers that functioning police and justice systems can do much to improve the quality of life and prosperity of those living in the poorest countries and would simultaneously serve the interests of the world community in its fight against international terrorism.

    The book is important for students who want to put domestic crime and justice issues and criminological theories in an international perspective. The many tables, graphs, and scatterplots will induce advanced students to engage themselves in secondary analyses of the unique data contained in the appendices. The book should also appeal to readers professionally or privately interested in issues of crime, corruption, terrorism, law enforcement, criminal justice, and sustainable development. It puts, as said, the security and justice problems of over 150 countries on the map and formulates proposals for remedial action both at home and overseas. The many detailed world maps of crime, violence, and police performance will also be of use to those planning trips abroad for business or pleasure. This book, in sum, puts available international knowledge on crime in the public domain, regardless of national sensitivities.

    Acknowledgments

    This book builds on the sustained efforts of a large group of persons. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime published in 1999 a Global Report on Crime and Justice, edited by Graeme Newman. Work has since been ongoing on the collection and analysis of crime and justice statistics. A document on Trends in Crime and Justice was prepared by me and colleagues at UNODC/UNICRI for the occasion of the United Nations Eleventh Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Bangkok, Thailand, 2005.

    Over the years, I have had the pleasure to collaborate on the International Crime Victim Surveys with a dozen or more colleagues involved in quantitative criminology. Their work is quoted widely throughout this book and I won't mention them here by name. I want to make use of this occasion to thank them all for two decades of shared commitment and friendship. One person deserves to be named here. John van Kesteren, now at Tilburg University, the Netherlands, has for more than a decade been the master of the ever-growing ICVS data set. Without his knowledge and dedication, all users, including myself, would be lost in numerical translation.

    Since comparative work on crime and justice is underfunded wherever it is undertaken and most certainly at the United Nations, most of the hard work was done by interns. It is my pleasure to thank and name them here: Kleonika Balta, Fabrizio Sarrica, Michaela Messina, Alicia Burke, Linda Geradts, Resham Mantri, Mila Versteeg, and Tonia Strachey. In the Netherlands, Marisca Brouwer and Jaap de Waard of the Ministry of Justice and Fanny Klerx of Tilburg University helped me with the necessary updates. You were all Excel—lent.

    I want to thank Marcus Felson for introducing me to Sage and Evelyn Rubin and Ineke Haen-Marshall for support in the preparation of the manuscript. Finally, I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my former colleagues at UNICRI and present colleagues at Tilburg University for having been with me in this undertaking. The following reviewers are gratefully acknowledged:

    Robert Homant, University of Detroit

    Nick Larsen, Chapman University

    Wayne Pitts, University of Memphis

    Pamela Jean Preston, Penn State Schuylkill

    Tilburg, March 2007
    JanVan Dijk
  • Appendix A: Data Sources

    International Crime Victim Surveys (ICVS)

    The International Crime Victim Surveys (ICVS) provide internationally comparable information on victimization by crime through a standard questionnaire. To ensure comparability, all aspects of the methodology have been standardized to the maximum possible extent. The first round of international surveys was done in 14 countries in 1989, providing a first comparable estimate of the level of common crime in 1988. The interviews were done by phone using the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing) technique. That year pilot studies were also done in Indonesia (Surabaja) and Poland (Warsaw). Results were presented in Van Dijk, Mayhew, and Killias (1990). The United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) became involved in 1991 with the aim of providing a wider geographical coverage to the project. Since in most non-Western countries telephone interviewing was not possible, a face-to-face methodology was used for this purpose. For cost reasons, it was agreed that face-to-face surveys would be mainly conducted in the capital (or largest) cities of participating developing countries.

    The second round of surveys took place in 1992 with a total of 33 participating countries, including 20 developing or transitional countries where the face-to-face technique was used. The third round of surveys was done in 1996 in 48 countries (36 face-to-face). The fourth round of surveys was done in 2000–2002 with a total of 48 participating countries again, including 30 face-to-face. A fifth round of surveys was conducted in 2004–2005 under the supervision of UNODC, UNICRI, and INTERVICT. Surveys were executed among 18 member states of the European Union by a consortium, consisting of UNICRI, Gallup/Europe, and the Max Planck Institute in Freiburg, Germany, among others, and with partial funding of the European Commission (DG Research). Participation in the 5th sweep was secured with national samples in 28 countries and capital city samples in another 5. The 33 participants included several new entrants such as Bulgaria, Cambodia, Greece, Ireland, Luxembourg, Mozambique, Iceland, Turkey, Mexico, Hong Kong, and Peru. By 2005, over 140 surveys had been done in 78 different countries (in 37 countries nationwide). Over 320,000 citizens have been interviewed in the course of the ICVS so far. Funding for the ICVS has come from a variety of sources. In most developed and middle-income countries, data collection was funded by national ministries or research agencies. Surveys conducted in developing and transitional countries in 1992, 1996, and 2000 were mainly funded by the Dutch Ministry of Development Cooperation. The Dutch Ministry of Justice has over the years been the main contributor to the overhead of the ongoing project. A consortium of research institutes from England/Wales, the US, Canada, Australia and The Netherlands, is planning a repeat of the survey in 2009.

    Methodology

    The ICVS targets samples of households in which only one respondent age 16 or above is selected for interviewing. National samples include at least 2,000 respondents who are generally interviewed by telephone (CATI). In the countries where this method is not applicable because of insufficient distribution of telephones, face-to-face interviews are generally conducted in the capital city, with samples of 1,000–1,500 respondents. To reduce memory errors in the timing of incidents (forward time-telescoping), respondents are first asked whether they have been victimized in the course of the past 5 years and, if yes, whether it (also) happened during the past calendar year. Victimization percentages relate to incidents that are placed in the last year (for details, see Van Dijk, Manchin, Van Kesteren & Hideg, 2007; Van Dijk, Van Kesteren, & Smit, 2007).

    Samples for the ICVS surveys using CATI are based on random-digit dialing of land-line phone numbers stratified by local area. Interviews are taken with the member of the household whose birthday is coming up next. Results are weighted for the variables gender, age, household composition, and area. Surveys using face-to-face interviewing in Estonia, Poland, and Japan used randomly selected persons drawn from official national registrations. These samples were also stratified by local area. The surveys in the main cities in developing countries were, as said, done face-to-face. The sample method was tailored to local circumstances, but generally, a multi-stage stratified sample was used.

    The average duration of the interview in the CATI-based studies was around 20 minutes. The surveys that were done face-to-face took more time; this interview technique generally takes 30% to 50% longer. In Japan, the interviews lasted on average 50 minutes, due mainly to the elaborate formulations needed in the Japanese language.

    The use of different modes of interviewing raises the issue whether this may have compromised comparability of results. Methodological work has shown that, generally speaking, responses to questions on victimization from telephone interviews are similar to those obtained face-to-face (Van Dijk & Mayhew, 1992). This conclusion is based on, among other things, experimental work carried out in the Netherlands comparing CATI-based interviews on a core set of ICVS questions with face-to-face interviews. Both modes of interviewing produced the same prevalence rates. No significant differences in victimization rates were found in a similar ICVS-based experiment in Slovenia. Tests in the course of the NCVS in the United States, however, have demonstrated higher victimization counts in CATI-based interviews than in either face-to-face or telephone interviews. This difference seems to have been caused primarily by better supervision of interviewers in centralized CATI facilities. The available experimental evidence suggests that, given the same standard of field work, interview mode does not significantly affect victimization counts (for references, see Van Dijk, Van Kesteren, & Smit, 2007). In the framework of the ICVS, all surveys were supervised by experienced experts receiving methodological guidance from the key coordinators.

    Table A.1 Countries That Have Participated in the ICVS at Least Once, 1989–2005*

    The ICVS provides rates of victimization in the previous year by 11 types of common crimes. In the 2005 survey, a question on car vandalism was deleted to create room for other questions such as those on hate crimes. An important secondary objective of the ICVS is to assess attitudes of respondents to crime and justice. Respondents are asked to explain reasons for nonreporting of crimes, thus to provide comparative information on why police statistics do not reflect the full crime picture. Those who have reported victimization to the police are asked to assess the way the police have handled their report. Furthermore, all respondents are asked to assess the performance of the police in preventing and controlling crime in their areas, the use of common crime-prevention measures by their household, and attitudes toward punishment of offenders. More details on methodology and content are given in Van Kesteren, Mayhew, and Nieuwbeerta (2002), Van Dijk, Manchin, Van Kesteren, and Hideg (2007), and Van Dijk, Van Kesteren, and Smit (2007).

    Definitions

    The standard questionnaire1 has been translated in to the languages of all participating countries. The questionnaire includes sections on different types of common crime, which are described in colloquial nonlegal language, providing a common definition (see Table A.2).2 Furthermore, questions on consumer fraud and corruption are included, also accompanied by standard definitions. The questionnaire, as said, also explores whether crimes were reported to the police, reasons for not reporting, attitudes toward the police, fear of crime, use of crime prevention measures, and opinions about sentencing. A complicating factor in the conduct of the ICVS is the tendency of partner organizations to introduce small changes in the questionnaire. Where this had happened, results on such issues were either dismissed for comparative purposes or adjusted. This has, for example, happened with some Australian results from ICVS 2005.

    Table A.2 ICVS Definitions of 13 Types of Crime

    Among the 11 common crimes, some are “household crimes,” that is, those that can be seen as affecting the household at large, and respondents report on all incidents known to them. One group of crimes deals with the vehicles owned by the respondent or his or her household, and a second group refers to breaking and entering. A third group refers to victimization experienced by the respondent personally (including corruption and consumer fraud/cheating).

    Technical Note on ICVS Data Presentation

    Results of the ICVS presented here are mainly based on capital city surveys or, in a few cases, subsamples from populations living in cities of 100,000 inhabitants or more (urban rates). Country rates are based on data from the latest available surveys conducted between 1996 and 2005, occasionally supplemented with data from the ICVS 1992 (five countries). All country rates used in cross-sectional analyses relate to capital city or urban rates to enhance comparability. Trend data, presented in Chapter 6, are based on national rates since capital city data on developed countries are not available for the older sweeps of the ICVS. Analyses of the correlates of crime are done on data of the ICVS 1996 and 2000 whereby 1996 and 2000 rates have been averaged if both were available. Data on correlates relate mainly to 2000. Rates of victimization used in these analyses can differ significantly from those used in the descriptive tables that are based on results of the ICVS 2005. Regional rates are based on averaging of rates from individual countries from the region (not weighted for population), and world rates are based on averaging of regional rates (not weighted for population). National sample sizes are 2,000 or more in most countries, with the exception of Luxembourg (850). Urban sample sizes per country are given in Table A.3.

