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Chapter 82: Sampling Equivalence in Cross-National Research
The main problem in the cross-cultural sampling process is the selection of samples that can be considered comparable across countries. There are two basic levels of sampling: (1) sampling countries or cultures; (2) sampling individuals or organizations within countries or cultures surveyed. Samples of cultures should not be confused with samples of individuals at the risk of abusively stereotyping whereby country characteristics are considered as individual characteristics: ‘Mean values are calculated from the scores on each question for the respondents from each country. We do not compare individuals, but we compare what is called central tendencies in the answers from each country’ (Hofstede, 1991: 253).
Leung and Bond (1989) distinguish four different ways of combining samples of ...