• Summary
  • Contents
  • Subject index

A must-have reference resource for qualitative management researchers, this dictionary contains over 90 entries covering the fundamentals of qualitative methodologies; covering both analysis and implementation. Each entry gives an introduction to the topic, lists the key relevant features, gives a worked example, a concise summary and a selection of further reading suggestions. It is suitable for researchers and academics who need a handy and quick point of reference.

Association and Causation in Quantitative Research
Association and causation in quantitative research
Introduction

The end point of all quantitative research is at the least to establish that there is an association between factors A and B. At best, it is to quantify the likelihood that a factor A caused an outcome B: for example, some intervention X caused an increase in output by Y.

There has been much debate around causation in quantitative research, coming from those who are critical of quantitative research methods as a whole. The key criticism centres around the fact that objective and random measurement is impossible under any condition. This is true in the strictest sense, and we must always be aware that, however well a study is conducted, it is still an approximation ...

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