The United States and India: A History Through Archives: The Formative Years
Publication Year: 2008
Declassified documents are a great vantage point for understanding global governance, current security concerns and the international market. The introduction to the book provides a comprehensive view of world politics. The documents cover not only US-India bilateral relations during the formative years, but US relations with colonial powers as well. The text, as a whole, provides the context of current international relations. These documents were collected from the Presidential Libraries - FDR to Carter, White House Papers, National Security Council, Office of Strategic Services, Central Intelligence Agency, selections from Foreign Relations (Department's Diplomatic Papers, US Agency for International Development, Divisional Reports of the Department of State, and cables from several US embassies.
The documents cover seven topics chronologically: US Foreign Policy; US and UK relations; US ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter One: Introduction
- Chapter Two: American Foreign Policy
- Part I: The Post-war Period
- 2.1 Address by John Foster Dulles. Princeton National Alumni Luncheon, Princeton, New Jersey, February 22, 1952.
- 2.2 Address by John Foster Dulles, A Positive Foreign Policy. World Affairs Forum of the Foreign Policy Association of Pittsburgh, May 15, 1952.
- 2.3 Address by John Foster Dulles, Better Foreign Policies. Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association Buffalo, N.Y., August 27, 1952.
- 2.4 Address by John Foster Dulles, Principle versus Expediency in Foreign Policy. Missouri Bar Association, St. Louis, Missouri, September 26, 1952.
- 2.5 Address by John Foster Dulles, A New Look at Foreign Policy. The City Club of Rochester, October 4, 1952.
- 2.6 Address by John Foster Dulles, U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington University St. Louis, M.O., October 23, 1952.
- 2.7 February 5, 1953, Letter from Chester Bowles to John Foster Dulles, Re: Requests Clarification of Position in India Particularly in View of Stories of the President's Plans to Replace Him.
- 2.8 March 24, 1953, Department of State Memo: Secretary Dulles Suggest US send Paul Hoffman on a Private mission to Explore the attitude of India and Pakistan to Some Partition of Kashmir.
- 2.9 March 25, 1953, Department of State Memo: Eisenhower Asks Secretary Dulles if he Believes Paul Hoffman might do Some Good by Going on a Private Mission to India and Pakistan Trying to Resolve the Kashmir Situation.
- 2.10 May 22, 1953, Telegram, From: New Delhi, To: Secretary of State. Re: Account No. 2 of Secretary of State Dulles’ Morning Conversation with Nehru re India, Red China's Expansionist policy, Indochina and Korea.
- 2.11 May 22, 1953, Telegram, For the President. Re: Account no. 3 of Secretary Dulles Lunch conversation with Nehru Regarding Situation in Egypt, Korea, Africa, Laos, Kashmir, Middle East Defense Organization and Saudi Arabia.
- 2.12 October 9, 1953, Department of State Memo: Secretary Dulles Informs Eisenhower of Meeting with Mrs. Pandit in Her Capacity as President of the UN General Assembly.
- Part II: Selections from Different Agencies
- 2.13 April 21, 1953, Telegram, From: New Delhi, To: Secretary of State. Re: Comments in India Upon Eisenhower's 4/15/53 Speech.
- 2.14 Proposed Talking Paper for Use in Clarifying United States Positions Regarding Atomic and Hydrogen Weapons NATO Meeting Paris April 23, 1954.
- 2.15 The National Security Council: Noted and discussed a report by the Secretary of States (John Foster Dulles) on the NATO Ministers Meeting.
- 2.16 January 10, 1957, National Security Council NSC 5701, Note by the Executive Secretary to the National Security Council on U.S. Policy Toward South Asia.
- 2.17 February 27, 1957, White House Office, Outline Plan of Operations with Respect to India and Nepal Operations Coordinating Board Washington.
- 2.18 September 25, 1957, Memorandum for the President.
- 2.19 October 14, 1957, Memorandum for Mr. Gleason, from George Weber.
- Chapter Three: United States and Great Britain
- 3.1 April 19, 1950, Department of State. Paper: Essential Elements of US-UK Relations.
- 3.2 April 26, 1950, Telegram, From: London, To: Secretary of State. The United States Delegation at the Tripartite Preparatory Meetings.
- 3.3 April 28, 1950, Department of State. Paper: US Objectives and Course of Action in the May meetings.
- 3.4 May 4, 1950, Telegram, From: London, To: Secretary of State. The United States Delegation at the Tripartite Preparatory Meetings.
- 3.5 May 6, 1950, Report of the Tripartite Preliminary Meetings on Item 1: Review and Agreement on Common Worldwide Objectives in Light of the Assessment of the Current Worldwide Situation.
- 3.6 May 9, 1950, Memorandum of the Tripartite Preliminary Meetings on Items 6 and 8.
- 3.7 August 7, 1950, Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State (Webb) to the Executive Secretary of the National Security Council (Lay). Subject: First Progress Report on NSC 65/3, “United States Policy towards Arms Shipments to the Near East.”
- 3.8 September 18, 1950, Record of Informal United States—United Kingdom Discussions, London.
- 3.9 September 21, 1950, Record of Informal United States—United Kingdom Discussions, London.
- 3.10 November 14, 1950, Memorandum by Mr. Charles W. Yost of the Policy Planning Staff to the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs (McGhee). Subject: Follow-up on U.S.-U.K. Conversation of October 26.
- 3.11 December 28, 1950, US Office of Near Eastern Affairs. Regional Policy Statement: Near East.
- 3.12 January 10, 1957, National Security Council NSC 5701, Note by the Executive Secretary to the National Security Council on U.S. Policy Toward South Asia.
- Chapter Four: United States and the Soviet Union: Near and Far East
- 4.1 April 20, 1949, Central Intelligence Agency. Review of the World Situation.
- 4.2 July 25, 1949, Central Intelligence Agency. Intelligence Memorandum No. 197, Subject: Implications for US Security of Developments in Asia.
- 4.3 March 6, 1950, Bureau of Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs. Paper: Inventory of Problems, Programs and Questions in the NEA area Affecting National Security.
- 4.4 June 7, 1950, Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs (McGhee) to the Secretary of State. Subject: Economic Aid to South Asia and the Near East.
- 4.5 June 13, 1950, Memorandum by the Director of the Policy Planning Staff (Nitze) to the Secretary of State. Subject: Comments on Mr. McGhee's Memorandum of June 7, 1950 on Economic Aid to South Asia and the Near East.
- 4.6 July 15, 1950, Telegram, From: McGhee, To: Ambassador Grady. The Secretary of State to the Embassy in Iran.
- 4.7 October 9, 1950, Office of South Asian Affairs. Title: Regional Policy Statement: South Asia Policy Statement.
- 4.8 December 8, 1950, Report to the National Security Council by the Executive Secretary (Lay). Title: United States Objectives and Programs for National Security.
- 4.9 December 28, 1950, Office of Greek, Turkish and Iranian Affairs. Title: Regional Policy Statement: Greece, Turkey and Iran.
- 4.10 Address by John Foster Dulles, Korea—Past and Future. Commonwealth Club of California, September 17, 1952.
- 4.11 November 23, 1954, Office of National Estimates. National Intelligence Estimate, Re, Communist Courses of Action in Asia through 1957.
- Chapter Five: Jawaharlal Nehru
- Part I
- 5.1 June 12, 1952, Thirteenth Meeting Psychological Strategic Board. Minutes of Report by Ambassador to India, Chester Bowles.