    Table A.3 Sample Sizes of Urban Victimization Rates, ICVS, 1996–2005, Latest Available

    Table A.3 Sample Sizes of Urban Victimization Rates, ICVS, 1996–2005, Latest Available

    Table A.3 Sample Sizes of Urban Victimization Rates, ICVS, 1996–2005, Latest Available

    Table A.3 Sample Sizes of Urban Victimization Rates, ICVS, 1996–2005, Latest Available

    The International Crime Business Survey (ICBS)

    The first International Commercial Crime Survey (ICCS) was carried out in 1994 in eight countries (Van Dijk & Terlouw, 1996).3 The same questionnaire was used in 1997 in Estonia and 1998 in South Africa (Naudee, Prinsloo, & Martins, 1999). A national survey with a very similar questionnaire was also conducted in Australia (Walker, 1994), which was followed by a national survey on the retail sector in 1999 (Taylor & Mayhew, 2002). Two surveys were carried out in southwestern Finland in 1994–1995, mostly based on the same questionnaire (Aromaa & Laitinen, 1994). Between 1995 and 1999, surveys with the same methodology were also replicated in St. Petersburg, Latvia, and Lithuania to address the issue of security of foreign businesses (Aromaa & Lehti, 1996).

    The ICCS questionnaire focused mostly on experiences of victimization, information on perceptions, and attitudes toward several aspects of everyday business. However, from the surveys conducted in St. Petersburg and the Baltic countries, it became clear that extortion and corruption were among the most pressing problems of businesses in eastern Europe (Aromaa, 2000). In the late 1990s, the ICCS questionnaire was modified to include more items on extortion and corruption. A second round of the International Crime Business Survey (ICBS)—a new name for the international survey was deemed desirable—was conducted by UNICRI in 2000 in nine central and eastern European countries. The national coordinators appointed for the ICVS in each participating country were also requested to monitor the progress of the ICBS. The role of the national coordinators included ensuring the correctness of the translation/localization of the questionnaires, monitoring of the sampling procedure, and participation in the training of the interviewers. Sampling designs for the ICBS were more complicated than for the ICVS (see Table A.4).

    Table A.4 ICBS 2000. Participating Cities/Countries, Sample Size, and Sampling Information

    Funding was provided by the Ministries of Justice and Foreign Affairs/Development Cooperation of the Netherlands and the Ministry of Justice of Hungary.4 In order to provide for the highest comparability of the results, the fieldwork was contracted to a major international survey company, Gallup/Europe, which used its branches and associates in each participating country. Survey teams received standard training and guidelines for the project, along the lines of training provided for the ICVS. Because of the elevated costs involved, it was decided to limit the surveys to capital cities in each participating country.5

    The International Violence Against Women Survey (IVAWS)

    The International Violence Against Women Survey (IVAWS) was started in 1997 with the development of a draft questionnaire and methodology. In late 1999, the International Project Team was formed comprising HEUNI, UNICRI, and Statistics Canada. Preparations for pilot studies were commenced in November 2001, with Canada carrying out a 100-respondent pilot study. Other countries followed with pilot studies during 2002, including Argentina, Costa Rica, Denmark, Estonia, Italy, Kazakhstan, Poland, Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Serbia, Switzerland, and Ukraine. In early December 2002, the questionnaire was ready for the full-fledged surveys. To date, surveys have been conducted in 10 countries.

    The United Nations Survey on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems

    The Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1984/48 of May 25, 1984, requested that the Secretary-General maintain and develop a United Nations crime-related database by continuing to conduct surveys of crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems. The major goal of the United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems is to collect data on the incidence of reported crime and the operations of criminal justice systems with a view to improving the analysis and dissemination of that information globally. The survey results should provide an overview of trends and interrelationships between various parts of the criminal justice system to promote informed decision making nationally and internationally.

    The definitions used in the questionnaire are broad enough to be applicable in the varying context of national criminal codes. Data from the eighth (covering 2001–2002) and previous surveys are available at the UNODC Web site (http://www.unodc.org). The questionnaire is available to download in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The ninth survey (covering the years 2003–2004) was launched mid-2005 and has not yet produced results. A critical review of the methodology of the UN Crime Survey by Marilyn Rubin and other researchers of John Jay College, New York, is available on the UNODC Web site. For an overview of participating countries, see Table A.5.

    Table A.5 Countries Responding to the UN Survey (1995–2002)-Police Section

    Table A.5 Countries Responding to the UN Survey (1995–2002)-Police Section

    Table A.5 Countries Responding to the UN Survey (1995–2002)-Police Section

    Some Other Technical Matters
    Method for Constructing Composite Indices

    The following procedure was used to build the composite indices presented throughout the book. First, variables are selected that can be seen as indicators of the construct at issue (e.g., perceived prevalence of organized crime or quality of police performance). Second, the values of countries on these selected variables are rank-ordered. Third, the rank numbers are standardized by dividing them by the highest rank, multiplied by 100. Finally, country scores on the index are calculated by averaging the standardized rank numbers. This formula has been applied in previous work on comparative crime statistics done under the aegis of HEUNI in Helsinki, Finland. For more detail, see Kangaspunta et al. (1998) and Aromaa et al. (2003). For some indices, however, this method was used without applying Step 2. These indices were calculated to a 100% scale without being rank-ordered first. This was done in order to give a more detailed picture of the location of countries on the scale. The composite organized-crime index and the lawfulness index were constructed by the latter method.

    Method for Constructing Scatterplots

    It should be noted that most scatterplots in this book are constructed on the basis of reversed rank numbers. For both variables presented in a plot, the lowest score is given the lowest rank and the highest score the highest rank. This was done in order to make the pictures easier to understand and to be able to add country labels for as many countries as possible. Some countries are, however, not explicitly named, due to a lack of space in the plot area. Values can be found in Appendix B. In the case of the scatterplot depicting the relationship between bicycle ownership and bicycle theft in Chapter 5, we have used nonranked scores to show the exponential relationship.

    Method for Constructing Bar Charts

    Two different methods were used for constructing the regional bar charts in this book. In case only a limited number of data were available (<70 observations), the following regions were used: Africa, Asia, eastern Europe, western and central Europe, Canada and the United States (North America; weighted as 1:9), Latin America and the Caribbean (including Mexico), and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand). This is the case for most bar charts with ICVS data. In case data on more countries were available, the following regional division was used: East Africa, North Africa, southern Africa, West and central Africa, the Caribbean, Central America, North America (the United States, Canada, Mexico; unweighted), South America, Central Asia and Transcaucasian countries, East and Southeast Asia, the Near and Middle East (Southwest Asia), southern Asia, eastern Europe, southeastern Europe, western and central Europe, and Oceania (excluding Papua New Guinea). In a few cases, however, the first method was also used for larger data sets. Data on Papua New Guinea that are not available in machine-readable form and have been added on an ad hoc basis were not included in the regional rates for Oceania.

    The details on both regional divisions are showed in the tables below:

    Table A.6 Regional Divisions for Smaller Data Setsast;

    Table A.6 Regional Divisions for Smaller Data Sets*

    Table A. 7 Regional Divisions for Bigger Data Sets

    Table A. 7 Regional Divisions for Bigger Data Sets

    Notes

    1. Downloadable in English from the UNODC Web site http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/research_icvs.html or http://www.tilburguniversity.nl/intervict

    2. Much attention has been paid to the issue of translation of concepts and terms into the various languages. Regular meetings of survey coordinators from participating countries have facilitated the exercise.

    3. Full-fledged surveys in 1994 were conducted in the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Pilot surveys were also done in Australia, Indonesia, South Africa (Johannesburg), and Spain (Malaga).

    4. Funding for the surveys in Albania, Croatia, and Romania was provided by the Dutch Ministry of Justice within the framework of the ICVS/ICBS 2000. Funding for the surveys in Belarus, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Russia, and Ukraine was provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands within the framework of the project “Assessing Violence, Corruption, and Organized Crime in Eastern-Central European Countries.” The survey in Hungary was funded by the Hungarian Ministry of Justice within the framework of the joint UNICRI/CICP project Assessment of Corruption in Hungary, a component of the UNODC Global Programme Against Corruption.

    5. Another reason for carrying out city rather than national surveys was the lack of systematic information in the participating countries. The same decision was made with the ICVS in central-eastern Europe and developing countries. For more detailed information and technical discussion on the ICVS methodology in developing countries, see Alvazzi del Frate, Zvekic, & Van Dijk (1993), Svekic & Alvazzi del Frate (1995), and Hatalak, Alvazzi del Frate, & Zvekic (2000).

