Sports economics is a well-established and dynamic area of study; a key component in the fields of sport management, sport science and sport studies, as well as in other areas of economics, finance and management. Covering amateur to professional sports, individual events and organised tournaments, this Handbook provides an authoritative contribution to the understanding of sport in the economy. The editors of The SAGE Handbook of Sports Economics have brought together a global team of respected scholars to create this benchmark collection of insights into sports economics. Each chapter includes a study of a specific context in which issues arise in sports economics, a critical presentation of its main theoretical contributions, an overview of current research findings, and an outline of enquiry for future research. PART I: The Nature and Value of the Sports System and Economy; PART II: Amateur Sports Participation, Supply and Impact; PART III: Professional Team Sports; PART IV: Professional Sports Leagues; PART V: Sports Events and their Impacts; PART VI: Individual Sports; and PART VII: Future Research.

Is There a Gender Difference in the Response to Competitive Settings?

Is There a Gender Difference in the Response to Competitive Settings?

Is there a gender difference in the response to competitive settings?
Michael A. Leeds


Almost a half-century after the start of the ‘women's movement’ in the United States, women remain a long way from gender equality in the workplace. According to the American Community Survey, the median annual earnings of women in the US ($40,905) were 80% of men's earnings ($51,388).1 Just as women in general struggle to achieve equality with men, women's sports have generally played second-fiddle to men's sports. While few doubt that sex discrimination continues to play a role in sport and society, recent research suggests that women may face insurmountable barriers to achieving parity with men, even ...

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