- 5.2 July 24, 1953, Intelligence Report No. 6269: Nehru's Attitudes Toward Communism, The Soviet Union, and Communist China.
- 5.3 1955, White House Memo, (4) Eisenhower Instructs Ambassador Cooper Speak with Nehru Prior to Khrushchev and Bulganin Visit in the Hope of Preventing India from Accepting Economic Aid from the Soviets.
- 5.4 November 7, 1955, Nelson Rockefeller Letter to the President, U.S. Interest in India and the Bulganin-Khrushchev Trip.
- 5.5 April 21, 1956, Memorandum for the President. Subject: Official Visit of Prime Minister Nehru, July 7 through 11, 1956.
- 5.6 May 11, 1956, Memorandum for the President. Subject: Nehru Visit.
- 5.7 November 30, 1956, Memorandum for Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff. Subject: Supplemental Information Concerning Prime Minister Nehru.
- 5.8 December 7, 1956, Telegram, From: Bartlett in New Delhi, To: Department of State. On Nehru.
- 5.9 December 7, 1956, Telegram, From: Bartlett in New Delhi, To: Secretary of State. Re, Briefing for Eisenhower Prepared by Embassy Officials Prior to Arrival of Nehru.
- 5.10 December 16, 1956, Memorandum on Conversation with Indian Prime Minister Nehru at Blair House. Topics Include: 10 American imprisoned in Communist China, attack on Egypt, Baghdad Pact.
- 5.11 December 16–20, 1956, White House memo 110. Briefing Paper, Nehru Visit.
- 5.12 December 17–18, 1956, Memorandum of Conversations with Prime Minister Nehru of India.
- 5.13 May 16, 1958, Department of State. Letter, President Eisenhower to Nehru.
- 5.14 June 7, 1958, Prime Minister Nehru's Response to President Eisenhower.
- 5.15 November 27, 1958, Department of State. Letter, Eisenhower and Nehru Correspond Regarding Cessation of Nuclear Tests.
- 5.16 December 2, 1958, Telegram, From: Bunker in New Delhi, To: Secretary of State.
- 5.17 September 2, 1959, Telegram, From: Herter. Re: Please Deliver Following Letter from President to Prime Minister Nehru.
- 5.18 September 16, 1959, Re: Text of Letter from President to Prime Minister.
- Part II
- 5.19 May 6, 1958, Telegram, From: New Delhi, To: Secretary of State.
- 5.20 November 13, 1961, Letter from President Kennedy to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and PM Nehru's Response.
- 5.21 November 28, 1961, Letter from President Kennedy to Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.
- 5.22 November 20, 1961, Department of State. Memorandum to Mr. McGeorge Bundy, Re: Krishna Menon.
- 5.23 January 7, 1964, Central Intelligence Agency. Intelligence Information Cable, Re: Prime Minister's Nehru's Health.
- 5.24 January 13, 1964, Central Intelligence Agency. Intelligence Information Cable, Subject: Prime Minister's Nehru's Health.
- 5.25 January 14, 1964, Telegram, From: Bowles in New Delhi, To: Department of State. Action: Sec State 2138.
- 5.26 March 11, 1964, Telegram, To: SEC STATE, Department of State.
- 5.27 May 27, 1964, Central Intelligence Agency, Office of Current Intelligence. Current Intelligence Memorandum, Subject: Nehru's death.
- 5.28 May 27, 1964, Telegram, Action: Embassy in New Delhi. Re: Deliver Following Message from President Johnson to Mrs. Indira Gandhi.
- 5.29 May 27, 1964, Telegram, From: Greene, New Delhi Embassy.
- 5.30 May 27, 1964, Telegram, From: Greene, New Delhi Embassy. Re: Country Team Message.
- 5.31 August 18, 1964, Department of State. Re: Chester Bowles on India's New Government, Prospects and Problems.
- 5.32 January 27, 1965, Remarks of Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey, New York, New York. Nehru: A Great India Statesmen.
- Chapter Six: India's Foreign Policy
- 6.1 January 18, 1950, Memorandum by the Deputy Secretary of State Rusk.
- 6.2 March 1, 1950, State Department. Policy Information Committee, Weekly Review: Indian Foreign Policy in Asia.
- 6.3 March 15, 1950, Central Intelligence Agency. Review of the World Situation.
- 6.4 August 1, 1950, Memorandum by the Secretary of the Army (Pace), the Secretary of the Navy (Matthews), and the Secretary of the Air Force (Fin letter) to the Secretary of Defense (Johnson).
- 6.5 December 12, 1950, Memorandum by Dean Acheson for Mr. James S. Lay Jr. Subject: Results of the conversations Between the President and the British Prime Minister.
- 6.6 December 12, 1950, Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense. Subject: United States Position Regarding the Terms of Any United Nations General Assembly Cease-Fire Resolution for the Korean War.
- 6.7 December 13, 1950, Report to the National Security Council by Secretary of Defense on U.S. Position Regarding a Cease-fire in Korea.
- 6.8 Tentative Report by the National Security Council on United States Objectives and Programs for National Security.
- 6.9 January 23, 1957, Memorandum for Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. Subject: The Kashmir Dispute.
- 6.10 February 11, 1957, Memorandum for Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. Subject: Emerging Pattern—Kashmir.
- 6.11 February 25, 1957, Department of State, Intelligence Report. Title: Soviet and Chinese Communist Positions on the Kashmir Dispute.
- 6.12 September 23, 1957, Department of State, Intelligence Report. The Indian Intelligentsia: Attitudes and Influence.
- 6.13 December 30, 1957, Department of State, Memorandum of Conversation. Subject: India.
- 6.14 1958, WH Letter (3), Suggested Letter Eisenhower Explains to India's Prime Minister Nehru Reasons for U.S. Intervention in Lebanon.
- 6.15 May 20, 1960, Bureau of Intelligence and Research, Intelligence Report. Chou En-Lai's Setback in India Overshadows Remainder of His Tour in Southeast Asia.
- 6.16 May 19, 1960, President Dwight D. Eisenhower Letter to Nehru.
- 6.17 May 23, 1960, Prime Minister Nehru's Letter to President Eisenhower.
- 6.18 June 1, 1960, President Eisenhower Message to Prime Minister Nehru.
- 6.19 September 1, 1960, White House Cable, From: Secretary of State, To: White House. Re: Nehru informs Eisenhower of Khrushchev's intention to Lead Soviet Delegation to UN General Assembly.
- 6.20 September 26, 1960, Nehru and Eisenhower 9/18/60 Meeting: Congo, Nuclear Disarmament, Khrushchev, Berlin.
- 6.21 October 20, 1960, Department of State, Intelligence Report. Re: The Prospects for India over the Next Few Years.
- 6.22 February 20, 1961, Telegram, From: New Delhi, To: Secretary of State.
- 6.23 February 20, 1961, Telegram, From: Bunker in New Delhi, To: Secretary of State. Re: Text of Written Reply from Prime Minister Nehru to President Kennedy.
- 6.24 March 6, 1961, Memorandum for Mr. Ralph A. Dungan. Subject: Reply to Prime Minister Nehru's letter of February 20 to the President.
- 6.25 March 17, 1961, Memorandum for the President from Secretary of State. Subject: Proposed Messages to Prime Minister Nehru and President Ayub.
- 6.26 April 1961, Memorandum for Mr. Ralph A. Dungan. Subject: Nehru's Letter of April 16 to the President.
- 6.27 May 8, 1961, President Kennedy Letter to Prime Minister Nehru.