    Appendix B: Data Tables

    Data in Figures 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4

    Data in Figures 2.5 and 2.6

    Data in Figures 3.13.13 and in Table 3.13.4

    Data in Figures 4.14.5 and in Table 4.14.3

    Data in Figures 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.10, and 5.11

    Data in Figures 5.7 and 5.9

    Data in Figure 5.8

    Data in Figure 6.1

    Data in Figure 6.2

    Data in Figure 6.3

    Data in Figure 6.4

    Data in Figure 6.6

    Data on trends in rates of victimization by burglary per income quartiles; sources: ICVS 1998–2005

    Data on trends in % use of burglar alarms per income quartiles; sources: ICVS, 1998–2005

    Data on trends in victimization by joyriding (car recovered) and car theft (not recovered) in Chapter 6

    Data in Figure 7.8

    Data in Figures 7.4, 7.5, and 7.9

    Data in Figures 8.2 and 8.3

    Data in Figures 8.1 and 8.5

    Data in Figure 9.8

    Data in Figures 9.13, 9.15, 9.16 and Table 9.3 and 9.4

    Data in Figures 9.9, 9.11 and 9.12

    Data in Table 9.2, Table 10.1, Figure 10.1, Table 11.1, and in final section Chapter 11 (text on punitiveness scale)

    Data in Table 9.2 and Table 10.3; reliability is used in calculation of PPI figures

    Appendix Chapter 10

    Appendix Chapter 11
    Data in Table 11.3

    Appendix Chapter 12

    Data in Figures 12.1 and 12.2 (WEF measure costs of crime and violence is referred to in introductory remarks)

    Data in Figures 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, and 12.5

    Data in Figures 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, and 13.6

    Data in Figures 13.1, 13.2, 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, and 13.6

