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Cross-National/Cultural Comparisons
Cross-national/cultural comparisons
Etic, Emic, Derived Emic Perspectives

A classic distinction, Emic versus Etic cross-cultural research, was first developed by Sapir (1929) and further elaborated by Pike (1966). The Emic approach holds that attitudinal or behavioural phenomena are expressed in a unique way in each culture. Taken to its extreme, this approach states that it is not possible to make comparisons. The Etic approach, on the other hand, is primarily concerned with identifying universals. The difference originates in linguistics where phonetic depicts universal sounds, common across languages, and phonemic stresses unique sound patterns in languages. In general, research approaches and instruments adapted to each national culture (the Emic approach) provide data with greater internal validity than tests applicable to several cultures (the Etic approach, or ‘culture-free tests’). ...

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