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Chapter 96: Survey Design
Survey designs are widely used both to describe and to explain phenomena. The earliest surveys were developed by English social reformers who sought to document the extent of poverty that had grown as a result of the rapid industrialization of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Survey research received a new impetus during the Great Depression of the 1930s and the Second World War due to the need for better knowledge about poverty, unemployment and consumption patterns.
In the postwar period, survey researchers such as Lazarsfeld began to use survey research to explain social phenomena. While surveys could not achieve the explanatory rigour of the experimental design, the development of simple forms of multivariate analysis (Lazarsfeld, 1960; Rosenberg, 1968) provided a means by which survey ...