    Appendix Chapter 13

    Data in Figure 13.4

    References

    Abrahemsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2005). The globalization of private security. Country report: Nigeria. Aberystwyth: University of Wales.
    Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., & Hickman, M. (2004). Review of injecting drug users and HIV infection in prisons in developing and transitional countries. London: Imperial College. Online: http://www.idurefgroup.org.
    Acemoglu, D., & Johnson, S. (2003, July). Unbundling institutions. Working paper, MIT. Also inThe Journal of Political Economy, 79, 5. Online: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract.
    Adamoli, S., Di Nicola, A., Savona, E. U., & Zoffi, P. (1998). Organized crime around the world. Helsinki: HEUNI.
    Adler, F. (1983). Nations not obsessed with crime. Comparative Criminal Law Project Publication Series, Vol. 15. Littleton, CO: Fred B. Rothman.
    Adler, F., Mueller, G. O. W., & Laufer, W. S. (1998). Criminology. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
    Aebi, M. F., Killias, M., & Tavares, C. (2001). Comparing crime rates: Confronting the ICVS, the European sourcebook of crime and criminal justice statistics and Interpol statistics. In H.Kury (Ed.), International comparison of crime and victimization: The ICVS. International Studies in Social Science, Vol. 2. Willowdale, ON: De Sitter Publications.
    Afrobarometer. (2004). Afrobarometer round 2: Compendium of comparative results from a 15-country survey. Working paper No. 34, March 2004.
    Altbeker, A. (2005). Puzzling statistics: Is South Africa really the world's crime capital?Crime Quarterly, 11. Online: http://www.iss.org.za/pubs/Crime
    Alvazzi del Frate, A. (2003). The voice of victims of crime. Forum on Crime and Society, 3, 127–141.
    Alvazzi del Frate, A. (2004). The international crime business survey. Findings from nine Central-Eastern European cities. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 10, 137–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10610-004-4122-4
    Alvazzi del Frate, A., Bule, J., Van Kesteren, J., & Patrignani, A. (2003). Strategic plan of the police of the Republic of Mozambique. Results of surveys on victimization and police performance. Turin: UNICRI Publications.
    Alvazzi del Frate, A., & Van Kesteren, J. (2001). The ICVS in the developing world. In H.Kury (Ed.), International comparison of crime and victimization: The ICVS. Willowdale, ON: De Sitter Publications.
    Alvazzi del Frate, A., & Van Kesteren, J. (2004). Criminal victimization in urban Europe. Turin: UNICRI Publications.
    Alvazzi del Frate, A., Zvekic, U., & Van Dijk, J. J. M. (Eds.). (1993). Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Rome: UNICRI Publications.
    Anderson, D. A. (1999). The aggregate burden of crime. Journal of Law and Economics, 42, 611–643. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/467436
    Angers, L. (2004). Combating cyber-crime: National legislation as a prerequisite to international cooperation. In E. U.Savona (Ed.), Crime and technology. New frontiers for regulation, law enforcement and research. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
    Aos, S., et al. (2001). The comparative costs and benefits of programs to reduce crime. Olympia: Washington State Institute for Public Policy. Online: http://www.wa.gov/wsipp.
    Arlacchi, P. (1993). Men of dishonor: Inside the Sicilian Mafia. An account of Antonino Calderone. New York: William Morrow.
    Aromaa, K. (2000). Organized crime and business security. In O.Hatalak, A.Alvazzi del Frate, & U.Zvekic (Eds.), Surveying crime: A global approach. Rome: ISTAT/UNICRI.
    Aromaa, K., & Laitinen, A. (1994). Business security in South-Western Finland. In K.Aromaa & A.Laitinen (Eds.), Juvenile delinquency and business security. Helsinki, Finland: Ministry of the Interior, Police Department.
    Aromaa, K., & Lehti, M. (1996). Foreign companies and crime in eastern Europe. Helsinki, Finland: National Research Institute of Legal Policy, Publication No. 135.
    Aromaa, K., Leppa, S., Nevala, S., & Ollus, N. (Eds.). (2003). Crime and criminal justice systems in Europe and North America 1995–1997. Helsinki: HEUNI.
    AUCERT. (2006). 2006 Australian Computer Crime and Security Survey.
    Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (2004). Economic growth (
    2nd ed.
    ). Cambridge, MA; London: MIT Press.
    Bartelet, R. (2004). Self-reported juvenile delinquency in England and Wales, The Netherlands, and Spain. Helsinki, Finland: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control.
    Bauer, L., & Owens, S. D. (2004). Justice expenditure and employment in the United States, 2001. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
    BEEPS. (1996). Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey. World Bank and the EBRD. Online: http://info.worldbank.org/governance/beeps1996/
    Beirne, P. (1993). Inventing criminology. Essays on the rise of “homo criminalis.”Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Belknap, J. E. (1989). The economics-crime link. Criminal Justice Abstracts, 21, 1.
    Bennett, R. R. (1991). Development and crime: A cross-national time-series analysis of competing models. Sociological Quarterly, 32, 343–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00163.x
    Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Williams, T. (2001). Drug use and offending: Summary results from the first year of the NEW-ADAM research programme. London: Home Office Findings, No. 148.
    Bezlov, T. (2005). Crime trends in Bulgaria: Police statistics and victimization surveys. Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy.
    Biebesheimer, C., & Payne, J. M. (2001). IDB experience in justice reform: Lessons learned and elements for policy formulation. Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank.
    Blickman, T. (2005). The ecstasy industry in The Netherlands in a global perspective. In P.Van Duyne, K.Von Lampe, J. J. M.Van Dijk, & J. L.Newell (Eds.), The organized crime economy: Managing crime markets in Europe. Nijmegen, The Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers.
    Block, R. (1993). Measuring victimization risk: The effects of methodology, sampling and fielding. In A.Alvazzi del Frate, U.Zvekic, & J. J. M.Van Dijk (Eds.), Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Rome: UNICRI Publications.
    Blumstein, A. (1993). Making rationality relevant. Criminology, 31, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1993.tb01119.x
    Blumstein, A., & Wallman, J. (2000). The crime drop in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Boutelier, J. C. J. (2004). The safety utopia: Contemporary discontent and desire as to crime and punishment. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer.
    Braithwaite, J. (1989). Crime, shame, and integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804618
    Brand, S., & Price, R. (2000). The economic and social costs of crime. Home Office Research Study 217. London: Home Office.
    Brantingham, P., & Easton, T. (1998). The costs of crime, who pays and how much? Fraser Institute Critical Issues Bulletin. Vancouver, BC: Fraser Institute.
    Brunetti, A., Kisunko, G., & Weder, B. (1997). Institutional obstacles for doing business. Data description and methodology of a worldwide private sector survey. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1759. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    Bureau of Justice Statistics. (1998). Alcohol and crime. An analysis of national data on the prevalence of alcohol involvement in crime. U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
    Burton, P., Du Plessis, A., Leggett, T., Louw, A., Mistry, D., & Van Vuuren, H. (2004). National victims of crime survey South Africa 2003. Monograph No. 101. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.
    Buscaglia, E., & Van Dijk, J. J. M. (2003). Controlling organized crime and corruption in the public sector. Forum on Crime and Society, 3, 3–35.
    Buvinic, M., Morrison, A., & Shifter, M. (1999). Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean: A framework for action. Technical Study. Washington, DC: Sustainable Development Department. Inter-American Development Bank.
    Caranza, E., & Solana, E. (2004). ILANUD. Paper drafted at the request of UNICRI as input to a document on Trends in Crime and Justice submitted by UNICRI/UNODC at the United Nations Eleventh Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice in Bangkok, Thailand, 2005.
    Centre for Crime and Justice Studies. (2005). Crime and social exclusion. Factsheet. Accessed January 5, 2005. London: King's College. Online: http://www.crimeinfo.org.uk/servlet/factsheetservlet?command=viewfactsheet&factsheetid=54&category=factsheets.
    Chockalingam, K. (2003). Victimization by crime in four large cities in southern India. Forum on Crime and Society, 3, 117–127.
    Clarke, R. V. (1992). Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies. Albany, NY: Harrow and Heston.
    Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 19, 91–150. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Clarke, R. V. (1999). Hot products: Understanding, anticipating and reducing demand for stolen goods. Police Research Series, Paper 112. London: Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate.
    Clarke, R. V., & Homel, R. (1997). A revised classification of situational crime prevention techniques. In S. P.Lab (Ed.), Crime prevention at a crossroads (pp. 17–27). Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
    Coalition 2000. (2005). Anti-corruption reforms in Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria: Center for the Study of Democracy. Online: coalition2000@online.bg.
    Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: A routine activity approach. American Sociological Review, 44, 588–608. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094589
    Collier, P., & Hoeffler, A. (2001). Greed and grievance in civil war. Washington, DC: Post Conflict Unit, World Bank.
    Cook, P. (1987). Robbery violence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 70, 357–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1143453
    Cook, P. J., & Khmilevska, N. (2005). Cross-national patterns in crime rates. In M.Tonry & D.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and justice. Vol. 33. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Cooksey, B. (2002). Can aid agencies really help combat corruption?Forum on Crime and Society, 2(1), 45–57. Vienna: UNODC.
    Costa, A. M. (2002). Institutional failures, organized crime and their global security implications. In Tackling cross border crime. Challenges of international development cooperation. Bonn, Germany: InWEnt, Development Policy Forum.
    Council of Europe. (2004, December 23). Organized crime situation report 2004: Focus on the threat of cybercrime. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
    Crawford, A., & Goodey, J. (2000). Integrating a victim perspective within criminal justice. Aldershot, UK: Darmouth/Ashgate: International Debates.
    Cusson, M. (1990). Croissance et decroissance du crime. Presses Universitaires de France.
    Dandurand, Y., Griffith, C. T., & Chin, V. (2004). Towards a programming framework for development assistance in the justice and security sector. Discussion note—America branch. Ottawa, ON: Canadian International Development Agency.
    David, P. (2004). Technical cooperation in strengthening the rule of law in Latin America: Applicability of United Nations standards and norms in crime prevention and criminal justice to facilitate access to justice. UNODC. Expert Group Meeting, Vienna, Austria, December 10, 2003.
    De Waard, J. (1999). The private security industry in international perspective. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7(2), 143–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008701310152
    Dulic, D. (Ed.). (2005). Human security indicators in Serbia. Belgrade, Serbia: Philo (in Serbian with an English summary).
    Dunlap, R. W. (1997). Asian home invasion robbery. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 13, 309–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043986297013004003
    Dutch National Rapporteur on THB. (2005). Trafficking in human beings—Third report of the Dutch National Rapporteur. The Hague: Bureau NRM.
    Eck, J. E. (2002). Preventing crime at places. In L. W.Sherman, D. P.Farrington, B. C.Welsh, & D. L.MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (pp. 207–265). New York: Routledge.
    Eck, J. E., & Maguire, E. R. (2005). Have changes in policing reduced violent crime? An assessment of the evidence. In A.Blumstein & J.Wallman (Eds.), The crime drop in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Economist, The. (2005). Pocket world in figures. London: Profile Books.
    Eiras, A. I. (2003, March 7). Make the rule of law a necessary condition for the millennium challenge account. In The heritage foundation backgrounder. Washington, DC: Heritage Foundation.
    Ernst & Young. (2004). Fraud, the unmanaged risk. 8th Global Survey. Online: http://www.ey.com/southafrica.
    Eurobarometer. (2003, May). Public safety, exposure to drug-related problems and crime. Report prepared for the European Commission by the European Opinion Research Group (EORG).
    European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics. (2006). The Hague: WODC/Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
    European Sourcebook of Crime & Criminal Justice Statistics. (2003). The Hague: WODC/Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
    EUROPOL. (2003). European Union Organized-Crime Report, Open Version, December 2003. Online: http://europa.eu.int.
    EUROPOL. (2004). European Union Organized-Crime Report, Open Version, December 2004.
    Fajnzylber, P. (1997, September 26). What causes crime and violence? Office of the Chief Economist Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, DC: The World Bank.
    Fajnzylber, P., Lederman, D., & Loayza, N. (2000). Crime and violence: An economic perspective. Economia, 1, 219–302.
    Farrell, G., & Clark, K. (2004). What does the world spend on criminal justice?Helsinki: HEUNI Paper, No 20. HEUNI.
