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Chapter 99: Validity
A study is valid if its measures actually measure what they claim to, and if there are no logical errors in drawing conclusions from the data. There are a great many labels for different types of validity, but they all have to do with threats and biases which would undermine the meaningfulness of research. Be less concerned about defining and differentiating the types of validity and be more concerned about all the types of questions one should ask about the validity of research.
Historical background: some early writers simply equated validity with establishing that a construct's scale correlated with a dependent variable in the intended manner and, indeed, a scale might be considered valid as a measure of anything with which it ...