- 6.28 May 24, 1961, Telegram, From: Department of State, To: American Embassies in Paris and New Delhi. Re: Message from Prime Minister Nehru to President Delivered Department Today by Indian Embassy.
- 6.29 September 7, 1962, Telegram, From: American Embassy in New Delhi, To Department of State. Re: Ambassador Requested Arrange with MEA for Following Letter from the President to be Forwarded to Prime Minister Nehru.
- 6.30 October 31, 1962, Memorandum From: Colonel Burris, To: The Vice President. Re: India-China Conflict.
- 6.31 March 11, 1964, Telegram, From: Dean Rusk, To: American Embassies in London, New Delhi, Karachi, and Rawalpindi.
- 6.32 March 12, 1964, Telegram, From: Bowles, American Embassy in New Delhi, To: White House and Defense (1:12 PM).
- 6.33 March 12, 1964, Telegram, From: Bowles, American Embassy in New Delhi, To: White House and Defense (2:10 PM).
- Chapter Seven: India and Pakistan
- 7.1 September 14, 1951, Department of State, National Intelligence Estimate. Probable Developments in the Kashmir Dispute to the End of 1951.
- 7.2 January 31, 1952, Intelligence Report No. 5781. Re: Soviet Intervention in the Kashmir Dispute.
- 7.3 May 22, 1953, Memorandum of the Press and Radio News Conference (New Delhi).
- 7.4 May 24, 1953, Transcript of Press Conference by John Foster Dulles, Karachi, Pakistan.
- 7.5 June 1, 1953, Department of State, John Foster Dulles. Radio address: Recent trip to the Near East and South Asia.
- 7.6 June 1953, Department of State. Re: Important Points of John Foster Dulles Trip.
- 7.7 January 8, 1954, Transcript of Vice President Nixon's Report on His Observations and Conclusions Relating to the National Security, Resulting from His Recent World Trip.
- 7.8 January 5, 1954, Department of State, Memorandum of Conversation with the President. Subject: Military Aid to Pakistan.
- 7.9 Department of State, Sent to: Embassy New Delhi, Subject: Aid to Pakistan. Re: Final Text of the Personal Message from President to Nehru.
- 7.10 Department of State, Memorandum for the President. Subject: Military Aid to Pakistan.
- 7.11 July 17, 1956, NSC-5609 Report to the National Security Council Pursuant to NSC Action 1574. D.A. Fitzgerald, Acting Dir., ICA, Transmittal Memorandum to the NSC, The Mutual Security Program: Non-Military Assistance.
- 7.12 December 12, 1956, Telegram, From: Pakistan Prime Minister, To: The President.
- 7.13 July 8, 1957, Memorandum for the President. Subject: Official Visit to the United States of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mr. Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy.
- 7.14 November 8, 1957, Memorandum for the President. Subject: Pakistan Prime Minister's Message to You Regarding Current Security Council Action on the Kashmir Issue.
- 7.15 March 23, 1959, Memorandum for Mr. Komer. Subject: Thoughts on Indo–Pakistani Tensions.
- 7.16 March 24, 1959, Department of State. Re: Practicability of a Package Settlement between India and Pakistan.
- 7.17 April 17, 1959, Task Group IV (K.R. Inverson) for the President's Committee. Re: India-Pakistan.
- 7.18 November 25, 1959, Bureau of Intelligence and Research. Re: India Reacts to Chinese-Communist Pressure on the Border.
- 7.19 September 19, 1962, Telegram, From: New Delhi, To: Secretary of State.
- 7.20 July 11, 1963, Memorandum for Mr. McGeorge Bundy. Subject: The President's Meeting with the Indian Parliamentary Delegation.
- 7.21 May 28, 1964, Telegram, From: R.W. Komer, To: Mac. Re: US Military Aid.
- 7.22 May 1963, Department of State. Re: Notes on Dean Rusk Karachi—New Delhi Visit.
- Chapter Eight: Aid
- 8.1 July 20, 1950, Telegram, From: The Ambassador in Iran (Grady), To: The Secretary of State.
- 8.2 August 28, 1950, Memorandum by the Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian and African Affairs (McGhee) to the President. Subject: Possible Aid to South Asia and the Near East.
- 8.3 October 27, 1950, Department of State, Office of Intelligence Research. Title: Major Development Projects in South Asia.
- 8.4 August 13, 1953, Telegram, From: U.S. Embassy in New Delhi, To: Secretary of State. Re: Receive Formal Request from India Before Giving Aid to avoid U.S. aid Seeming “Forced” on India.
- 8.5 April 15, 1957, Letter from: Clarence B. Randall, To: George M. Humphrey, Christian A. Herter, and John B. Hollister.
- 8.6 May 21, 1957, Memorandum for General Goodpaster from Clarence B. Randall.
- 8.7 May 27, 1957, Memorandum for General Goodpaster.
- 8.8 Department of State, Douglas Dillon Deputy Under Secretary for Economic Affairs writes Clarence.
- 8.9 July 16, 1957, Memorandum by the Chief of Naval Operations for the Joint Chiefs of Staff on India. Joint Chiefs of Staff Decision on J.C.S. 2271.
- 8.10 July 16, 1957, The White House. Memorandum for Mr. Randall.
- 8.11 July 17, 1957, Memorandum for Governor Adams.
- 8.12 July 19, 1957, Memorandum to Mr. Staats. Subject: Randall Memorandum on India.
- 8.13 September 11, 1957, Memorandum for Governor Adams. Subject: India Economic Study.
- 8.14 November 14, 1957, Memorandum for the President from John Foster Dulles. Subject: Aid to India.
- 8.15 November 16, 1957, Memorandum of Conference with the President.
- 8.16 December 17, 1957, Memorandum to Council on Foreign Economic Policy. Barter of Grain for Manganese with India discussed.
- 8.17 1957, White House Memo, Barter of Food Grains to India.
- 8.18 September 19, 1962, Memorandum from Executive Secretary William H. Brubeck to Mr. McGeorge Bundy. Subject: President's Meeting with Indian Finance Minister.
- Chapter Nine: US Worldwide
- Part I: Contradictions
- 9.1 August 1958, Jawaharlal Nehru, “The Basic Approach.” AICC Economic Review.
- 9.2 Jawaharlal Nehru, Speeches: Rise of Arab Nationalism, Why Nuclear Power, and Manufacture of MIG Airport.
- Part II: US Global System of Military Alliances
- 9.3 Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance 1947
- 9.4 The North Atlantic Treaty 1949
- 9.5 Security Treaty between Australia, New Zealand and the United States of America 1951
- 9.6 Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty 1954
- 9.7 Baghdad Pact 1955
Observer Research Foundation (ORF) is a public policy think-tank that aims to influence formulation of policies for building a strong and prosperous India. The ORF pursues these goals by providing informed and productive inputs, in-depth research and stimulating discussion. The Foundation is supported in its mission by a cross-section of India's leading public figures, academics and business leaders.
Copyright © Observer Research Foundation, Praveen K. Chaudhry and Marta Vanduzer-Snow, 2008
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Jointly published in 2008 by
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B1/I-1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, New Delhi 110 044, India
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320, USA
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP, United Kingdom
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street
#02-01 Far East Square
Observer Research Foundation
20, Rouse Avenue, Institutional Area
New Delhi 110 002
Published by Vivek Mehra for SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd, typeset in 11/13 pt Berkeley by Star Compugraphics Private Limited, Delhi and printed at Chaman Enterprises, New Delhi.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
The United States and India: a history through archives: the formative years/edited by Praveen K. Chaudhry, Marta Vanduzer-Snow.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. United States—Foreign relations—India—Sources. 2. India—Foreign relations—United States—Sources. I. Chaudhry, Praveen K. II. Vanduzer-Snow, Marta.