    Farrell, G., & Pease, K. (2001). Repeat victimization. Crime prevention studies, Vol. 12. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Farrington, D. P., & Jolliffe, D. (2005). Cross-national comparisons of crime rates in four countries. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and punishment in Western countries, 1980–1999, Crime and Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Farrington, D. P., Langan, P. A., & Tonry, M. (2004, September). Cross-national studies in crime and justice. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Washington, DC.
    Farrington, D. P., Petrosino, A., & Welsh, B. C. (2001). Systematic reviews and cost-benefit analyses of correctional interventions. Prison Journal, 81, 339–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032885501081003003
    Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2002). Effects of improved street lighting on crime: A systematic review. Home Office Research Study, No. 251. London: Home Office.
    Farrington, D. P., & Welsh, B. C. (2003). Family-based prevention of offending: A meta-analysis. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 36, 127–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/acri.36.2.127
    Feld, L. P., & Voigt, S. (2003). Economic growth and judicial independence: Cross-country evidence using a new set of indicators. European Journal of Political Economy, 19, 497–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0176-2680%2803%2900017-X
    Felson, M. (1997). Crime and everyday life (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press/SAGE.
    Felson, M., & Clarke, R. V. (1998). Opportunity makes the thief. Practical theory for crime prevention. In Police Research Series, Paper 98. Policing & Reducing Crime. London: Home Office.
    Felson, R.B., Pare, P.-P., & Haber, K. (2006). Firearms and fisticuffs: Region, race, and adversary effects on assault. Paper of the American Society of Criminology, Los Angeles, CA.
    Fijnaut, C., & Paoli, L. (2004). Organized crime in Europe. Concepts, patterns, and control policies in the European Union and beyond. Studies on Organized Crime, Vol. 1.4. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
    Finckenauer, J., Fuentes, J. R., & Ward, G. L. (2001). Mexico and the United States of America: Neighbors confront drug trafficking. Forum on Crime and Society, 1, 1–19.
    Finckenauer, J. O., & Waring, E. J. (1998). Russian Mafia in America: Immigration, culture, and crime. Boston: Northeastern University Press.
    Fitzgerald, J. (2002). The war against crime: Is the tide beginning to turn? In South Africa: The Good News. Cape Town, South Africa.
    Foglesong, T. (2005). Regional variation in public perceptions of organized crime in the Balkans. Center on Organized Crime in Southeast Europe, Vera Institute of Justice, May 15, 2005.
    Freel, R., & French, B. (2006). Perceptions of crime: Findings of the 2005 Northern Ireland Crime survey. Belfast: Statistics and Research Agency.
    Friday, P. C., Ren, X., Weitekamp, E., Kerner, H.-J., & Taylor, T. (2005). A Chinese birth cohort: Theoretical implications. National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice (Award number 199IJCX0048). Charlotte: University of North Carolina-Charlotte.
    Gastrow, P. (2003). Penetrating state and business. Organized crime in Southern Africa, Volume One. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.
    Gauthier, A., Hicks, D., Sansfacon, D., & Salel, L. (1999). Hundred crime prevention programmes to inspire action across the world. Montreal, QU: International Centre for Crime Prevention. Online: http://www.crime-prevention-intl.org.
    Gilling, D. (1997). Crime prevention, theory, policy, and politics. London: UCL Press.
    Glenn, J. C., & Gordon, T. J. (2007). State of the Future. Washington, DC: Millenium Project.
    Godson, R. (2000). The role of civil society in countering organized crime: Global implications of the Palermo, Sicily, Renaissance. UNODC/The Sicilian Renaissance Institute, Cita di Palermo, Palermo, December 14, 2000.
    Gonczöl, K. (2004). Hungarian National Strategy for Social Crime Prevention. Paper for ICPC 10th Anniversary Colloquium in Paris (ICPC, Montreal).
    Gonzalez-Ruiz, S. (2001). Fighting drug cartels on the Mexico-United States border. Forum on Crime and Society, 1, 19–31.
    Goodey, J. (2005). Victims and victimology. Research, policy, and practice. Longman Criminology Series. Pearson Longman.
    Gorman, R. F. (2001). Great debates at the United Nations. An encyclopaedia of fifty key items, 1945–2000. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Goudriaan, H. (2004). Reporting to the police in Western countries: A theoretical analysis of the effects of social context. InJustice Quarterly, 21(4), 933–969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07418820400096041
    Greenwood, P. W., Model, K. E., Rydell, C. P., & Chiesa, J. (1996). Diverting children from a life of crime: Measuring costs and benefits. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Groenhuysen, M. S. (1999). Victims' rights in the criminal justice system: A call for more comprehensive implementation theory. In J. J. M.Van Dijk, R.Van Kaam, & J.Wemmers (Eds.), Caring for crime victims. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
    Gros, J.-G. (2003). Trouble in paradise: Crime and collapsed states in the age of globalization. British Journal of Criminology, 43, 63–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjc/43.1.63
    Gruszczynska, B. (2001). Victimization, crime, and social factors in post-socialist countries. In H.Kury (Ed.), International comparison of crime and victimization: The ICVS. Willowdale, ON: De Sitter Publications.
    Gruszczynska, B., & Gruszczynski, M. (2005). Crime in enlarged Europe: Comparison of crime rates and victimization risks. Transition Studies Review, 12, 1337–1345. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11300-005-0065-9
    Guo, T. (1999). Private security in China: A note on recent developments. Security Journal, 12(4), 43–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.sj.8340039
    Gupta, D. K. (2001). Rule of law and terrorism. Paper, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.
    Haarhuis, C. M. K., & Leeuw, F. L. (2004). Fighting governmental corruption: The new World Bank program evaluated. Journal of International Development, 16, 4, 547–561. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jid.1077
    Haen-Marshall, I. (1998). Operation of the criminal justice system. In K.Kangaspunta, M.Joutsen, & N.Ollus (eds), Crime and criminal justice in Europe and North America 1990–1994. New York: Criminal Justice Press.
    Hatalak, O., Alvazzi Del Frate, A., & Zvekic, U. (Eds.). (2000). Surveying crime: A global approach. Rome: ISTAT/UNICRI.
    Heidensohn, F. (2002). Gender and crime. In M.Maguire, R.Morgan, & R.Reiner (Eds.), Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Heikkinen, H., & Lohrmann, R. (1998, October). Involvement of organized crime in the trafficking in migrants. International Organization on Migration. Online: http://migration.ucdavis.edu/rs/printfriendly.php?id=54_0_3_0.
    Hepburn, L. M., & Hemenway, D. (2004). Firearm availability and homicide: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 9, 417–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789%2803%2900044-2
    Hicks, D. (1998). Thinking about organized crime prevention. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 14, 325–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1043986298014004002
    Hicks, D., & Sansfacon, D. (1999). Preventing residential burglaries and home invasions. Montreal, QU: International Centre for the Prevention of Crime.
    Hobbs, D. (1995). Bad business: Professional crime in modern Britain. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Homel, P., Webb, B., Tilley, N., & Nutley, S. (2003, April). Investing to deliver. Reviewing the implementation of the UK crime reduction programme. London: Home Office.
    Hope, T. (1995). Community crime prevention. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 19, 21–89. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hope, T. (2007). Has the British crime survey reduced crime? In M.Hough & M.Maxfield (Eds.), Surveying crime in the XXI century. Proceedings of a conference marking the 25th anniversary of the British Crime Survey. Devon, England: Criminal Justice Press/Willan.
    Howard, G. J., & Smith, T. R. (2003). Understanding cross-national variations of crime rates in Europe and North America. In K.Aromaa, S.Leppa, S.Nevala, & N.Ollus (Eds.), Crime and criminal justice systems in Europe and North America, 1995–1997. Helsinki: HEUNI.
    Human Rights Watch. (2004). Prisons in Latin America. Online: http://www.hrw.org
    Human Security Report. (2005). Part II, Human Security Audit. Online: http://www.humansecurityreport.info.
    Hysi, V. (2000). Future criminological research in Albania. In A.Alvazzi Del Frate, O.Hatalak, & U.Zvekics (Eds.), Surveying crime: A global perspective. Essays, No 7. Rome: UNICRI/ISTAT.
    IC3 Internet Crime Report. (2005), January 1, 2005-December 31, 2005.
    Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention (ICSI). (2004, April). Trafficking in women: The Czech Republic perspective. Prague, Czech Republic.
    International Crime Threat Assessment. (2000). Prepared by the Government Interagency Working Group in support of and pursuant to the President's International Crime Control Strategy. Washington, DC.
    International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2003). Spreading the light of science: Guidelines on harm reduction related to injecting drug use. Geneva.
    International Labor Office (ILO). (2005). A global alliance against forced labor. Global Report. Geneva: ILO.
    International Organization for Migration (IOM). (1996, June). Organized crime moves into migrant trafficking. Trafficking in Migrants: Quarterly Bulletin. Geneva, Switzerland.
    Intomart GfK. (2005). Wat gaat u daar aan doen? (What are you going to do about it?). Unpublished lecture in Dutch by Tom Van Dijk, director of policy research, Intomart GfK, the Netherlands.
    Jacobs, J. B. (1999). Gotham unbound. How New York City was liberated from the grip of organized crime. New York: New York University Press.
    Jacobs, J. B. (2003). Preventing organized crime. In H.-J.Albrecht & C.Fijnaut, The containment of transnational organized crime. Kriminologische Forschungsberichte. Freiburg: Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law.
    Jamieson, A. (2000). The Antimafia: Italy's fight against organized crime. London: Macmillan Press.
    Johnson, S., Kaufmann, D., & Zoido-Lobatón, P. (1998). Regulatory discretion and the unofficial economy. The American Economic Review, 88, 387–392.
    Johnston, R. (2004). The legislative approach to fighting corruption. In Global Action Corruption. The Merida Papers. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna.
    Joly, E. (2003). Est-ce dans ce monde-là que nous voulons vivre?Paris, France: Editions des Arènes.
    Jones, S., Wilson, J. M., Rathmel, A., & Riley, K. J. (2005). Establishing law and order after conflict. MG-374. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.
    Joutsen, M. (2004). From criminology to applied comparative criminology: Life as a peripatetic comparativist. In J.Winterdijk & L.Cao (Eds.), Lessons from international/comparative criminology/criminal justice. Willowdale, ON: De Sitter Publications.
    Junger-Tas, J., Ribeaud, D., & Cruyff, M. J. L. F. (2004). Juvenile delinquency and gender. European Journal of Criminology, 1, 333–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370804044007
    Kangaspunta, K. (2000). Secondary analysis of integrated sources of data. In Alvazzidel Frate et al. (Eds.), Surveying crime: A global perspective. Rome: UNICRI/ISTAT.
    Kangaspunta, K. (2003). Mapping the inhuman trade: Preliminary findings of the database on trafficking in human beings. Forum on Crime and Society, 3, 81–105.
    Kangaspunta, K., Joutsen, M., & Ollus, N. (1998). Crime and criminal justice in Europe and North America 1990–1994. New York: Criminal Justice Press.
    Karmen, A. (2000). New York murder mystery: The true story behind the crime crash of the 1990s. New York: New York University Press.
    Kaufmann, D. (2004). Governance redux: The empirical challenge. In X.Sala-i-Martin (Ed.), World Economic Forum. The global competitiveness report 2003–2004. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kaufmann, D. (2005). Corruption, governance, and security: Challenges for the rich countries of the world. In A.Lopez-Claros (Ed.), World Economic Forum. The global competitiveness report 2004–2005. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kaufmann, D., & Kraay, A. (2002). Growth without governance. Economia, 3, 169–215. Online: http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pubs/growthgov.html
    Kaufmann, D., Kraay, A., & Mastruzzi, M. (2004). Governance matters III: Governance indicators for 1996–2002. Policy Research Working Paper 3106. Washington, DC: World Bank. Online: http://www.worldbank.org/wbi/governance/pubs/govmatters3.html.
    Kereszi, C. (2004). Human safety in central and eastern Europe. Unpublished paper, commissioned by UNODC.
    Kershaw, C., Chivite-Matthews, N., Thomas, C., & Aust, R. (2001). The 2001 British crime survey. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 18/01. London: Home Office.
    Kenney, D. J., & Finckenauer, J. O. (1995). Organized crime in America. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
    Killias, M. (1993). Gun ownership, suicide, and homicide: An international perspective. In A.Alvazzi del Frate, U.Zvekic, & J. J. M.Van Dijk (Eds.), Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Rome: UNICRI Publication.
    Killias, M., & Aebi, M. F. (2000). Crime trends in Europe from 1990 to 1996: How Europe illustrates the limits of the American experience. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 8, 43–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1008745112022
    Killias, M., Simonin, M., & Du Puy, J. (2005). Violence experienced by women in Switzerland over their lifespan. Bern: Stampfli.
    Killias, M., Van Kesteren, J., & Rindlisbacher, M. (2001, October). Guns, violent crime, and suicide in 21 countries. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 429–448.
