This reference is a comprehensive study guide to the city. The text explains and evaluates the key ideas, informed by the latest research, adding the necessary historical context to situate the student in the literature and the essential debates. Organized in four sections The SAGE Companion to the City provides a systematic A-Z to understanding the city that explains the interrelations between society, culture, and economy.

Monuments and Memories

Monuments and Memories

Monuments and memories

This Chapter

  • Suggests that monuments and memorials play an important role in the life of cities as sites of civic identification, gathering and celebration
  • Demonstrates that the power of monuments and memorials is related to their location in accessible public spaces
  • Shows that the meaning of monuments and memorials is contigent and contested


Almost from the time that cities emerged, inhabitants have filled them with statues and monuments. Each generation leaves a repository of civic and/or national memory, something tangible that defines virtues, celebrates heroes and speaks to the great events that built that society. Today, most cities have sites where monuments, memorials and public space mark important places of gathering, celebration, protest and reflection. These sites and places inevitably reflect ...

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