ISBN: 978-0-7619-3594-0 (HB)
The SAGE Team: Sugata Ghosh, Koel Mishra, Sanjeev K. Sharma and Trinankur Banerjee
Disclaimer: This volume consists of declassified documents from various United States government agencies, including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Department of Defence, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the National Security Council, The White House and many more. The original style and content of these papers have not been changed. The publishers would not be liable for errors arising from the same, if any.
for Nicholo André B. Bautista & Charles R. Snow[Page 6]
List of Acronyms[Page 17]
AEC Atomic Energy Commission AICC All India Congress Committee AID Agency for International Development AIOC Anglo-Iranian Oil Company ANZUS The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty is the Military Alliance which Binds Australia and the United States, and separately Australia and New Zealand to Cooperate on Defense Matters in the Pacific Ocean BSP Bhilai Steel Plant BTI Barisan Tani Indonesia CCB Change Control Board CCP Chinese Communist Party CDM Clean Development Mechanism Project CEA Council of Economic Advisors CEEP European Centre for Public Enterprise CENTO Central Treaty Organization CFEP Council on Foreign Economic Policy CHICOM Chinese Communist CI Counter-Insurgency CIA Central Intelligence Agency CPI Communist Party of India CPMO Central Provinces Manganese Ore Company CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CRO Common Relations Officer DDE Dwight D Eisenhower DOD Department of Defense DOS Department of State DS Defense Support ECA Economic Cooperation Administration ECAFE Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East ECM Enterprise Content Management EDT Eastern Daylight Time ERP European Recovery Plan EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community [Page 18] Exim Bank Export-Import Bank FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FDR Franklin D. Roosevelt FE Far East FMACC Foreign Military Assistance Coordinating Committee FOIA Freedom of Information Act GA General Assembly GARIOA Government Aid and Relief in Occupied Areas GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GOB Government of Burma GOI Government of India GOP Government of Pakistan GRC Government of the Republic of China GTI The Great Tumen Initiative is a Joint Project of the Five Member Countries: China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Mongolia, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation IAC Information Analysis Center IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development ICA International Cooperation Administration ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile IMF International Monetary Fund INS International News Service ISCUS Indo-Soviet Cultural Society JCS Joint Chiefs of Staff JFK John F. Kennedy JS Joint Staff KMP Kilusang Magbubukid ng Pilipinas KMT Nationalist Party (Guomindang or Kuomintang) LAC Line of Actual Control LBJ Lyndon B. Johnson LDP Liberal Democratic Party MAP Military Assistance Program (United States) MDA Military Damage Assessment MDAP Major Defense Acquisition Program MEA Ministry of External Affairs MEA Ministry of External Affairs (India) MED Manhattan Engineering District MEDO Middle East Defense Organization METO The Middle East Treaty Organization MIG Mikoyan & Gurevich (Russian Aircraft Designers) MSP Mutual Security Programme MTDP Medium Term Defense Plan [Page 19]NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAM Non-aligned Movement NAT North Atlantic Treaty NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization NDAP New Delhi Action Plan on Infrastructure Development on Asia and Pacific NEA North East Asia NEFA North East Frontier Agency NIACT NIght ACTion (US Government Immediate Action Security Classification) NSAM National Security Action Memorandum NSC National Security Council OAS Organization of American States OCB Operations Coordinating Board OEEC Organization for European Economic Cooperation PERBEPSI Persatuan Bekas Pejuang Seluruh Indonesia PL Public Law PML Pakistan Muslim League POW Prisoners of War PRC People's Republic of China PSF Preventive Security Force PTI Press Trust of India RCC Revolutionary Command Council of National Salvation RIAF Royal Indian Air Force ROC Republic of China ROK Republic of Korea RSP Rourkela Steel Plant RSS Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh SAM Surface-to-Air Missile SCOB Steel Corporation of Bengal SEA South East Asia SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization SEC STATE Secretary State SOBSI Sentral Organisasi Buruh Seluruh Indonesia STEM Short Term Energy Market SUNFLD Special United Nations Fund for Economic Development TASS Telegrafnoje Agentstvo Sovietskovo Soïuza (News Agency of the Former Soviet Union) TIAS Treaties and Other International Acts Series (Compendium of Treaties, United States) TTK Tiruvellore Thattai Krishnamachari TVA Tennessee Valley Authority [Page 20]UAR United Arab Republic UK United Kingdom UN United Nations UNCIP United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan UNGA United Nations General Assembly UNRRA United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration UNSCOB United Nations Special Committee on the Balkans UNSYG United Nations Secretary General US United States USAF United States Air Force USIA United States Information Agency USAID United States Agency for International Development USIE The United States Information and Educational Exchange Program USSR Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USUN United States Mission to the United Nations VOA Voice of America
This work could not have been accomplished without the consistent support of Mr. R.K. Mishra, Chairman, Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi and Professor Ron Hunt, Chair, Department of Political Science, Ohio University, Athens. These two institutions also provided modest financial support for which we are grateful, as did Harry Hosford. Ohio University Library is one of the Federal Depository Libraries; this resource was a tremendous aid in putting these papers together. We would particularly like to thank Professor Doreen Hockenberry, Government Documents Librarian, for all her help and suggestions.
We were lucky to have a few wonderful research assistants working with the project, including Brent J. Hajek (graduate student at Ohio University), Supriya Singh and Ankita Bhattacharjee (graduate students at Jawaharlal Nehru University), and Minati Lal (Observer Research Foundation). We are fortunate to have the enthusiastic support of the entire staff at Observer Research Foundation where we have spent several months working on this project over the last few years. Finally, we cannot forget the patience, kindness and support of Dr Sugata Ghosh, Vice President, Commissioning, SAGE Publications.[Page 22]
About the Editors[Page 658]
Praveen K Chaudhry is Assistant Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Fashion Institute of Technology, State University of New York. He received his PhD in Political Science from the University of Pennsylvania. He specializes in Security/Strategic studies, Political Economy, Global Governance and Comparative Politics. He has been associated with various prestigious educational institutions across the world such as Ohio University, Swarthmore College, Lafayette College, University of Pennsylvania, and the University of Delhi. He is also a Visiting Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi. His articles have appeared in several journals and magazines such as The World Economy, Journal of Development Studies, Finance and Development, and Economic and Political Weekly.
Marta Vanduzer-Snow is an independent scholar based in New York and New Delhi. She is an alumni of the Lafayette College, Bard College, and New York University. A specialist in the field of Strategic Studies, Political Economy, Global Governance and Comparative Politics, she has contributed her works to various journals and magazines such as Finance and Development, Bard Politics, Comparative Political Studies, and G24 Papers. She is a Visiting Fellow at the Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.
Who's Who[Page 659]
Abdullah, Sheikh Mohammed, leader of the National Conference, Kashmir's largest political party, and one of the most important political figures in the modern history of Jammu and Kashmir; Prime Minister of Kashmir soon after its provisional accession to India in 1947.
Acheson, Dean, United States Assistant Secretary of State 1941–45; Under-Secretary of State, 1945–47; Secretary of State 1949–53.
Adams, Llewelyn, Sherman A., was White House Chief of Staff for President Dwight D. Eisenhower. He was also Governor of New Hampshire 1949–53.