    Knack, S., & Keefer, P. (1995), Institutions and economic performance: Cross-country tests using alternative institutional measures. Economics and Politics, 7, 207–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0343.1995.tb00111.x
    Krajewski, K. (2004). Crime and criminal justice in Poland. European Journal of Criminology, 1, 377–407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370804044006
    Kurian, G. T. (1998). Fitzroy Dearborn book of world rankings (pp. 314–321). London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
    Kury, H. (2001). International comparison of crime and victimization: The ICVS. International Studies in Social Science, Vol. 2. Willowdale, ON: De Sitter Publications.
    Laborde, J.-P. (2005). Etat de droit et crime organisée. Paris: edition Dalloz.
    LaFree, G. (1999). A summary and review of cross-national comparative studies of homicide. In D.Smith & M. A.Zahn (Eds.), Homicide studies: A sourcebook of social research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    LaFree, G., & Drass, K. (2001). Are national crime trends converging? Evidence for homicide victimization rates, 1956 to 1994. Paper, University of Maryland/University of Nevada.
    LaFree, G., & Tseloni, A. (2006, May). Democracy and crime: A multilevel analysis of homicide trends in forty-four countries, 1950–2000. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605.
    Lambsdorff, J. (2000). Transparency international corruption index. In A.Alvazzi del Frate & G.Pasqua (Eds.), Responding to the challenges of corruption. Proceedings of the UNICRI-ISPAC International Conference. Rome-Milan: UNICRI Publication.
    Lambsdorff, J. (2005). Corruption perception index 2004. Transparency International. Global Corruption Report 2005. London: Yeomans Press.
    Langan, P., & Levin, D. (2002). Recidivism of prisoners released in 1994. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
    Langseth, P. (Ed.) (2002). Anti-corruption toolkit. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
    Langseth, P., & Mohammed, A. (2002). Strengthening judicial integrity and capacity in Nigeria. Vienna: UNODCCP.
    Lauw, A. & Schonteich, M. (2001). Playing the numbers game: Promises and crime statistics. In J.Steinberg (Ed.), Crime wave: The South African underworld and its foes. Witswatersrand, South Africa: Witswatersrand University Press.
    Laycock, G. (2001). Scientists or politicians—Who has the answer to crime? Lecture delivered on April 26, 2001, University College London, The Jill Dando Institute of Crime Science, London.
    Lehti, M. (2003). Trafficking in women and children in Europe. Helsinki: HEUNI.
    Lenke, L. (1990). Alcohol and criminal violence—Time series analyses in a comparative perspective. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.
    Levi, M. (2002). The organization of serious crime. In M.Maguire, R.Morgan, & R.Reine (Eds.), Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Levi, M., & Maguire, M. (2004). Reducing and preventing organized crime: An evidence-based critique. Crime, Law, and Social Change, 41.
    Levitt, S. (1996). The effect of prison population size on crime rates: Evidence from prison overcrowding litigation. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111, 319–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2946681
    Levitt, S., & Dubner, S. J. (2006). Freakonomics. London: Penguin Books.
    Lintner, B. (2002). Blood brothers. Crime, business and politics in Asia. Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin.
    Lipsey, M. W., & Wilson, D. B. (2001). Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Lipton, D., Martinson, R., & Wilks, J. (1975). The effectiveness of correctional treatment: A survey of treatment evaluation studies. New York: Praeger.
    Lott, J. (1998). More guns, less crime: Understanding crime and gun control laws. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Louw, A., & Lynch, J. P. (1993). Secondary analysis of international crime survey data. In A.Alvazzi del Frate, U.Zvekic, & J. J. M.Van Dijk (Eds.), Understanding crime: Experiences of crime and crime control. Rome: UNICRI Publication.
    Lurigio, A. J., Skogan, W. G., & Davis, R. C. (1990). Victims of crime: Problems, policies, and programs. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Lynch, J. P. (2006). Problems and promises of victimization surveys for cross-national research. Crime and Justice. Vol 34. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    MacKenzie, D. L. (2002). Reducing the criminal activities of known offenders and delinquents: Crime prevention in the courts and corrections. In L. W.Sherman, D. P.Farrington, B. C.Welsh, & D. L.MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (pp. 330–404). New York: Routledge.
    Maguire, M. (2002). Crime statistics: The “data explosion” and its implications. In M.Maguire, R.Morgan, & R.Reiner (Eds.), Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Makkai, T., & McGregor, K. (2003). Drug use monitoring in Australia: 2002 annual report on drug use among police detainees. Research and Public Policy Series No. 47, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra.
    Manning, P. (2006). The United States of America. In T.Jones & T.Newburn (Eds.), Plural policing: A comparative perspective. London: Routledge.
    Martin, V., Cayla, J. A., & Moris, M. L. (1998). Predictive factors of HIV-infection in injecting drug users upon incarceration. European Journal of Epidemiology, 14, 327–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007461608434
    Mauro, P. (1996, September). The effects of corruption on growth, investment, and government expenditure. IMF working paper.
    Mawby, R. I. (1999). Policing across the world: Issues for the twenty-first century. London: UCL Press.
    Mawby, R. I. (2001). Burglary. Crime and Society Series. Devon, UK: William Publishing.
    Mayhew, P. (2003, April). Counting the costs of crime in Australia. Australian Institute of Criminology. Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. No. 247.
    Mayhew, P. (2003). Operation of the criminal justice system. In K.Aromaa, S.Leppa, S.Nevala, & N.Ollus (Eds.), Crime and criminal justice systems in Europe and North America 1995–1997. Helsinki: HEUNI.
    Mayhew, P., Clarke, R. V., & Elliot, D. (1989). Motorcycle theft, helmet legislation, and displacement. Howard Journal, 28, 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2311.1989.tb00631.x
    Mayhew, P., & Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1997). Criminal victimization in eleven industrialized countries. Key findings from the 1996 international crime victims' survey. The Hague: WODC.
    McConnell. (2000). Cybercrime … and punishment? Archaic laws threaten global information. McConnell International LLC. Online: http://www.mcconnellinternational.com.
    McMillan, J. (2005). The main institution in the country is corruption: Creating transparency in Angola. CDDRL, Stanford Institute on international studies (http://cddrl.stanford.edu).
    Merchant International Group Limited (MIG). (2004). Gray-area dynamics, organized crime figures 2004. Special analysis commissioned by UNICRI.
    Mesquita Neto, de P. (2004). Criminal justice in transition in Latin America. Original paper commissioned by UNODC.
    Miller, M., Azrael, D., & Hemenway, D. (2002). Household firearm ownership levels and homicide rates across US regions and states, 1988–1997. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1988–1993. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.12.1988
    Mirrlees-Black, C., & Ross, A. (1995). Crimes against retail and manufacturing premises. London: Home Office, RPU.
    Moffatt, M. S., Weatherburn, W., & Donnelly, D. J. (2005). What caused the recent drop in property crime? In Crime and Justice Bulletin: Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice. Sydney, Australia/New South Wales: Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Research.
    Moolenaar, D. (2006). Expenditure on crime in the Netherlands. In A.Eggen & W.van der Heide (Eds.), Criminaliteit en Rechtshandhaving 2004; ontwikkelingen en samenhangen. Den Haag: WODC/CBS (Online: http://www.ministerievanjustitite.nl:8080/b-organ/wodc/publications/wodc 205 website.pdf).
    Moran, J., Doig, A., & Watt, D. (2001). Managing anti-corruption agencies. In Forum on Crime and Society, (11)1, 69–89.
    Morree, L. (2004). Panoramic overview of private security industry in the 25 member states of the European Union. Brussels: CoESS/Uni-Europa (Online: http://www.coess.org).
    Mouzos, J., & Makkai, T. (2004). Women's experiences of male violence. Findings of the Australian component of the international violence against women survey (IVAWS). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, Research and Public Policy Series No. 56.
    National Crime Prevention. (1999). Pathways to prevention, developmental and early intervention approaches to crime in Australia, edited by R.Hommel et al., Attorney-General's Department, Canberra.
    Naudé, C. M. B. (1994). South African businesses as victims of crime: Summary of research findings. Pretoria: University of South Africa, Department of Criminology.
    Naudé, C. M. B., & Prinsloo, J. H. (2002). Crime victimization in southern Africa. The unique status of the ICVS. In P.Nieuwbeerta (Ed.), Crime victimization in comparative perspective. The Hague: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
    Naudé, C. M. B., Prinsloo, J. H., & LadikosA. (2006). Experiences of crime in thirteen African countries: Results from the International Crime Victim Survey. Turin: UNICRI (http://www.unicit.it).
    Naudé, C. M. B., Prinsloo, J. H., & Martins, J. H. (1999). Crimes against the South African business sector (draft report). Pretoria: University of South Africa.
    Naylor, R. T. (2002). Wages of crime: Black markets, illegal finance, and the underworld economy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Neapolitan, J. (1995). Differing theoretical perspectives and cross-national variations in thefts in less developed nations. InInternational Criminal Justice Review, 5, 17–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105756779500500102
    Nevala, S. (2003). The International Violence Against Women Surveys. Helsinki: European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control.
    Newman, G. (Ed.) (1999). United Nations. Global report on crime and justice. United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Center for International Crime Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Newman, G., & Howard, G. J. (1999). Resources in criminal justice. In G.Newman (Ed.), Global report on crime and justice. United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Center for International Crime Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Neumayer, E. (2003). Good policy can lower violent crime: Evidence from a cross-national panel of homicide rates, 1980–1997. Journal of Peace Research, 40, 619–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00223433030406001
    Nieuwbeerta, P. (2002). Crime victimization in comparative perspective. Results from the international crime victims survey, 1989–2000. The Hague: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
    Ogata, S., & Sen, A. (2003). Human security now, protecting and empowering people. New York: Human Security Commission, United Nations. Online: http://www.humansecurity-chs.org.
    O'Malley, P., & Sutton, A. (1997). Crime prevention in Australia. Sydney: The Federation Press.
    Orlando, L. (2001). Fighting the Mafia; and renewing Sicilian culture. San Francisco: Encounter Books.
    Pare, P.-P. (2006). Income inequality and crime across nations reexamined. Thesis, Pennsylvania State University.
    Pelton, R. Y. (2003). The world's most dangerous places. New York: HarperCollins.
    Pfeiffer, C. (2004, February 16). Victim assistance and support in Lower Saxony: A multifaceted approach based on empirical findings. Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (transcript keynote lecture at seminar on victim support and the police in Hanover).
    Philipson, T. J., & Posner, R. A. (1996). The economic epidemiology of crime. Journal of Law and Economics, 34, 405–433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/467354
    Pluchinsky, D., Armond de, P., & Sprinzak, E. (2004). The classic politically-motivated non-state groups. In Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, n.d.
    Poole-Robb, S., & Bailey, A. (2003). Risky business. Corruption, fraud, terrorism & other threats to global business. London: Kogan Page Ltd.
    PricewaterhouseCoopers (2005). Global Economic Crime Survey 2005, in collaboration with Martin Luther University, Economy and Crime Research Center.
    Prinsloo, J., & Naudé, C. M. B. (2001). Organized crime and corruption in Southern Africa. International Journal of Comparative Criminology, 1, 65–90.
    Quimet, M. (2002). Explaining the American and Canadian crime drop in the 1990s. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 44, 33–50.
    Reichel, P. L. (1992, 1994). Comparative criminal justice systems. A topical approach (
    1st ed. & 2nd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
    Reiner, R. (1995). Myth vs. modernity: Reality and unreality in the English model of policing. In J. P.Brodeur (Ed.), Comparisons in policing: An international perspective (pp. 16–48). Avebury, England: Aldershot.
    Reuter, P. (1987). Racketeering in legitimate industries. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Publication Series.
    Reuter, P., et al. (2004). Mitigating the effects of illicit drugs on development. Potential roles for the World Bank. Rand Corporation project memorandum series. PM-1645-PSJ-1. Prepared for the World Bank.
    Rosenbaum, D. P. (1986). Community crime prevention: Does it work?Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Rossow, I. (2001). Drinking and violence: A cross-cultural comparison of alcohol consumption and homicide rates in fourteen European countries. Addiction, 96.
    Rubin, M. (2006). Assessing the reliability of UN and Interpol crime statistics: A John Jay College analysis. Paper, American Society of Criminology, Los Angeles.
    Rubin, M., & Walker, M. C. (2004, November 3–4). Cross-national comparisons of rape rates: Problems and issues. Paper prepared for ECE-UNODC Meeting on Crime Statistics. Geneva.
    Rubio, M. (2001). Homicide, kidnapping, and armed conflict in Colombia. Forum on Crime and Society, 1, 55–69.
