This reference is a comprehensive study guide to the city. The text explains and evaluates the key ideas, informed by the latest research, adding the necessary historical context to situate the student in the literature and the essential debates. Organized in four sections The SAGE Companion to the City provides a systematic A-Z to understanding the city that explains the interrelations between society, culture, and economy.

Innovation and Creativity

Innovation and creativity
Andy C.Pratt

This Chapter

  • Argues that the city has always acted as a site of economic and cultural creativity
  • Considers why particular ‘cultural industries’ are now conventionally described as the driver of post-industrial city economies
  • Provides a critical overview of different theories of urban creativity, at the same time noting a tendency to conflate different processes of innovation and creativity


Innovation and creativity matter, whether in terms of economic opportunity, social problem-solving, the codification of old ideas or simply the generation of new ways of understanding. From an historical point of view, more innovation and more creativity has emerged from cities than from rural areas. Moreover, huge cities appear to be more favoured with innovation and creativity than smaller ones. This suggests ...

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