Adenauer, Konrad Hermann Josef, 27th Chancellor of Germany; 1st Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany 1949–1963.
Aflaq, Michael, founded The Ba'ath Party in Damascus, Syria, 1943; became its chief ideologis. Later he became Prime Minister of Syria between 1963 and 1964 and in 1966.
Albuquerque, Alfonso De, Portuguese Naval General who established the Portuguese colonial Empire in the Indian sea 1453–1515.
Allen, George, V., United States Ambassador to India and Nepal 1953–54; Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs 1953–54, Director of the United States Information Agency 1957–60.
Alva, Mrs. Violet, Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha (House of the States, India) (1962–66, 1966–69).
Anderson, Robert B., formerly President Eisenhower's Secretary of the Navy 1953–1954 and Deputy Secretary of Defense 1954–55, Secretary of the Treasury in 1957.
as-Said, Nuri, an Iraqi politician during the British Mandate and the Monarchy, who served in various key cabinet positions, including fourteen terms as Prime Minister of Iraq 1930–58.[Page 660]
Auriol, Jules-Vincent, 1st President of the 4th Republic of France, 1947–54. He also served as interim President of the Provisional Government (Head of State and Government) in 1946.
Bajpai, Girja Shankar, Secretary General, Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations, Government of India, 1947.
Ball, George Wildman, United States Secretary of State for Economic and Agricultural Affairs in the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations.
Bao Dai, last reigning Emperor of Vietnam (1926–45, 1949–55).
Bartlett, Frederic Pearson, served in the United States Navy during World War II; Foreign Service officer; United States Ambassador to Malagasy Republic, 1960–62.
Battle, Lucius D., Executive Secretary in the United States Department of State 1961–62.
Ben-Gurion, David, 1st Prime Minister of Israel 1955–63; he played an instrumental role in the founding of the state of Israel at the expiration of the British Mandate. In the 1948 Arab-Israeli War he led Israel to victory.
Berendsen, Carl A., New Zealand Minister at Washington since 1944; Permanent Head of the Prime Minister's Department, Wellington; New Zealand High Commissioner in Australia, 1943–44.
Berle, Adolf Augustus, Jr., Assistant Secretary of State for Latin American affairs 1938–44; Ambassador to Brazil 1945–46, a founder and Chairman of the Liberal party 1952–55; headed a task force for President John F. Kennedy 1961.
Bevan, Aneurin, Welsh Labour politician and a socialist. He was a key figure on the left of the party in the mid-twentieth century and was the Secretary of State responsible for the formation of the National Health Service.
Bevin, Ernest, British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the World War II coalition Government 1940–45; Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour Government.
Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali, President of Pakistan from 1971–73 and as Prime Minister from 1973–77; founder of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP).[Page 661]
Black, Eugene, United States Representative Democratic from the 1st District of Texas 1915–29; member of United States Board of Tax Appeals 1929–66.
Bogra, Muhammad Ali, Ambassador to the United States; 3rd Prime Minister of Pakistan, 1953–55.
Bohlen, Charles Eustis, United States diplomat from 1929–69 and Soviet expert, serving in Moscow before and during World War II; United States Ambassador to the Soviet Union 1953–57.
Bonaparte, Napoléon, General during the French Revolution, ruler of France as 1st Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic 1799–1804, Emperor from 1804–14; King of Italy, Mediator of the Swiss Confederation and Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine.
Bowles, Chester, United States Ambassador to India 1951–53.
Bradley, Omar Nelson, commanded the First Army and the 12th Army Group in the invasion and final campaigns of Western Europe, 1944–1945. He was made army Chief of Staff in 1948 and 1st official Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1949–1953. In 1950 he became the General of the Army.
Brezhnev, Leonid Ilyich, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and thus de facto ruler of the USSR) from 1964–82; twice Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Head of State) (1960–64, 1977–82).
Brubeck, William H., Executive Secretary in the United States Department of State 1962–63.
Bulganin, Nikolai, prominent Soviet politician that served as the Minister of Defense 1953–55 and Prime Minister 1955–58.
Bundy, McGeorge, United States National Security Advisor to President John F. Kennedy and Johnson 1961–66, and President of the Ford Foundation 1966–79.
Bunker, Ellsworth, American Ambassador to India 1956.
Burris, Col. John T., member of the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention in 1859; sergeant in Lane's Frontier Guards 1861; Lieutenant-Colonel of the 4th Kansas Infantry.[Page 662]
Byroade, Henry A., Brigadier General, United States Army and Assistant Secretary of State for Middle East, South Asia and Africa from 1952 to 1955; Ambassador to Egypt 1955–56.
Castro, Fidel, Prime Minister of Cuba, 1959–76. 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba in 1965; President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers 1976; current President of Cuba.
Chagla, Mahommedali Currim, Chief Justice of Bombay High Court in 1948–58. Later, he became Ambassador to the United States, Mexico, Cuba, Vice-Chancellor, University of Bombay, High Commissioner to England, and Minister of Education.
Chamoun, Camille Nimr, President of Lebanon from 1952–58 and one of the country's main Christian leaders during most of the Lebanese Civil War 1975–90.
Chânakya, Adviser and Prime Minister to the 1st Maurya Emperor Chandragupta India (c. 340–293 BC).
Chaudhry, Muhammad Ali, served as Prime Minister of Pakistan, 1955–56.
Chavan, Y.B., was appointed Defense Minister of India 1962, in the wake of India–China border conflict and resignation of Shri Krishna Menon.
Chen, Chang, Premier of the Republic of China, 1958–63.
Chiang, Kai-Shek, President of the Republic of China 1948–75.
Chiperfield, Robert Bruce, lawyer and United States Representative from Illinois. He was elected to the 76th United States Congress in 1938. He was in Congress for twenty-four continuous years and twelve consecutive terms, until 1962. In 1953 and 1954, during the 83rd Congress, he was the Chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee.
Chou En Lai, prominent leader of the Communist Party of China; Premier of the People's Republic of China 1949–76, and China's Foreign Minister 1949–58.
Chundrigar, Ibrahim Ismail, Prime Minister of Pakistan 1957–57.
Collins, Gen. Richard, Departmental Director (Intelligence), International Cooperation Administration; Joint Staff Memorandum for Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff,1956.[Page 663]
Cooper, John Sherman, U. S. Ambassador to India 1956–61
De Gaulle, Charles André Joseph Marie, 1st President, of the 5th Republic of France 1958–69.
Dearborn Jr., Frederick M., Special Assistant to President Eisenhower for Security Operations Coordination, watchdog over the implementation of National Security Council decisions.
Dening, Esler, British diplomat (1957).
Desai, Morarji R., served as Finance Minister of India (1959–64, 1967–70); he became the Prime Minister of India after the Emergency (1977–79).
Deshmukh, Chintaman Dwarakanath, 3rd Governor of India and 1st Indian Governor of the Reserve Bank of India 1943–49. He later became Finance Minister of independent India.
Dewey, Thomas Edmund, Governor of New York 1943–55; Republican Presidential candidate 1944.
Dillon, Clarence Douglas, Ambassador to France 1953–57; Secretary of the United States Department of the Treasury 1961–65; member of the Executive Committee of the National Security Council (ExComm).
Dixon, Owen, 6th Chief Justice of Australia; in 1950, he was invited by the United Nations to act as their official mediator between the governments of India and Pakistan over the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Doud, Lt. Colonel John Sheldon, Assistant Staff Secretary in the White House, on the Army's General Staff 1958–61, son of Dwight D. Eisenhower, 34th President of the United States.