    Sachs, J. (2005). The end of poverty: How we can make it happen in our lifetime. London: Penguin Group.
    Sanders, A., & Young, R. (2002). From suspect to trial. In M.Maguire, R.Morgan, & R.Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Savona, E. U., & Mignone, M. (2004). The fox and the hunters: How IC technologies change the crime race. In E. U.Savona (Ed.), Crime and technology. New frontiers for regulation, law enforcement, and research. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer.
    Schaerf, W. (2003), Non-state justice systems in Southern Africa: How should governments respond. Mimeo: Institute for Criminology, University of Cape Town.
    Schmid, A. (2000, December 6–8). Links between terrorist and organized crime networks: Emerging patterns and trends. In D.Vlassis (Ed.), Trafficking: Networks and logistics of transnational crime and international terrorism. Proceedings of the International Conference on “Trafficking: Networks and Logistics of Transnational Crime and International Terrorism.” Courmayeur Mont Blanc, Italy.
    Schmid, A. (2004). Statistics on terrorism, the challenge of measuring trends in global terrorism. Forum in Crime and Society, 4, 49–71.
    Schneider, A. L. (1978). Portland forward record check of crime: Victims' final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Schneider, F. (2004). The size of the shadow economies of 145 countries all over the world: First results over period 1999–2003. Online: http://www.econ.jku.at/Schneider.
    Schneider, F., & Erntse, D. (2000). Shadow economies around the world: Size, causes, and consequences. IMF Working Paper, WP00/26.
    Schonteich, M. (2003). Crime statistics, patterns, and trends. Open Society Justice Initiative, Lecture at UNICRI, April 2004 (unpublished).
    Schweinart, L. (2004). The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 40: Summary, conclusions, and frequently asked questions. Ypsilanti, MI: High/Scope Press.
    Sebba, L. (1996). Third parties, victims, and the criminal justice system. Columbus, OH: State University Press.
    SECI. (2004, September 22–23). Southeast European Cooperative Initiative. Regional Center for Combating Trans-Border Crime. Evaluation Report 2004. Operation Mirage. Report prepared for the 11th SECI Center THB Task Force Meeting, Pioana Brasov, Romania.
    SECI. (2005, September 22–23). Southeast European Cooperative Initiative. Regional Center for Combating Trans-Border Crime. Report on Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Report prepared for the 12th SECI Center Mirage Task Force Meeting, Bucharest, Romania.
    Shapland, J., Wilmore, J., & Duff, P. (1985). Victims in the criminal justice system. Cambridge Studies in Criminology, 53. Hants, England: Gower Publishing Company Limited.
    Shaw, M. (2002). Crime and policing in post-apartheid South Africa. Transforming under fire. London: Hurst & Company.
    Shaw, M. (2003). Crime as business, business as crime: West African criminal networks in Southern Africa. Johannesburg: SAIIA (http://www.wits.ac.za/saiia).
    Shaw, M., Van Dijk, J., & Rhomberg, W. (2003). Determining global trends in crime and justice: An overview of results from the United Nations surveys of crime trends and operations of criminal justice systems. Forum on Crime and Society, 3, 35–65.
    Shelley, L. (1981). Crime and modernization: The impact of industrialization and urbanization on crime. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University.
    Shepherd, J., & Sivarajasingam, V. (2005). Injury research explains conflicting violence trends. In http://www.injuryprevention.com.
    Sherman, L. W., & Eck, J. E. (2002). Policing for crime prevention. In L. W.Sherman, D. P.Farrington, B. C.Welsh, & D. L.MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention. New York: Routledge.
    Sherman, L. W., Gottfredson, D. C., MacKenzie, D. L., Eck, J. E., Reuter, P., & Bushway, S. D. (1997). Preventing crime: What works, what doesn't, what's promising. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice.
    Shikita, M., & Morosowa, H. (2005, April). The long-awaited enactment of a victim's right law in Japan. In E.Vetere & P.David (Eds.), Victims of crime and abuse of power: Festschrift in Honor of Irene Melup. Bangkok, 11th Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice, United Nations, New York.
    Skogan, W. (1984). Reporting crimes to the police: The status of world research. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 21, 113–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427884021002003
    Sloan, J. H., et al. (1988). Handgun regulations, crime, assaults and homicide: A tale of two cities. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1256–1262. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198811103191905
    Soares, R. (2005). Measuring corruption: Validating subjective surveys of perceptions. Global Corruption Report2005, Tranparency International.
    Spelman, W. (2006). The limited importance of prison expansion. In A.Blumstein & J.Wallman (Eds.), The crime drop in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Stangeland, P. (1995). The crime puzzle: Crime patterns and crime displacement in southern Spain. Malaga: Muguel Gomez Ediciones, IAIC.
    Stone, C. (2006), Crime, justice, and growth in South Africa: Towards a plausible contribution from criminal justice to economic growth. Center for International Development at Harvard University, CID Working Paper No. 131.
    Stone, C., Miller, J., Thorton, M., & Trone, J. (2005). Supporting security, justice, and development: Lessons for a new era. Report for UK DFID. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
    Stoyanov, B. (2000). The corruption monitoring system of coalition 2000 and the results from its implementation. In A.Alvazzi del Frate & G.Pasqua (Eds.), Responding to the challenges of corruption. Proceedings of the UNICRI-ISPAC International Conference. Rome: UNICRI.
    Strang, H., & Sherman, L. (2004, November). Protocol for a Campbell collaboration systemic review: Campbell collaboration systemic review: Effects of face-to-face restorative justice for personal victims of crime, draft 4. See http://www.campbellcollaboration.org/doc-pdf/restorativejusticeprot.pdf
    Sung, H.-E. (2004). State failure, economic failure, and predatory organized crime: A comparative analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 41, 111–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427803257253
    Sung, H.-E. (2005). Gender and corruption: In search of better evidence. In Global Corruption Report 2005. Transparency International. London: Pluto Press. Online: gcr@transparency.org
    Sung, H.-E. (2006, May). Democracy and criminal justice in cross-national perspective: From crime control to due process. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605.
    Swamy, A., Knack, S., Lee, Y., & Azfar, O. (2001). Gender and corruption. Journal of Development Economics, 64, 25–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3878%2800%2900123-1
    Szczaranski, C. (2002). Testimonios, el bisel del espejo: Mi ventana. Edebe, Santiago de Chile: Editorial Don Bosco S.A.
    Taylor, B., Brownstein, H. H., Parry, C., Plüddemann, A., Makkai, T., Bennett, T., & Holloway, K. (2003). Monitoring the use of illicit drugs in four countries through the international arrestee drug abuse monitoring (I-Adam) program. Criminal Justice, 3, 269–286.
    Taylor, N., & Mayhew, P. (2002). Patterns of victimization among small retail businesses. Trends and Issues, Crime and Criminal Justice, No. 221. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
    Thoumi, F. (2002). Can the United Nations support “objective” and unhampered illicit drug policy research?Crime, Law, and Social Change, 38, 161–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1020210815439
    Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Extent, nature, and consequences of intimate partner violence: Findings from the national violence against women survey. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
    Tonry, M., & Farrington, D. P. (1995). Building a safer society: Strategic approaches to crime prevention. In Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 19. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Tonry, M., & Farrington, D. P. (2005). Crime and punishment in Western Countries, 1980–1999. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 33. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Tornudd, P. (1997). Fifteen years of decreasing prisoner rates in Finland. In Prison population in Europe and North America: Problems and solutions. Helsinki, Finland: Ministry of Justice.
    Torstensson, J. (1994). Property rights and economic growth: An empirical study. Kyklos, 47, 231–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6435.1994.tb02257.x
    Trafficking in Persons Report. (2005, June). U.S. State Department.
    Transparency International. The Coalition Against Corruption. (2002). Annual report 2002. United Kingdom: Yeomans Press.
    Transparency International. The Coalition Against Corruption. (2003). Annual report 2003. United Kingdom: Yeomans Press.
    Transparency International. The Coalition Against Corruption. (2004a). Annual Report 2004. United Kingdom: Yeomans Press.
    Transparency International. (2004b, December 9). Report on the global corruption barometer 2004.
    Travis, J. (2000). Building knowledge about crime and justice in the global age: Infrastructure first. Address to the Fifth Biennial Conference of International Perspectives on Crime, Justice, and Public Order. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
    Travis, J. (2005). But they all come back: Rethinking the challenges of prisoner reentry. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute Press.
    Travis, J., Solomon, A. L., & Waul, M. (2001). From prison to home. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
    Travnickova, I., Luptakova, M., Necada, V., Preslickova, H., & Trdlicova, K. (2004). Trafficking in women: The Czech Republic perspective. Prague: Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention.
    Uggen, C., Manza, J., & Thompson, M. (2006, May). Citizenship, democracy, and the civic reintegration of criminal offenders. In S.Karstedt & G.LaFree (eds), Democracy, crime, and justice. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605.
    UNICEF/Innocenti. (2003). A.Rossi (Ed.), Trafficking in human beings, especially women and children, in Africa. Florence: Unicef Innocenti Research Centre.
    UNICRI. (2004). Trafficking of Nigerian girls to Italy. Turin, Italy: UNICRI.
    United Kingdom, House of Commons, Home Affairs Committee (2004–2005). Rehabilitation of offenders. First Report of Session 2004–2005, Vols. I and II. Stationary Office, London.
    United Nations. (1980). Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Patterns of urban and rural population growth. Population Studies, No. 68. New York.
    United Nations. (1995). Compendium of human settlement statistics (5th Issue). New York.
    United Nations. (1999). Global report on crime and justice. G.Newman (Ed.), United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Centre for International Crime Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
    United Nations. (2001). International instruments related to the prevention and suppression of international terrorism. New York.
    United Nations. (2002). Economic and Social Affairs. World population ageing. New York.
    United Nations. (2003). Human security now. United Nations Commission on Human Security. New York.
    United Nations. (2004). Challenges and change, a more secure world: Our shared responsibility. Report of the Secretary-General's High-level Panel on Threats. New York.
    United Nations. (2004). Department of Economic and Social affairs, Population Division, World population prospects: The 2004 revision highlights. New York.
    United Nations. (2004, January 23). Economic and Social Council (E/CN.4/2004/86), Commission on Human Rights, Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights, Question of the death penalty. Report of the Secretary-General submitted pursuant to Commission Resolution 2003/67.
    United Nations. (2005). Corruption, compendium of international legal instruments on corruption. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Vienna, New York.
    United Nations. (2005). In larger freedom, towards development, security and human rights for all. Report of the Secretary-General. New York.
    United Nations. (2006). In-depth study on all forms of violence against women. Report of the Secretary-General, New York, United Nations (A/61/122/Add.1.)
    United Nations Development Program. (2002a). Justice and security sector reform. BCPR's programmatic approach. UNDP.
    United Nations Development Program. (2002b). Human Development Report 2002, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    United Nations International Drug Control Program. (UNDCP). (1997). World Drug Report. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Department of Public Service and Administration, Republic of South Africa (DPSA). (2003). Country corruption assessment report. South Africa. Online: http://www.unodc.org
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2004). World drug report. New York.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2005a). Crime and development in Africa. Vienna.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2005b). Rule of law and protection of the most vulnerable—Why fighting crime can assist development in Africa.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2005c). Transnational organized crime in the Central Asian region (unpublished).
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2005d). World drug report. Vienna.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2006). Trafficking in persons: Global patterns. Vienna. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
    (2007, March). Crime and development in Central America: Caught in the cross-fire. Vienna.
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Department of Public Service and Administration, Republic of South Africa (DPSA). (2003). Country corruption assessment report. South Africa. Online: http://www.unodc.org
    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and Latin America and Caribbean Region of the World Bank. (2007). Crime, violence, and development: Trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean. Vienna.
