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Response Styles in Cross-National Research
Response styles in cross-national research

Discrepancies in response patterns across countries may cause variation in the reliability of national data sets and limit direct comparison. Contextual elements in the data collection process such as taboo topics, social desirability, uncritical endorsement of the proposed statements, uncertainty about or reluctance to reveal one's position, and, more generally, lack of familiarity with the research instrument may have an influence on responses. Differences in response style may create discrepancies between observed and true measurement: i.e. stylistic may be confused with substantive variance. The main concerns for response style equivalence are:

  • yea-saying pattern, also called acquiescence response style (ARS)
  • nay-saying pattern, also called disacquiescence response style (DRS)
  • extreme response style (ERS)
  • midpoint responding (MPR).

Other response set biases are item non-response ...

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