Dr. Pyun Yung-tai, Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea 1951–55.
Dulles, John Foster, United States Secretary of State 1953–59.
Dungan, Ralph Anthony, Special Assistant to President John F Kennedy 1961–63. He served as an advisor on Latin American affairs, Ambassador to Chile, 1964–67.
Dutt, Subimal, Foreign Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs of India (1952–57).[Page 664]
Dwivedy, Surendra Nath, member of the Rajya Sabha, India 1952–57; staunch anti-Communist, Praja Socialist and the only member of delegation from the opposition since 1957.
Eisenhower, Dr. Milton, Advisor to his older brother, President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
Eisenhower, Dwight David, 34th President of the United States (1953–1961).
Elsey, George M., Commander, United States Naval Reserve, and duty officer, White House Map Room, 1941–46; Assistant to the Special Counsel to the President, 1947–49; Administrative Assistant to the President, 1949–51; Assistant to the Director, Mutual Security Agency, 1951–53.
Evans, T.E., Head, Middle East Secretariat 1950.
Fallaci, Oriana, an Italian journalist.
Finletter, Thomas K., United States Secretary of the Air Force (SECAF) 1950–53.
Francis, Patrick Matthews, 49th Secretary of the Navy, 1949–51. United States Ambassador to Ireland 1951.
Friedrich, Engels,19th-century German social scientist and philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). Engels also edited the second and third volumes of Das Kapital after Karl Marx's death.
Fry, Leslie. A.C., former member of the British High Commissioner for India staff. South-East Asia Department 1950.
Furlonge, G.W., Head, Eastern Department 1950.
Galbraith, John Kenneth, United States Ambassador to India under John F Kennedy.
Gandhi, Indira Priyadarshini, Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms 1966–77 and also for a fourth term 1980–84.
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, major political leader of India in the Indian independence movement.[Page 665]
Gandhi, Rajiv, son of Indira Gandhi and Prime Minister of India 1984–89.
Garner, Joseph J.S, Assistant Under-Secretary of State 1948–58. Deputy Under Secretary (1950–51, 1953–56).
George, Mcghee, United States Ambassador to Turkey, 1952–53.
Gerald, D.A. Fitz, Acting Director of International Cooperation Administration 1956.
Ghosh, Atulya, political leader of West Bengal, India; General Secretary of the West Bengal state Congress Committee 1948; member of the Lok Sabha (1952, 1957, 1962).
Gleason, S. Everett, Deputy Executive Secretary, National Security Council (1950–59).
Goodpaster, General, Andrew Jackson, NATO Commander 1969–74, also served as Deputy Commander of American forces in Vietnam.
Gopal, Sarvepalli, a well known Indian historian, the son of philosopher-statesman Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. Some of his works include a three-volume biography of Jawaharlal Nehru and British Policy in India (1858–1905).
Gordon, Gray, official in the Government of the United States during the administrations of Harry Truman 1945–53.
Govind, Ballabh Pant, 1st Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and also served as Union Home Minister, India 1955–61.
Grady, Henry F., American Ambassador to India 1947–48, Ambassador to Iran 1951–54.
Graham, Dr. Frank, United Nations Representative, 1958.
Grant, James P., Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs, Department of State, 1962
Griffin, George, United States political officer in Calcutta, India in 1971; State Department South Asia specialist.
Gromyko, Andrei, Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs 1957–85.[Page 666]
Hammarskjöld, Dag Secretary General of the United Nations 1953–61.
Hare, Raymond Arthur, diplomat and United States Middle East Ambassador Egypt 1939–59, Saudi Arabia 1950–53, Yemen 1951–59, Lebanon 1953–54, Syria 1956, Turkey 1961–65, and Israel 1966.
Harriman, W. Averell, United States Ambassador to Russia 1943–44, Ambassador to Britain 1946, Secretary of Commerce 1946–44, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 1948–50, Special Assistant to the President 1950–51, Governor of New York 1955–58.
Hauge, Dr. Gabriel, a New York banker who had served on the White House staff during the Eisenhower administration.
Henderson, Loy W., served in the United States Department of State 1922–60; Director, Near Eastern and African Affairs, 1946–48; Ambassador to India, 1948–51 and Ambassador to Iran, 1951–55.
Herter, Christian A., Republican Governor of Massachusetts 1953–1957; United States Under Secretary of the State in 1956 and Secretary of State in 1959.
Higgins, Marguerite, American reporter and war correspondent. Higgins covered World War II, the Korean War and the war in Vietnam, and in the process advanced the cause of equal access for female war correspondents.
Hildreth, Horace A., United States Ambassador to Karachi, Pakistan 1953–57.
Hitler, Adolf, German Chancellor 1933–45, Führer of Germany 1934–45; leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei abbreviated NSDAP or simply Nazi Party).
Ho Chi Minh, Prime Minister of Vietnam 1946–55; President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam 1955–69.
Hoffman, Paul Gray, President of Ford Foundation 1953–54, and former administrator of the Economic Cooperation Administration 1948–50, which managed postwar aid to Europe; Board Chairman of Studebaker Corporation, of Studebaker-Packard Corporation 1954–56; Administrator UN Development Program 1966–72.
Hollister, John B., Director of International Cooperation Administration 1956.
Humphrey Jr., Hubert Horatio, 38th Vice President of the United States, serving under President Lyndon Johnson 1965–69.[Page 667]
Humphrey, George Magoffin, United States Cabinet Secretary.
Hutheesing, Mrs Krishna Nehru, younger sister of Jawaharlal Nehru.
Ikramullah, Mohammad H. E., 1st Foreign Secretary of the newly independent Pakistan in 1947 and subsequently represented Pakistan as an Ambassador.
Ivy, James, editor of Crisis, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) publication.
James, S Lay Jr, Assistant Executive Secretary of National Security Council, 1947–50, and then as Executive Secretary, 1950–61; Deputy Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence, 1961–64, and the Executive Secretary of the Intelligence Board through 1971.
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali, leader of the All India Muslim League who founded Pakistan and served as 1st Governor-General.
John, Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States, Supreme Court, 1801–35.
Johnson, Louis Arthur, 2nd United States Secretary of Defense, serving in the cabinet of President Harry S. Truman from, 1949–50.
Johnson, Lyndon Baines, 36th President of the United States 1963–69.
Josip Broz Tito, Yugoslav Prime Minister and Defense Minister 1945–53; President of Yugoslavia 1953–80.
Kabir, Humayun, 1st Petroleum Minister of India, 1963–66.
Kamaraj, Kumaraswami, Chief Minister of Madras Province India, 1954–63.
Kasa-Vubu Joseph, 1st President of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Léopoldville) 1960–65.
Katju, Dr. Kailash Nath, former Governor of Orissa, West Bengal; Minister of Home, Law and State Affairs, India and Defense Portfolio 1956. Thereafter he took over as Chief Minister, Madhya Pradesh.
Kaul, M.N., Secretary of the Lok Sabha(House of the People)India. A lawyer by training, he accompanied Indian parliamentary delegations on foreign visits since 1948.[Page 668]
Kennan, George Frost, officer in the United States Foreign Service 1926–53; retired as Ambassador to the Soviet Union.
Kennedy, Jacqueline Lee Bouvier, wife of United States President John F Kennedy.
Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, 35th President of the United States, 1961–1963.