    United States of America. (2004). Trafficking in persons report. Washington, DC: U.S. State Department. Online: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2004/
    U.S. General Accounting Office. (2001). Former Soviet Union; U.S. rule of law assitance has limited impact. Washington, DC.
    Van de Bunt, H., & Van der Schoot, C. R. A. (2003). Prevention of organized crime: A situational approach. Den Haag: WODC, Ministerie van Justitie. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0985-0
    Van der Heide, W., & Eggen, A., Th, J. (2003). Criminaliteit en rechtshandhaving 2001. Ontwikkelingen en samenhangen. Meppel, the Netherlands: Boom Juridische Uitgevers.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1982). Die bereitschaft des opfers zur anzeige: Eine funktion der strafverfolgungspolitik? In H. J.Schneider (Ed.), Das verbrechensopfer in der strafrechtshilfe. De Gruyter.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1986). Responding to crime: Reflections on the reactions of victims and non-victims to the increase in petty crime. In E.Fattah (Ed.), From crime policy to victim policy (pp. 156–166). London: Macmillan.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1992). Als de dag van gisteren: Over de betrouwbaarheid van het slachtofferverhaal (On the reliability of the victims account). Justitiele Verkenningen, 18, 47–66.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1994a). Opportunities for crime: A test of the rational-interactionist model. In Crime and Economy. Reports presented to the 11th Criminological Colloquium. Criminological Research, Vol. XXXII. Council of Europe Publishing, 1995.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1994b). Understanding crime rates: On the interactions between the rational choices of victims and offenders. British Journal of Criminology, 34, 105–121.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (1999). The experience of crime and justice. In G.Newman (Ed.), Global report on crime and justice. United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, Centre for International Crime Prevention. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (2000). Implications of the international crime victims survey for a victim perspective. In A.Crawford & J.Goodey (Eds.), Integrating a victim perspective within criminal justice. Aldershot, UK: Darmouth/Ashgate.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (2005, April). Benchmarking legislation on crime victims: The UN victims declaration of 1985. In E.Vetere & P.David (Eds.), Victims of crime and abuse of power: Festschrift in honor of Irene Melup. Bangkok, 11th Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. United Nations, New York.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (2007). The International crime victims survey and complementary measures of corruption and organized crime. In M.Hough & M.Maxfield (Eds.), Surveying crime in the XXI century, Proceedings of a conference marking the 25th anniversary of the British crime Survey. Criminal Justice Press/Willan.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M. (2008). Mafia markers: Assessing the prevalence of organized crime and its impact upon societies. Trends in Organized Crime (forthcoming in first issue).
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Kangaspunta, K. (2000). Piecing together the cross-national crime puzzle. National Institute of Justice Journal. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Manchin, R., Van Kesteren, J., & Hideg, G. (2007). The burden of crime in the EU, key findings of the EU/International Crime Victim Survey 2005. Turin: UNICRI; Brussels: Gallup/Europe.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Mayhew, P. (1992). Criminal victimization in the industrialized world. Key findings of the 1989 and 1992 International Crime Surveys. The Hague: Ministry of Justice, the Netherlands.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Mayhew, P., & Killias, M. (1990). Experiences of crime across the world. Key Findings from the 1989 International Crime Survey. Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Nevala, S. (2002). Intercorrelations of crime. In P.Nieuwbeerta (Ed.), Crime victimization in international perspective. The Hague: Boom Juristische Uitgevers.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Sagel-Grande, H. I., & Toornvliet, L. G. (2002). Actuele criminologie. Vierde, herziene druk. The Hague: Sdu Uitgevers.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Shaw, M., & Buscaglia, E. (2002). The TOC convention and the need for comparative research: Some illustrations from the work of the UN center for international crime prevention. In: H.-J.Albrecht & C.Fijnaut (Eds.), The containment of transnational organized crime. Comments on the UN Convention of December 2000. Freiburg: Max Planck Institut für Ausländisches und Internationales Strafrecht.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Steinmetz, C. D. (1980). The RDC victim surveys, 1973–1979. No. 35. The Hague: Research and Documentation Centre, Ministry of Justice, the Netherlands.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Terlouw, G. J. (1996). An international perspective of the business community as victims of fraud and crime. Security Journal, 7, 157–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0955-1662%2896%2900168-3
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Toornvliet, L. G. (1996, November 21). Towards a Eurobarometer of public safety (pp. 1–12). Paper at seminar on the prevention of urban delinquency linked to drugs dependence, European Commission, Brussels.
    Van Dijk, J. J. M., Van Kesteren, J., & Smit, P. (2007). Criminal victimization in global perspective: Key findings of the ICVS 2004–2005 and the EU ICS. Meppel: Boom Legal Publishers; and The Hague: Research and Documentation Center, Ministry of Justice.
    Van Duyne, P. C., Von Lampe, K., Van Dijk, J. J. M., & Newell, J. L. (Eds.). (2005). The organized crime economy: Managing crime markets in Europe. Nijmegen: Wolf Legal Publishers.
    Van Kesteren, J. N. (2005, March 15). Some results on firearms ownership from the International Crime Victim Survey. Presentation held at the COST meeting:European Firearms Violence Data: Limitations and Research Opportunities, organized by Small Arms Survey, Geneva.
    Van Kesteren, J. N. (2006, August 19–26). Hate crime in Europe: Results from the 2005 EU/ICS (ICVS). Paper presented at the International Symposium of the World Society of Victimology, Orlando, Florida.
    Van Kesteren, J. N., Mayhew, P., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2000). Criminal victimization in seventeen industrialized countries. Key findings from the 2000 International Crime Victims Survey. The Hague: Onderzoek en beleid, No. 187. Ministry of Justice, WODC.
    Van Steden, R., & Sarre, R. (2007). The growth of privatized policing: Some cross-national data and comparisons. Amsterdam: Free University of Amsterdam (article to be published).
    Van Velthoven, B. C. J. (2005). The value of the judicial infrastructure for the Dutch economy. Report published by the Netherlands Council for the Judiciary, The Hague.
    Vermeulen, G. (Ed.) (2004). Missing and sexually exploited children in the enlarged EU: Epidemiological data in the new member states. Antwerp: Maklu.
    Vetere, E., & David, P. (Eds.) (2005, April). Victims of crime and abuse of power: Festschrift in honor of Irene Melup. Bangkok, 11th Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. United Nations, New York.
    Walker, J. (1994). The first Australian national survey of crimes against businesses. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
    Waller, I. (2006). Less law, more order: The truth about reducing crime. West Point, NY: Praeger.
    Waller, I., & Sansfacon, D. (2000). Investing wisely in crime prevention: International experiences. Montreal, QU: ICPC.
    Walmsley, R. (2000). World prison population list. In Research Findings No. 116. Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate. London, UK.
    Walmsley, R. (2003). Global incarceration and prison trends. Forum on Crime and Society, 3. Vienna: UNODC.
    Walmsley, R. (2007). World Prison Population List (
    7th ed.
    ). International Center for Prison Studies. London: King's College.
    Weatherburn, D., Hua, J., & Moffatt, S. (2006). How much crime does prison stop? Crime and Justice Bulletin, No. 93. NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research.
    Webb, B. (1997). Steering column locks and motor vehicle theft: Evaluations from three countries. In R.V.Clarke (Ed.), Situational crime prevention: Successful case studies (
    2nd ed.
    ). Monsey, NY: Willan Publishing.
    Wellford, C. F., Pepper, J. V., & Petrie, C. V. (2004). Firearms and violence: A critical review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
    Welsh, B. C. (2003). Community-based approaches to preventing delinquency and crime: Promising results and future directions. Japanese Journal of Sociological Criminology, 28, 7–24.
    Welsh, B. C. (2004). Proven practices to prevent crime. Department of Criminal Justice, University of Massachusetts, Original paper prepared for UNODC.
    Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2000). Monetary costs and benefits of crime prevention programs. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 27, 305–361. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Welsh, B. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2004). Evidence-based crime prevention: The effectiveness of CCTV. Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.cpcs.8140184
    Welsh, B. C., & Hoshi, A. (2002). Communities and crime prevention. In L. W.Sherman, D. P.Farrington, B. C.Welsh, & D. L.MacKenzie (Eds.), Evidence-based crime prevention (pp. 165–197). New York: Routledge.
    Welsh, B. C., & Irving, M. H. (2005). Crime and punishment in Canada, 1980–1999. In M.Tonry & D. P.Farrington (Eds.), Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 33. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Wemmers, J. A. (1995). Victims in the criminal justice system: A study into the treatment of victims and its effects on their attitudes and behavior. Amsterdam: Kugler Publications.
    Williams, P., & Vlassis, D. (Eds.) (2001). Combating transnational organized crime: Concepts, activities, and responses. London: Frank Cass.
    Wilsem, J. Van. (2003). Crime and context. The impact of individual, neighborhood, city, and country characteristics on victimization. Doctoral Dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen. ICS.
    Wilson, J. M. (2006, May). Law and order in an emerging democracy: Lessons from the reconstruction of Kosovo's police and justice system. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605.
    Wilson, J. Q., & Herrnstein, R. J. (1995). Crime and human nature. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Wintemut, G. J. (2005). Guns and gun violence. In A.Blumstein & J.Wallman, The crime drop in America. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    World drink trends. (2004). World Advertising Research Center. Published in association with Commissie Gedistilleerd (Commission for Distilled Spirits).
    World Bank. (2004, October). Post-conflict peace-building in Africa: The challenges of socio-economic recovery and development. World Bank Africa Region Working Paper Series, No. 76.
    World Bank. (2005). World development report: Doing business in 2005. Washington, DC: World Bank.
    World Economic Forum. (2003). The Global Competitiveness Report 2002–2003. New York: Oxford University Press.
    World Economic Forum. (2004). The Global Competitiveness Report 2003–2004. New York: Oxford University Press.
    World Economic Forum. (2005). The Global Competitiveness Report 2004–2005. Hampshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
    World Health Organization. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization. (2004). The economic dimensions of interpersonal violence. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization. (2005). WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women. Geneva: WHO.
    World Health Organization/UNAIDS/UNODC. (2004). Policy brief: Reduction of HIV transmission in prisons. Evidence for action on HIV/AIDS and injecting drug use. Geneva: WHO.
    World Tourism Organization. (1997). Tourist safety and security. Practical measures for destinations. Madrid: WTO.
    World Travel and Tourism Council. (2004). Sub-Saharan Africa: Travel and tourism forging ahead. London: WTTC.
    Yodanis, C. L. (2004). Gender inequality, violence against women, and fear: A cross-national test of the feminist theory of violence against women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 655–675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260504263868
    Zhang, S., & Chin, K.-L. (2001). Chinese human smuggling in the United States of America. Forum on Crime and Society, 1, 31–53.
    Zhang, X. (2001). The emergence of “black society” crime in China. Forum on Crime and Society, 1, 53–73.
    Zimring, F. E., & Hawkins, G. (1997). Crime is not the problem. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Zvekic, U. (1998). Criminal victimization in countries in transition. Rome: UNICRI.
    Zvekic, U., & Alvazzi del Frate, A. (1995). Criminal victimization in the developing world. Rome: UNICRI.
    Zvekic, U., & Weatherburn, D. J. (1994). Crime and criminal justice information in Papua New Guinea. UNICRI Issues and Report, No.3. Rome: UNICRI.

    About the Author

    After a career as a professor in criminology and policy adviser at the Ministry of Justice in the Netherlands, Jan Van Dijk joined the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime in 1998 and served in several senior positions, including as Officer in Charge of the Centre of International Crime Prevention. He currently holds the Pieter Van Vollenhoven Chair in Victimology and Human Security at Tilburg University, the Netherlands. He served as President of The World Society of Victimology from 1997 until 2000 and received the Stephen Schafer Award of the National Organization of Victim Assistance in the United States for his contributions to the international victims' rights movement.


    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website