Sports economics is a well-established and dynamic area of study; a key component in the fields of sport management, sport science and sport studies, as well as in other areas of economics, finance and management. Covering amateur to professional sports, individual events and organised tournaments, this Handbook provides an authoritative contribution to the understanding of sport in the economy. The editors of The SAGE Handbook of Sports Economics have brought together a global team of respected scholars to create this benchmark collection of insights into sports economics. Each chapter includes a study of a specific context in which issues arise in sports economics, a critical presentation of its main theoretical contributions, an overview of current research findings, and an outline of enquiry for future research. PART I: The Nature and Value of the Sports System and Economy; PART II: Amateur Sports Participation, Supply and Impact; PART III: Professional Team Sports; PART IV: Professional Sports Leagues; PART V: Sports Events and their Impacts; PART VI: Individual Sports; and PART VII: Future Research.

Origins and Developments of Sports Systems

Origins and Developments of Sports Systems

Origins and developments of sports systems
Wladimir Andreff


A sports system is an organization that regulates how athletes and teams are rewarded and allowed to move according to their sporting merit (the Olympics system) or economic criteria (the North American franchise system). A set of rules may organize the system as a vertical ladder on which each athlete/team moves bottom-up (promotion) from the lowest bar (division) to the highest and top-down (relegation). A prerequisite is that each division must be open upwards and downwards which defines an open or divisional league system.

An alternative option is to organize a sports system as a series of horizontal layers (leagues) with fixed membership, hermetic to each other in that ...

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