Khadilkar, R.K., western Indian social reformer and for a number of years led a rural opposition party in his home state of Maharastra. Elected to the Lok Sabha as a Congressmen in 1957; Editor of a number of Maharashtrian newspapers.
Khan, Liaquat Ali, 1st Governor- General of Pakistan; 1st Prime Minister of Pakistan. 1947–48.
Khan, Muhammad Ayub, Field Marshal during the mid-1960s, and the political leader of Pakistan 1958–69; 1st Pakistani Military General to seize power through a coup.
Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich, Chief Director of the Soviet Union after Stalin; 1st Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1953–64.
Khurody, D. N., Milk Commissioner for Bombay Province.
Khwaja, Nazimuddin, after Pakistan came into being on August 14, 1947, he became the 1st Chief Minister of the Province of East Bengal, then 2nd Governor General of Pakistan 1948–1951, and 2nd Prime Minister of Pakistan 1951–53.
King, Martin Luther, one of the leaders of the American civil rights movement. In 1964 King became the youngest man to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
Komer, Robert, National Security Council member, 1961–66.
Krishna, Menon Vengalil Krishnan, High Commissioner to the United Kingdom, 1947–52; he led the Indian delegation to the United Nations 1952–62.
Krishnamachariar, Tiruvellore Thattai, Finance Minister of India (1956–58, 1964–66).
Kusumasumantri, Iwa, former Defense Minister of Indonesia, 1953–55.[Page 669]
Lama, Dalai, traditional governmental ruler and highest priest of the dominant sect of Buddhism in Tibet and Mongolia.
Laski, Harold Joseph, Chairman of the Labour Party 1945–46.
Lenin, Vladimir, leader of the October Revolution and the primary theorist of Leninism; first Head of USSR until 1922.
Lumumba, Patrice Émery, an African anti-colonial leader and 1st legally elected Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, after he helped to win independence from Belgium in June 1960.
Macarthur, Douglas, American General and Field Marshal of the Philippines Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and later played a prominent role in World War II, in the Pacific.
Macaulay, Lord Thomas Babington, passed the Government of India Act in 1833; appointed 1st Law Member of India under the British Administration.
Macmillan, Harold, British Conservative politician, Prime Minister of Britain 1957–63.
Madame Chiang Kai-Shek, wife of President Chiang Kai-shek, she played a prominent role in the politics of the Republic of China.
Magsaysay, Ramon del Fierro, 3rd President of the 3rd Republic of the Philippines 1953–57.
Malcolm X, African-American Minister, and spokesman for the Nation of Islam. He was also founder of the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity.
Malik, Feroz Khan Noon, High Commissioner of India to the United Kingdom from 1936–41; 7th Prime Minister of Pakistan 1957–58.
Malviya, K D, Minister of Natural Resources 1955.
Mao Tse-Tung, Chinese Marxist military and political leader; led the Communist Party of China (CPC) to victory against the Kuomintang (KMT) in the Chinese Civil War; 1st President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) 1954–59.
Marshall, George Catlett, General President American Red Cross; Ex-Secretary of State and of Defense; Originator of “The Marshall Plan”.[Page 670]
Marx, Karl, philosopher, social scientist, historian and revolutionary of the 19th century.
Masaryk, Jan Garrigue, a Czechoslovak diplomat; 1st President of Czechoslovakia 1918–35.
Mathai, M.O., worked with the United States Army in India before becoming an Assistant to Jawaharlal Nehru in 1946.
Mcconaughy, Walter P. US Ambassador to Pakistan 1962–66, US Ambassador to Taiwan 1966–74.
Mehta, Asoka, Indian freedom fighter and a socialist politician. He helped organize the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress and was Mayor of Bombay city 1946–47.
Mehta, Jagat S., Foreign Secretary, India, Ambassador to China 1963–66, High Commissioner of Tanzania, 1970–74.
Mendès-France, Pierre, Prime Minister of France, 1954–55.
Menzies, Robert Gordon, 12th Prime Minister of Australia (1939–41, 1949–66).
Mikoyan, Anastas Hovhannesi, Soviet statesman during the Stalin and Khrushchev years.
Milton, John, (1608–74) an English poet, prose polemicist, and civil servant for the English Commonwealth.
Mirza, Iskander Ali, President of Pakistan 1956–58; 4th Governor-General of Pakistan before it was replaced by the Presidency.
Mohammed, Bakshi Ghulam, Prime Minister of the State of Jammu and Kashmir 1953–64.
Mountbatten Lord Louis, Viceroy of India 1947.
Mountbatten, Lady Edwina Cynthia Annette, wife of Louis Mountbatten, the last Vicereine of pre-Partition India.
Muhammad Naguib, President of the Republic of Egypt, 1953–54.[Page 671]
Muhammad, Malik Ghulam, Governor-General of Pakistan 1951–55.
Murray, James D., Head South-East Asian Department 1950.
Nagy, Imre, Prime Minister of Hungary Prime Minister 1953–55.
Nanda, Gulzarilal, acting Prime Minister of India twice, once after the death of Jawaharlal Nehru in 1964 and again in 1966 after Lal Bahadur Shastri's death.
Narain, Jai Prakash, founder and General Secretary of the Congress Socialist Party, member of the Congress Working Committee 1946–47.
Nasser, Gamal Abdel, President of Egypt 1956–70.
Nehru, Braj Kumar, Ambassador of India to the USA, a High Commissioner in the UK.
Nehru, Pandit Jawaharlal, 1st Prime Minister of independent India 1947–63.
Nehru, R.K., Ambassador of India to several countries in the 1950s and 60s.
Nitze, Paul H., Director of the State Department's Policy Planning Staff in 1950. He oversaw the drafting of a report, National Security Council (NSC) 68, to President Harry S. Truman urging a general strengthening of United States armed forces to counter the threat of Soviet aggression.
Nixon, Richard Milhous, 36th Vice President of the United States in the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration; 37th President of the United States 1969–74.
Nkrumah, Kwame Francis Nwia Kofie, Prime Minister of Ghana 1952–60; 1st President of Ghana 1960–66.
Nye, Archibald, British High Commissioner to India 1948–1952.
Olver, S.J. L., South-East Asian Department 1950.
Olympio, Sylvanus, 1st President of Togo; 1st Presidential victim of a wave of military coups that occurred in Africa in the 1960s.
Oppenheimer, J. Robert, an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project.
Pace Jr., Frank C., Director, Bureau of the Budget, 1949–1950; Secretary of the Army, 1950–1953.[Page 672]
Palmer, Joseph II, 1st Secretary, US Embassy, London.
Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi, Indian diplomat and politician, sister of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, and the 1st female President of the United Nations General Assembly 1953.
Panikkar, K.M., Ambassador of India to China, 1948–52.
Pathak, Gopal Swarup, Vice-President of India and ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, 1969–74.
Patil, Sadashiv Kanoji, formerly Mayor of Bombay, India; represented Bombay South in the Lok Sabha for three terms from the 1st general election in 1952.
Patnaik, Biju, Chief Minister of Orissa India 1961–63.
Phillips, Talbot, served in the John. F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson administrations as Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern and South Asian affairs.
Powell, Adam Clayton Jr., 1st African American to become a powerful figure in the United States Congress; member of the United States House of Representatives from Harlem in 1945; Chair of the Education and Labor Committee in 1961.
Prasad, Dr. Rajendra, 1st President of India 1950–62; he served as President of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the constitution of the Republic 1948–50.
Pridi, Phanomyong, Prime Minister of Thailand, 1946; named one of the world great personalities of the century by the UNESCO in 2000.
Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli, President of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) from 1952–54; served as President of India 1962–67.
Rajagopalachari, C.R., 1st Governor General, 1947.
Randall, Clarence B, Chairman of the Council on Foreign Economic Policy, United States 1956–61.[Page 673]
Reddy, Neelam Sanjiva, 1st Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh, (1956, 1962–64). He also served as President of the Indian National Congress from 1959 to 1962; 6th President of India 1977–82.
Reed, John, an American journalist and socialist. He wrote the book Ten Days that Shook the World 1919.
Reed, Philip D., Advisory Commission for Public Diplomacy, US Department of State, 1948–61.
Reilly, D.P., Permanent Under Secretary Department Commonwealth Relation Office 1950.
Rhee, Syngman, 1st President of South Korea 1948–60.
Rockefeller, Nelson A., Vice President of the United States, 1974–77. He initiated massive building projects that left a profound mark on the state of New York. He also led in the creation and expansion of many major highways.
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 32nd President of the United States 1933–45.
Rountree, William M., US Ambassador Extraordinary to Pakistan 1959–1962.
Roy, Dr. Bidhan Chandra, 2nd Chief Minister of West Bengal, India. He remained in his post for 14 years as a Congress Party candidate, 1948–62.
Rusk, Dean, United States Secretary of State 1961–69.
Russell, Bertrand, influential 20th century logician and philosopher.
Saud Ibn, 1st monarch of Saudi Arabia; continued to consolidate power throughout the Arabian Peninsula 1927–32.
Scoones, Sir Geoffrey, General in the British Army, served for several years in India and later on became British High Commissioner.
Scott, R.H., Assistant Under Secretary of State for South Asian Department 1950.
Sen, Ashoke Kumar, former Member of Lok Sabha (1957–77, 1980–89) and Rajya Sabha till 1996.[Page 674]
Sharma, Diwand Chand, was elected to the Parliament in 1952. President of the All-India Federation of Educational Associations in 1955; authored a number of books on Indian culture as well as several on aspects of the life of Mahatma Gandhi.
Shastri, Lal Bahadur, 2nd Prime Minister of India 1964–66.
Shaw, George Bernard, an Irish dramatist, literary critic, and socialist; honoured Nobel Prize in 1925 for his contribution to literature and an Oscar 1938 for Pygmalion.
Shepilov, Dmitri Trofimovich, he became the Soviet Foreign Minister in 1956 replacing Vyacheslav Molotov.
Shishakli, Adib Ibn Hasan, a Syrian military leader; fought in a volunteer Arab army, known as the Army of Deliverance, against the Zionist militias in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
Shoaib, Muhammad, Finance Minister of Pakistan, (1958–62, 1965–66).
Singh, Dinesh, Deputy Foreign Minister of India 1962–66, Foreign Minister of India, 1969–70.
Singh, Dr. Manmohan, was involved in the Ministry of Finance, Government of India since independence and currently the Prime Minister of India.
Singh, Sardar Hukam, speaker of Lok Sabha 1962–67; Governor of Rajasthan 1967–72.
Singh, Sardar Swaran, Foreign Minister of India, 1970–74.
Sobolev, A. A., Soviet representative to the UN Security Council discussions on the Kashmir decision (1957).
Soekarno, 1st President of Indonesia 1945–67.
Sparkman, John Jackson, Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives and the United States Senate, where he represented Alabama 1946–79.
Stalin, Joseph, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee 1922–53; in the late 1920s, Stalin became the dictator of the Soviet Union.[Page 675]
Stassen, Harold, Director of the Mutual Security Administration and the Foreign Operations Administration before becoming Special Assistant to the President for Disarmament during the Dwight D. Eisenhower administration. Mr. Stassen was Governor of Minnesota 1938–43.
Steeled, A.T., correspondent of the New York Herald Tribune 1950.
Stevenson II, Adlai Ewing, an American politician, serving as Governor of Illinois; Ambassador to the United Nations, 1961–65.
Subramaniam, C.G., Union Minister of Agriculture, India (1965–66, 1966–67).
Suhrawardy, Huseyn Shaheed, a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan 1956–57.
Taussig, Charles W., Chairman of the National Advisory Committee of the National Youth Adminstration, 1935–34.
Taylor, General Maxwell Davenport, American soldier and diplomat 1922–64.
Thakln Nu, Burmese independence leader and 1st Prime Minister of Burma under the provisions of the 1947 Constitution of the Union of Burma (1948–56, 1957–58, 1960–62).
Thant, U, a Burmese who was elected as the 3rd Secretary-General of United Nations unanimously, 1962.
Thimayya, Kodendera Subayya, Commissioned Officer of the British Indian Army in 1926. In 1948 he was one of the active officers in the actions against the forces of Pakistan in the conflict over Kashmir; Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army in 1957.
Touré, Ahmed Sékou, 1st President of the Republic of Guinea 1958–84.
Toynbee, Arnold Joseph, English historian and philosopher of history described himself as a “metahistorian” whose “intelligible field of study” was civilization; served in the Political Intelligence Department of the War Office during World War I; a member of the Middle Eastern section of the British delegation to the Paris Peace Conference In 1919; directed the Research Department at the Foreign Office 1943–46.
Truman, Harry S., 33rd President of the United States 1945–53.[Page 676]
Trumbull, Robert, journalist of the New York Times 1951.
Tubman, William Vacanarat Shadrach, President of Liberia 1944–71.
Twining, Nathan Farragut, United States Air Force General; Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force 1953–57; Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff 1957–60.
Tyabji, Badr-Ud-Din, former Commonwealth Secretary.
Valerian, Alexandrovich Zorin, the Soviet Ambassador to Czechoslovakia (1947–1955, 1956–65); Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR. At the same time, he served as the permanent Soviet representative at the UN Security Council 1952–53.
Vandenberg, Arthur H., United States Republican Senator from Michigan 1928–51.
Vishinsky, Andrey Januaryevic, Soviet jurist and diplomat. He served as the Soviet Foreign Minister 1949–53. He became a Menshevik in 1903.
Voroshilov, Kliment Yefremovich, Marshal of the Soviet Union; President U.S.S.R. 1953–60.
Wang Pingnan, a veteran Chinese Diplomat.
Washington, George, he led America's Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War 1775–83; in 1789 was elected as the 1st President of the United States of America.
Weight, M.R., Assistant Under-Secretary of State. 1950.
Wells, Herbert George, (1866–1946) an English writer best known for science fiction novels. He produced works in different genres, including contemporary novels, history, and social commentary; he was also an outspoken socialist.
White, Alfred, Assistant India Desk Officer. 1957.
Whitman, Ann Cook, Personal Secretary to United States President Dwight D. Eisenhower.[Page 677]
Wiley, Alexander, member of the Republican Party who served four terms in the United States Senate for the state of Wisconsin 1939–63.
Wilson, Thomas Woodrow, 28th President of the United States (1913–21).
Win, Bo Ne, Military Commander and dictator of Burma 1962–88.
Wood, C. Tyler, Economic Minister at US Embassy in New Delhi.
Zahedi, Mohammad Fazlollah, Iranian General, Prime Minister, and politician 1953–55.
Zhou Enlai, leading figure in the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and premier (1949–76) and foreign minister (1949–58) of the People's Republic of China.
Zhukov, Georgy Konstantinovich, Soviet Military Commander 1915–57, who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Axis Powers’ occupation, to overrun much of Eastern Europe, and to capture Germany's capital, Berlin.